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Interactive Flashcards US History Goals 7-12

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Interactive Flashcards US History Goals 7-12 Powered By Docstoc
					Interactive Flashcards
     US History




  Vocabulary Review
     Goals 7-12

       Begin Review
  Goal Seven




Muckraking



               See the Definition
Monroe
Doctrine


           See the Definition
    A part Teddy Roosevelt’s “big
    stick diplomacy”
 Reinforced the idea of no European
 control of Latin America
 Stated that if necessary the US
 would intervene in Latin America on
 behalf of Europe
 The US as an international police
 force

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     Journalists who exposed
     corruption and weakness in
     American society early in 20th
     century




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 Sherman
Anti-Trust
   Act

         See the Definition
     Outlawed business monopolies because
     they stifled trade

     Authorized the Attorney General to force
     monopolies to break up into smaller
     companies




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Plessey v.
Ferguson


         See the Definition
     Supreme Court case which established
     the principle of “separate, but equal”




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Booker T.
Washington


         See the Definition
     Ex-slave and African American leader at
     turn of 20th century

     Acknowledged white domination, called
     for slow progress through self-
     improvement

     Stressed patience, manual training, and
     hard work



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W.E.B.
DuBois


         See the Definition
     African American leader in early party of
        20th century who earned first African
        American doctorate from Harvard

 In his Souls of Black Folks, he attacked
    Washington’s views and sought higher
    education for African Americans



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Ida Wells
 Barnett


        See the Definition
     African American journalist from
     Tennessee who led a crusade against
     lynching




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 Great
Migration


        See the Definition
     Large scale movement of African
       Americans from the South to the
       North in the early part of the 20th
       century

     Reasons for move were to escape Jim
       Crow laws and discrimination and for
       economic opportunity


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NAACP



        See the Definition
     National Association for the Advancement of Colored
     People
     Created by white progressives and members of
     Niagara Movement in 1908 on Lincoln’s birthday

     Mission was to abolish all forms of segregation and
     increase educational opportunities for African-
     American children
     Relied on extensive use of the court system




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Poll taxes



         See the Definition
     Annual tax required to be paid before
     one could vote; hurt poor whites and
     African Americans




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Henry Ford



         See the Definition
     $5 day – Ford’s wage scheme that doubled average
     wage in automobile industry; lead to increased
     production

     Assembly line – Ford used a moving assembly line to
     produce automobiles instead of handcraftsmanship
     Model T – first affordable automobile, credited with
     putting Americans on wheels

     Workers as consumers – Ford paid workers a wage
     proportionate to the cost of the car so the would
     become ready made market




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   Goal Eight




Nationalism



                See the Definition
     Pride or loyalty to one’s country

     One of the causes of WWI




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Militarism



         See the Definition
     Glorification of a nation’s military
     strengths

     Aggressive increase in the armed forces
     of Europe’s great powers

     One of the causes of WWI



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 WWI
Alliances


            See the Definition
     WWI alliance of Russia, France, The
      British Empire, and Italy




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 WWI
Central
Powers

          See the Definition
     WWI alliance of Germany, Austria-
     Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire




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 Kaiser
Wilhelm II


         See the Definition
     Leader of Germany during WWI




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Zimmerman
 Telegram


        See the Definition
     Secret message sent by Germany’s
     foreign minister (Arthur Zimmerman) to
     the German ambassador in Mexico that
     disclosed a German plan to form an
     alliance w/ Mexico if the U.S. should
     enter the war




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Lusitania



            See the Definition
     British passenger ship sunk by the
     Germans on May 7, 1915, killing 1200
     civilians, including 128 Americans

     Helped turn American public opinion
     against Germany before the US entered
     WWI



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Woodrow
 Wilson


      See the Definition
     U.S. President from 1912-1920

     Considered to be on of three
     Progressive presidents from the early
     1900s

     President during WWI



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Trench
Warfare


          See the Definition
     Style of infantry combat during WWI

     Each side sheltered in trenches from
     which they would attack the other

     Led to stalemate on the western front




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Wilson’s
Fourteen
 Points

           See the Definition
     Pres. Wilson’s plan for peace after WWI

     Listed steps that the world must take to
     prevent another great war

     Advocated free trade, freedom of the
     seas, and self-determination



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Treaty of
Versailles


         See the Definition
     Treaty that ended WWI and created the
     League of Nations

