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					  Biology 2484a
   Tutorial One
    Species Concepts
  Homology vs. Analogy
Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
           Species Concepts
• Morphological    • Biological

                     Eastern and Western Meadowlarks
         Homology vs. Analogy

Ostrich Wing         Hummingbird Wing
            Homology vs. Analogy

Bird Wing             Insect Wing
           Homology vs. Analogy

Bat Wing                  BirdWing

3 taxa = 3 possible trees

  A           B             C   A   C   B   C   B   A

2 taxa?
12 taxa = nearly 14 billion
           Aliens have landed!

The day has finally arrived – aliens have landed on planet
Earth! And not just anywhere on earth; these aliens have
chosen to touchdown on the UWO campus. The
international community is buzzing and scientists at UWO
are excited to have the first chance to make contact with
these intergalactic visitors. At the moment, nothing is
known about the origin of these aliens or how they are
related to each other; so far they have not been very
communicative (see vocalizations below). There are eight
aliens and all are quite different looking. It is your job to try
to figure out how these aliens are related to each other
based on their appearance.
Group 1:                Group 3:                  Group 5:                     Group 7:
Shape: square           Shape: round              Shape: round                 Shape: square
Colour: yellow          Colour: purple            Colour: purple               Colour: Red
# eyes: two             # eyes: one               # eyes: two                  # eyes: four
Markings: blue dots     Markings: pink freckles   Markings: none               Markings: yellow patches
Vocalizations: “eeeeee” Vocalizations: “grrrrr”   Vocalizations: “ooga ooga”   Vocalizations: “eeeee”

Group 2:                 Group 4:                 Group 6:                     Group 8:
Shape: round             Shape: square            Shape: square                Shape: round
Colour: purple           Colour: red              Colour: yellow               Colour: purple
# eyes: one              # eyes: four             # eyes: three                # eyes: one
Markings: blue brindle   Markings: orange         Markings: blue dots          Markings: orange stripes
Vocalizations: “grrrr”   stripes                  Vocalizations: “eeeee”       Vocalizations: “grrrr”
                         Vocalizations: “eeeee”
     4    7 6      1            5      2       3   8

                       Dots   Round,
stripes   Three eyes
                              No Markings,
                              ‘ooga ooga’
                              Yellow patches
                          1              4          8 3
             6                       7                       2   5
                         Two eyes
Three eyes               Blue dots           Red

         Yellow                                    One eye

                  Blue dots
       1      6     4            7     3       8   2   5
Two eyes                Stripes
           Three eyes
                              Yellow patches
5 kingdoms
Lecture Notes, pg. 38
Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
1) Define homologous and analogous characters
   and give an example of each
2) Define: monophyly, paraphyly, polyphyly
3) List the 5 kingdoms. Which are monophyletic,
   polyphyletic, paraphyletic
4) What are the difference between the
   morphological and biological species concepts
5) List 3 characteristics of each eukaryotes and

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