 The US Senate never approved the treaty
 or joined the League of Nations




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Sacco &
Vanzetti


           See the Definition
     Anarchists who were accused and convicted of
     committing 2 murders during a robbery

     The judge refused to listen to witnesses who gave the
     2 men alibis and the men were executed

     Their execution was seen as a form of discrimination
     against immigrants in the early 1900s




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 Goal Nine




Laissez
 Faire


             See the Definition
     Hands-off approach to governing

     Approach to governing that advocates
     no government regulation/intervention in
     the economy




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Speculation



         See the Definition
     Buying something at a low price, in order
     to sell it at a higher price later

     The term is often used in reference to
     buying and selling stock

     Speculation in the stock market is
     considered a cause of the 1929 stock
     market crash



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 Buying on
the margin


         See the Definition
     Borrowing money in order to invest in
     the stock market

     Considered a cause of the 1929 stock
     market crash




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 Black
Tuesday


          See the Definition
     Term used to describe Oct 29, 1929

     Five days after the initial crash, the stock
     market reached its lowest point

     Usually associated with the start of the
     Great Depression




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Direct
Relief


         See the Definition
     Government providing jobs, money,
     food, etc. to people in need

     Approach taken by FDR in reacting to
     the Depression




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Hoovervilles



         See the Definition
     Shantytowns formed by people left
     homeless during the Depression

     Nicknamed after President Hoover




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 Soup
Kitchen


          See the Definition
     Soup kitchens were places where
     people suffering from the Depression
     could get food for free

 Usually operated and staffed by volunteers
 and/or church organizations




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Jazz



       See the Definition
     Popular form of music during the 1920s

     Key Figures: Lois Armstrong, Duke
     Ellington

     The “Jazz Age” refers to the time period
     between the early 1920s and the end of
     WWI


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Speakeasies



         See the Definition
     Places to buy liquor illegally during
     prohibition




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Fireside
 Chats


           See the Definition
     Radio addresses made by FDR to the
     American people during the Great
     Depression and WWII

     FDR used the addresses to reassure
     American’s during times of crisis




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Marcus
Garvey


         See the Definition
     Advocate of Black Nationalism and
     founder of the United Negro
     Improvement Association

     Supported a Back-to-Africa movement
     that encouraged all people of African
     descent to return to Africa



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Scopes
 Trial


         See the Definition
     Often called the “Scopes Monkey Trial”

     John T. Scopes broke a Tennessee law
     banning the teaching of evolution in
     schools

     The trial was referred to as the “Trial of
     the Century” and drew nationwide
     attention

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 Billy
Sunday


     See the Definition
     Christian Evangelist in the early 1900s

     Known for his “fire and brimstone”
     approach to evangelism, opposition to
     evolution, and support for prohibition




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FDIC



       See the Definition
     Government program created during the New Deal

     Bank closings during the Great Depression caused
        many Americans to distrust banks

     FDIC was designed to restore Americans’ trust in
        banks by promising to insure all deposits up to
        $5,000 ($100,000 today)




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PWA



      See the Definition
     Government program created during the
     New Deal
     Designed to help stimulate the American
     economy by providing jobs

     Government paid Americans to work on
     construction projects (roads, dams, etc.)



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WPA



      See the Definition
     The largest New Deal agency

     Designed to help stimulate the American
     economy by providing jobs

     Employed people in construction and as
     writers, musicians, and artists



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Frances
Perkins


          See the Definition
     The first female cabinet member

 She was appointed Secretary of Labor by
 FDR in 1933




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Goal Ten




 Axis
Powers


           See the Definition
  WWII alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan




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Fascism



          See the Definition
     Political ideology based on nationalism

     Characteristics:
       One party dictatorship
       Extreme nationalism
       Anti-Communist & Anti-Democratic
       Militaristic: both developed powerful
       militaries



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Adolf
Hitler


         See the Definition
     German dictator during WWII

     Leader of the Nazi Party




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Third Reich



         See the Definition
     Name used to refer to Germany under
     the Nazi Party




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 Benito
Mussolini


            See the Definition
     Italian dictator during WWII

     Leader of the Fascist Party




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Emperor
Hirohito


           See the Definition
           Emperor of Japan during WWII




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 Allied
Powers


          See the Definition
     WWII alliance of the US, Great Britain,
     and the USSR




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Winston
Churchill


            See the Definition
     Prime Minister of Great Britain during
     WWII




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Joseph
Stalin


         See the Definition
     Premier of the USSR during WWII

     Stalin was an ally of the US during
       WWII, but became a major adversary
       during the Cold War




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 Kellogg –
Briand Pact


         See the Definition
     International treaty that outlawed war in
     1928




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Lend-Lease
   Act


         See the Definition
     Act of Congress that allowed FDR to
     supply the Allied Powers with weapons
     before the Pearl Harbor attack




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 Pearl
Harbor


         See the Definition
     Japan attacked the US naval base at
     Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Dec 7, 1941

     The attack led the US to declare war on
     Japan and enter WWII on the side of the
     Allied Powers




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Battle of
the Bulge


        See the Definition
     The last German offensive of WWII

     The German Army tried to split the
     American and British forces

     Germany hoped to force the Allies into
     negotiating a peace treaty with the Axis
     Powers




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Blitzkrieg



         See the Definition
     Lightning war

     Using airplanes to bomb an area before
     rapidly invading using tanks and other
     mechanized weapons

     Used by Germany during WWII



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 D-Day
Operation
Overlord

        See the Definition
     France was captured by Germany in the
     early years of WWII and this was the
     Allied invasion of France to liberate the
     nation from German occupation

     Allied forces crossed the English
     Channel from England to the beaches of
     German occupied Normandy, France



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General
George
Patton

          See the Definition
     US Army General during WWII

     Led US forces against Germany forces
     in North Africa and led the US invasion
     of Italy

     Also led US forces in the Allied attack on
     Germany


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Holocaust



        See the Definition
     Nazi campaign of genocide against Jews
     and other European minorities

     Approximately 6 million Jews were killed

     Nazis referred to it as the “Final
     Solution”



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Newsreels



        See the Definition
     Short news clips shown in movie
     theaters

     An important source of information about
     the war

     Used as pro-war propaganda by the US
     government


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Iwo Jima



           See the Definition
     Battle between the US and Japan during WWII

     Both sides suffered extremely high numbers of killed
     and wounded

     One of the battles that made American leaders
     concerned about the costs of an invasion of Japan

     Famous for the photograph of US Marines raising an
     American during the battle




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Atomic
 Bomb


         See the Definition
     The US developed it as a part of a top
     secret program named the Manhattan
     Project
     Only been used in warfare twice, both by
     the US at the end of WWII - Hiroshima
     and Nagasaki
     Played a very important role in the Cold
     War, leading to a nuclear arms race



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Island
hopping


          See the Definition
     US strategy for fighting in the Pacific
     theater during WWII

     The US bypassed islands heavily
     defended by the Japanese and instead
     focused only on capturing islands that
     were not well defended but would help
     the US in its push towards Japan


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Nuremberg
  Trials


        See the Definition
     A series of trials after WWII known for
     their prosecution of Nazi leaders

     The trials were held in Nuremburg,
     Germany




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War Bonds



        See the Definition
     A type of savings bond sold during WWI
     and WWII as a means of raising money
     for the war effort

     A way for Americans to lend money to
     the government, and be repaid plus
     interest



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G.I. Bill



            See the Definition
     Nickname for the Serviceman
     Readjustment Act of 1944

     Provided money to US soldiers returning
     from WWII to pay for college or job
     training, and provided low-interest home
     loans



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Levittown



        See the Definition
     The first mass-produced suburb

     Became the model for post-WWII
     suburbs in the US

     Named for the builder Abraham Levitt




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Rosie the
 Riveter


        See the Definition
     Character used to represent women who
     worked in manufacturing during WWII

     Many women entered the workforce to
     produce war supplies while the men who
     traditionally performed this work went to
     war



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 Taft-
Hartley
  Act

          See the Definition
     Severely limited the power of American
     labor unions

     Banned closed shops and put
     restrictions on Union shops

     Passed by Congress over Truman’s veto
     in 1947



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 Japanese
Internment
  camps

         See the Definition
     The forced detention of 120,000
     Japanese-Americans during WWII for
     fear of spying and sabotage




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Bay of Pigs



          See the Definition
     Failed attempt by the US to train Cuban
     refugees to invade Cuba and overthrow
     Communist dictator Fidel Castro

     The invasion was a bad for President
     Kennedy’s Cold War image




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Berlin Wall



          See the Definition
     East Germany built a wall separating
     East and West Berlin

     The wall was built to keep East Germans
     from escaping to West Germany

     The wall served as a symbol of the Cold
     War




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Cuban
Missile
Crisis

          See the Definition
      In October of 1962 US spy planes
         detected Soviet missiles being built in
         Cuba

      President Kennedy ordered a naval
        quarantine (blockade) of Cuba to
        prevent the missiles from becoming
        operational
      13 days into the crisis, Soviet Premier
        Nikita Khrushchev announced that the
        missiles would be removed

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 Fidel
Castro


         See the Definition
     Communist dictator who took over Cuba
       in 1959




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Geneva
Accords


          See the Definition
     France gave up control of Vietnam

     Vietnam was divided into North and
     South Vietnam at the 17th parallel line

     Also called the Geneva Conference




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 Iron
Curtain


          See the Definition
     Symbolic boundary between East and
     West

     East = the USSR and its communist
     allies

     West = the US and its non-communist
     allies


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Korean
 War


         See the Definition
     Korea was divided along the 38th
        parallel line in 1945
     In 1950 communist North Korea invaded
        non-communist South Korea

     Harry Truman sent US forces to help
       defend South Korea from communist
       takeover


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Marshall
 Plan


           See the Definition
     US plan to rebuild Europe after WWII

     Named for Secretary of State George Marshall
     The US offered economic aid to all European nations,
     including those behind the Iron Curtain (no communist
     nations accepted)

     Americans hoped that rebuilding the European
     economy would make communism less attractive




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Alliance
   for
Progress

           See the Definition
     Organization created by JFK aimed at
     establishing economic cooperation
     between North and South America

     Intended to counter the threat of
     communism posed by Cuba




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NATO



       See the Definition
     The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

     Cold War alliance of Western nations
       against communist threats




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Warsaw
 Pact


         See the Definition
     Cold War alliance of Soviet dominated
     Communist nations

     Created in response to the formation of
     NATO




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United
Nations


          See the Definition
     International organization founded in
     1945 in the aftermath of WWII

     Designed to prevent future wars by
     promoting international law, cooperation
     between nations, and economic
     development



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 Goal Eleven




Duck and
 Cover


               See the Definition
     Method of personal protection from
     nuclear attack taught to US school
     children beginning in late 1940s




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House Un-American
     Activities
    Committee
      (HUAC)

                See the Definition
     Set up originally to investigate Nazi
     propaganda, after WWII, revived as
     watchdog against communist
     propaganda

     Most spectacular investigation was of
     motion picture industry beginning in
     1947


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Alger Hiss



         See the Definition
     Former State Department official
       accused of being part of a Soviet
       espionage ring

     Convicted of perjuring himself before the
       HUAC




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Julius and
  Ethel
Rosenberg

         See the Definition
     “Atomic bomb spies”

     Members of American Communist party
     accused of being part of atomic bomb
     spy ring

     Convicted of espionage and executed in
     1953




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Selective
 Service


        See the Definition
     Passed in 1940 instituted first peacetime
     draft; expired in 1947, but several draft
     laws passed between 1948-67

     1975 by Executive Order, President Ford
     ended mandatory registration, but
     President Carter reinstated it in 1980




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New Left



       See the Definition
     Name loosely associated with radical
     social movements of the 1960s primarily
     on college campuses

     Symbolized best by the Students for a
     Democratic Society (SDS) and
     opposition to the Vietnam War



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Détente



          See the Definition
     Foreign policy mainly identified with
     President Nixon and Henry Kissinger
     aimed at reducing Cold War tensions

     Led in 1972 to Nixon’s visits to China
     and Moscow




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Montgomery
Bus Boycott


         See the Definition
     Sparked by Rosa Parks’ arrest for
     refusal to give up seat on bus

     Lasted 381 days until federal courts
     struck down Alabama’s law requiring
     racial segregation in public

     transportation




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Rosa Parks



         See the Definition
     Civil rights pioneer whose refusal to give
     up her seat on bus sparked the
     Montgomery bus boycott




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Martin
Luther
King, Jr

           See the Definition
     Most influential civil rights leader of the
     1950s-60s
     Civil Disobedience
     He earned the Noble Peace Prize for his
     work in 1964




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Malcolm X



        See the Definition
    Most popular and controversial Black
    Muslim (Nation of Islam) leader of 1960s
 Message was white responsibility for black
 condition, black pride, separatism, and

 armed self-defense when needed




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  Black
Panthers


           See the Definition
     Militant black nationalist organization
     founded in Oakland, CA in 1966 by Huey
     Newton and Bobby Seale

     Supported activities to help those in
     ghettos, however, better known for
     violent confrontations with law
     enforcement


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 Stokley
Carmichael


         See the Definition
 Militant leader of SNCC who advocated
 political separation of the races and violent

 revolution




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CORE



       See the Definition
     Interracial organization formed in 1942
     to challenge segregation

     Organized the “freedom riders”
     challenge to segregated bus facilities in
     the South in 1961 and active in
     “Freedom Summer” of 1964



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 S.N.C.C.
  (Student
 Nonviolent
Coordinating
Committee)

          See the Definition
     Biracial national protest group originally
     founded to coordinate sit-ins and
     boycotts, later voting rights drives

     In the middle 1960s, under the direction
     of Stokley Carmichael, it became much
     more radical/militant




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 March on
Washington


         See the Definition
     March organized by civil rights groups to
     support the passage of the 1963 Civil
     Rights Bill

     Held on August 28, 1963, it was here
     that Martin Luther King, Jr. made his “I
     Have a Dream” speech



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Little Rock
   Nine


          See the Definition
     Nine African American students chosen
     to integrate the school system in Little
     Rock

     Blocked by the governor of Arkansas,
     President Eisenhower sent in federal
     troops to ensure integration



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George
Wallace


          See the Definition
     Segregationist and states rights
     governor of Alabama who attempted to
     prevent integration in state

     Ran for president as 3rd party candidate
     in 1968 (captured 5 states) and again in
     1972 (paralyzed in assassination
     attempt)


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 Brown v.
Board of
Education

        See the Definition
     Held by many scholars to be the most
     important Supreme Court case of the
     20th century

     Overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, holding
     that “separte educational facilities are
     inherently unequal."



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Thurgood
Marshall


       See the Definition
     Chief counsel for the NAACP in many
     civil rights cases including Brown v.
     Board of Education

     In 1967 became first African American
     appointed to the Supreme Court




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 Earl
Warren


         See the Definition
     Chief Justice of Supreme Court from
     1953-1969

     His term of office was marked by
     numerous rulings affecting, among other
     things civil rights, separation of church
     and state, rights of accused persons



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Civil Rights
  Act of
   1964

           See the Definition
     Outlawed discrimination in public
     accommodations (theaters, hotels,
     restaurants)

     Prohibited employment discrimination
     based on race, creed, national origin,
     and sex.



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   NOW
 National
Organization
for Women

           See the Definition
     Women’s rights organization founded by
     Betty Freidan and other feminist in 1966

     Major goals were passage of the Equal
     Rights Amendment and sexual equality
     in the workplace through political means




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 Gloria
Steinem


          See the Definition
     American feminist and activist who
     founded the feminist magazine, Ms, in
     1971




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  The
Feminine
Mystique

           See the Definition
     1963 book written by Betty Friedan
     which attacked the popular notion that
     women during this time could only find
     fulfillment through childbearing and
     homemaking




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   ERA
Equal Rights
Amendment

          See the Definition
     Proposed constitutional amendment that
     provided that equality of rights could not
     be denied on account of sex

     Passed Congress in 1972 and sent to
     states for ratification; fell 3 states short
     of ratification



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Roe v.
Wade


         See the Definition
     Established that abortion is a
     fundamental right under the Constitution

     Decision was based on right to privacy
     (not explicit, but 9th amendment)




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Haight-
Ashbury


          See the Definition
     Area in San Francisco which became

     the center of the 1960s hippie movement




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Woodstock



        See the Definition
     Rock festival which has been
     romanticized and idealized in American
     popular culture as the culmination of the
     hippie movement

     Held in August 1969, it featured many
     rock legends, The Who, Hendrix,
     Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, and the
     Grateful Dead

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 Cesar
Chavez


         See the Definition
     Latino labor leader of farm workers who
     helped form the United Farm Workers
     Organizing Committee in 1966

     Organized boycott of California grapes in
     1965 which led to contract in 1970




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  AIM
American
 Indian
Movement
       See the Definition
     Often militant Native American activist
     organization dedicated to protecting
     Native American rights

 Seized Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972 and
 had bloody confrontation with federal

 authorities at Wounded Knee in 1973




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EPA



      See the Definition
     Established by President Nixon in 1970,
     it is an agency of the federal government
     of the United States charged with
     protecting human health and with
     safeguarding the natural environment:
     air, water, and land




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Ho Chi
 Minh


         See the Definition
     Vietnamese nationalist and founder of
     the Viet Minh independence movement
     in 1940s
 First president and leader of the Democratic

 Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)




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Vietcong



           See the Definition
     Insurgent organization in South Vietnam
     composed of South/North Vietnamese
     who fought US and South Vietnam in
     guerilla war




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 Gulf of
 Tonkin
Resolution

         See the Definition
     Congressional resolution passed in
     response to alleged attacks by North
     Vietnamese patrol boats in Gulf of
     Tonkin
     Gave president (LBJ) authority to use all
     necessary measures to repel attacks
     against U.S. forces and take all steps
     necessary for the defense of U.S. allies
     in Southeast Asia



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Operation
 Rolling
Thunder

        See the Definition
     Sustained bombing raids of North
     Vietnam which began 3 months after
     LBJ became president and lasted for 3
     years




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 My Lai
Incident


           See the Definition
     Massacre of hundreds of Vietnamese
     civilians by US soldiers led by Lt. William
     Calley

     News of atrocity led to public outrage,
     loss of support for war, and Calley’s
     court martial



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Agent
Orange


         See the Definition
     Powerful herbicide/defoliant used in war;
     later linked to a variety of health
     problems suffered by veterans




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Napalm



         See the Definition
     Jellied gasoline incendiary used in
     bombs during Vietnam War; highly
     flammable and adheres to victims
     causing severe burns




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  Tet
Offensive


        See the Definition
     Surprise attack by Vietcong on hundreds
     of South Vietnamese cities and villages
     beginning on Tet (Vietnamese New Year)
     Although military victory for US/South
     Vietnamese, it became a turning point of
     the war because of American public
     opinion



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Kent State



         See the Definition
     Student protests over American invasion
     of Cambodia led to Ohio National Guard
     firing into group of students leaving 4

     dead and 9 wounded




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Cambodia
and Laos


       See the Definition
     Both were granted independence from
     France after the 1954 Geneva
     Conference

     During the Vietnam War the Ho Chi Minh
     Trail ran through these two countries
     connecting North Vietnam to South
     Vietnam


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Sputnik



          See the Definition
     First artificial satellite launched by the
     Soviets in October 1957

     Marked the start of the space age and
     the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race




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NASA



       See the Definition
     US space agency created during the
     Cold War

     Established in 1958 in response to the
     Soviet launching of Sputnik




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Peace
Corps


        See the Definition
 Program of volunteer assistance to
 developing nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin
 America established in 1961 by Executive
 Order

 Huge success and one of JFK’s most
 lasting contributions



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 United
States v.
 Nixon

            See the Definition
      Case involved President Nixon’s refusal
      to surrender tape recordings to
      Watergate Special Prosecutor on
      grounds of executive privilege
      Supreme Court determined it had the
      power to decide limits of presidential
      power and rejected Nixon’s claim of
      privilege




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  25th

Amendment


         See the Definition
 Provides for secession upon
 death/removal/resignation of president or
 vice president
 Provides for discharge of presidential duties
 upon disability




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  Goal Twelve




Camp David
 Accords


                See the Definition
     Framework for peace process between
     Israel and Egypt brokered by President
     Carter between Anwar el-Sadat of Egypt
     and Menachem Begin of Israel in
     September 1978

     Led to historic peace treaty following
     year between the two countries


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Iranian
Hostage
 Crisis

          See the Definition
     Triggered by US allowing Shah to enter
     US for medical treatment
     Militant Islamic students stormed US
     embassy in Teheran, taking hostages

     Carter’s failure to secure the release of
     hostages hurt his reelection bid



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Jimmy
Carter


         See the Definition
     Former governor of Georgia and 39th
     president of the United States

     His administration was hurt by the
     economy, energy crisis, and hostage
     situation and he was seen as a less than
     effective president

     Most outstanding foreign policy success
     was Camp David Accords between
     Israel and Egypt

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Star Wars



        See the Definition
     March 1983 - Reagan’s most significant
     defense initiative

     System of weapons based in space that
     would intercept Soviet missiles before
     they reached US




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 Iran-
Contra
Affair

         See the Definition
     Illegal arms sales to Iran for the release
     of hostages held in Lebanon with the
     resulting profits funneled to the Contras
     in Nicaragua in direct violation of
     Congress ban contained in Boland
     Amendment

     A number of Reagan aides were indicted
     and convicted, however Reagan denied
     any knowledge of the affair


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 Mikhail
Gorbachev


        See the Definition
     Last leader of the Soviet Union
     Introduced glasnost and perestroika as

     reforms of the Soviet system




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Saddam
Hussein


          See the Definition
     President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003
     who brutally suppressed challenges to
     his rule from religious and ethnic groups
     Stayed in power through the Iraq-Iran
     War and Gulf War




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 Persian
Gulf War


       See the Definition
     Operation Desert Storm (1991)
         Attack by multinational coalition led
         by the US to drive the Iraqis out of
         Kuwait
     Iraq War (2003-)
         2003 attack on Iraq for the stated
         reasons the it possessed weapons of
         mass destruction (WMDs) and
         harbored terrorist
         War resulted in the overthrow of
         Saddam Hussein’s government and
         his subsequent arrest and execution
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Tiananmen
  Square


        See the Definition
     Bloody in Peking military operation by
     Chinese government that that killed
     hundreds of civilians and crushed

     democratic uprising




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Sandra Day
 O’Connor


         See the Definition
     Appointed by Reagan in July 1981 to
     Supreme Court

     First female justice




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Clarence
Thomas


           See the Definition
     African American appointed to Supreme
     Court by George Bush in 1991
     Meager qualifications, opposition to
     affirmative action, and allegations of
     sexual impropriety led to dramatic
     hearings on confirmation




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Americans
   with
Disabilities
    Act
           See the Definition
     Prohibits discrimination against people
     with disabilities in areas such as
     employment, public accommodations,
     public transportation,
     telecommunications




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Geraldine
 Ferraro


        See the Definition
     Democratic VP nominee in 1984 election

     First woman candidate




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Stagflation



         See the Definition
     Economic conditions existing during
     Nixon’s administration and later Ford’s

     Stagnant economy plus inflation




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NAFTA



        See the Definition
     Brought Mexico into free trade zone with
     US and Canada

     Ratified in 1993 it increased trade with
     Mexico




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Three Mile
  Island


         See the Definition
     March 1989 a nuclear reactor
     malfunctioned sparking fears of release
     of radiation and evacuation of area

     Rekindled debate over the safety of
     nuclear power




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 Supply
  Side
Economics

        See the Definition
     Reaganomics – traditional Republican
     suspicion of government spending
     combined with aggressive cut in federal
     income taxes

     Lower taxes gave business and
     individuals more money to spend
     resulting in a surge of productive
     economic activity
     Trickle-down economics


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National
 Debt


           See the Definition
     Amount of money owed by the US
     government to creditors approximately
     44% of which is owed to foreigners

     It increased significantly during
     Reagan’s and George W. Bush’s
     administrations



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Challenger
 disaster


         See the Definition
     Space shuttle exploded in January 1986,
     killing all 7 crew members

     Caused some to question the safety of
     the space program




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Ronald
Reagan


         See the Definition
     Former governor of California and 40th
     president of the United States
     His election marked the resurgence of
     conservatism
     His use of supply side economics
     (Reaganomics) led to an economic
     recovery during his administration, but at
     the cost of enormous national debt
     His foreign policy was marked by conflict
     and agreement with the Soviet Union


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New Right
 Coalition


         See the Definition
     Coalition between right wing grassroots
     groups that grew up in the 1970s around
     the support for key issues such as
     blockage of the ERA, criticism of
     abortion rights, school busing, and
     affirmative action, and support for school
     prayer
     Included business leaders, middle class
     voters, disaffected Democrats,
     fundamentalist Christian groups


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Ross Perot



         See the Definition
    Third party candidate in the presidential
    election of 1992 who targeted the federal
    deficit as the nation’s number 1 problem
 On election day, he captured 19% of the
 electoral vote, the most of a third party
 candidate since T. Roosevelt in 1912




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Bill Clinton



           See the Definition
     Former governor of Arkansas who was
     elected as president in 1992 and again
     in 1992
     Clinton ran as a New Democrat
     In his administrations, he presided over
     the longest peacetime economic
     expansion in US history, however the
     were marred by his impeachment in
     1998 and the resulting trial in 1999 in
     which he was acquitted


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Al Gore



          See the Definition
     Bill Clinton’s VP who ran for president in
     2000
     Although he won the most popular votes,
     he lost the election in the electoral
     college by virtue of the unfavorable
     Supreme Court decision in Bush v. Gore




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   Joe
Lieberman


        See the Definition
     Al Gore’s VP running mate in the 2000
     election and the first Jewish American to
     run for national office




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Affirmative
  Action


         See the Definition
     A policy or a program whose stated goal
     is to correct the effects of past
     discrimination by favoring the groups
     who were previously disadvantaged
     (minorities)




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Multiculturalism



            See the Definition
     Sometimes used interchangeably with
     diversity
     Idea that society should consist of, or at
     least allow and include, distinct cultural
     groups, with equal status




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Nativist



           See the Definition
     Favoring native born people; generally
     opposition to immigration




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Patriot Act



          See the Definition
     Passed originally in the aftermath of
     September 11 in response to the terrorist
     attacks on the US, its intent was to
     greatly expand the authority of American
     law enforcement to combat terrorism
     It came under attack (some parts were
     found unconstitutional) for its effects on

     civil liberties



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September
 11, 2001


        See the Definition
     Series of coordinated attacks by terrorist
     associated with al Qaeda on the US
     using four hijacked airliners

     Two airplanes hit the World Trade
     Center destroying it

     One airliner damaged the Pentagon and
     the fourth crashed in Pennsylvania



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Al-Qaeda



       See the Definition
     Militant Islamic fundamentalist terrorist
     organization which has committed
     multiple acts of terrorism

     Infamously known for planning and
     executing the September 11, 2001
     attacks in the US



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Colin Powell



          See the Definition
     Highest ranking African American in the
     history of the US military, who became
     Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff
     As the first African American Secretary
     of State in George W. Bush’s
     administration, he originally opposed
     waging war on Iraq, but later relented



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Osama bin
 Laden


        See the Definition
     Saudi Arabian militant Islamist believed
     to be one of the founders of al Qaeda
     and one of the masterminds behind the
     1998 US Embassy bombings and the
     September 11, 2001 attacks

     Despite US attempts to capture him, he
     remains at large




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George W.
  Bush


        See the Definition
     Former governor of Texas and 43rd
     president of the United States
     Bush has pursued a domestic agenda
     based on supply side economics,
     resulting in tax cuts, but also record
     deficits
     Administration had been defined by
     September 11, 2001 and the War in Iraq


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Axis of Evil



          See the Definition
     Used by George W. Bush in his State of
     the Union address in 2002 to describe
     regimes that he accused of sponsoring
     terrorism and seeking weapons of mass
     destruction, specifically Iran, Iraq, and
     North Korea




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War on
 Iraq


         See the Definition
     2003 attack on Iraq for the stated
     reasons the it possessed weapons of
     mass destruction (WMDs) and harbored
     terrorist
     War resulted in the overthrow of Saddam
     Hussein’s government and his
     subsequent arrest and execution
     US remains in Iraq for the purpose of
     rebuilding the country



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Department
of Homeland
  Security

        See the Definition
     Cabinet level department created by
     Congress in November 2002 in the wake
     of the September 11, 2001 attacks

     It has the responsibility of protecting the
     territory of the United States from
     terrorist attacks and responding to
     natural disasters


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Taliban
Regime


          See the Definition
     Islamic fundamentalist movement which
     effectively ruled most of Afghanistan
     from 1996 until 2001, until displaced by
     a joint US and NATO force in late 2001
     US/NATO attack was an attempt to
     capture al Qaeda terrorist supposedly
     protected by the Taliban



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Green Card



         See the Definition
     Identification card for legal permanent
     residents of the US who are not US
     citizens




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