Equipment - 1
Site clearing, development of access,
shaping of the site, foundation excavation,
and hoisting and handling materials all
involve the use of a large number of highly
efficient and versatile equipment.
The proper selection of these equipment and
the length of time they will have to be used
are an essential part of the estimator’s work.
BCN 5618 1
Equipment - 2
The construction equipment used on a
project may be owned, leased, or rented
by a contractor.
The cost of contractor-provided
equipment to a project must be passed
on to the client in the form of equipment
charges that are included within a bid.
BCN 5618 2
Buy, Lease, or Rent
Availability of cash for down payment or
current interest rates on loans or
installment purchase plans
current rental and lease rates
income tax benefits
expected usage of the equipment
the expected life of the equipment
BCN 5618 3
Ownership of the equipment can be an
economic drain if the equipment is
underutilized, becomes obsolescent, or
is subject to frequent breakdown as so
often happens when kept too long.
BCN 5618 4
-Volume of work to be performed. The size of the job
will influence both individual size and numbers of
-Job conditions. Each equipment best suited for
certain job conditions.
-Current Inventory of Equipment. The contractor will
attempt to use any available owned or on-hand
-Project Schedule. Required job completion date
may force use of larger numbers of sizes of
BCN 5618 5
BCN 5618 6
Track Type Tractors
Primarily used for Earth moving
Come in many various sizes, from a
small D3 to a very large D11.
Very expensive to own and lease.
Need qualified highly paid operators.
BCN 5618 7
Mod HP WT New
D3 70 15,518 100,000
D8 305 72,930 700,000
BCN 5618 8
BCN 5618 9
Used for earthmoving and loading.
Can be used as integrated tool carriers.
Available in many sizes and
BCN 5618 10
Mod HP WT B/CA New
(LB) (CY) $
914 90 15,935 1.8 100,000
966 200 38,936 4.5 400,000
988 430 97,727 9.0 800,000
BCN 5618 11
BCN 5618 12
Very common piece of equipment
Many subcontractors own/lease
“Low” maintenance costs
BCN 5618 13
Mod HP WT DD/R New
(LB) (ft) $
416 75 13,892 14’/18’ 85,000
426 80 15,453 15’/20’ 95,000
436 85 15,599 16’/20’ 100,000
446 102 19,603 17’/21’ 140,000
BCN 5618 14
Various hauling operations.
to consolidates soils in fills, road bases, etc.
Used primarily for digging but can be used for
demolition with attachments.
Shaping of subgrades, shoulders, ditches, and backslopes;
maintenance of construction roads.
BCN 5618 15
BCN 5618 16
BCN 5618 17
Maximum width in Florida 102” or 8’5
Loads over 10’ width require permit
Loads over 12’ width require escort
Maximum height is 13’6
Loads up to 15’ require permit and routing
Loads over 15’ require police escort, 50 mile limit
Maximum length of trailer is 53’, overall 74’
Maximum weight is 80,000 gross
overweight require permit
overweight fines over 80,000
BCN 5618 18
Not more than 10’ high
Not more than 8’ wide
Not more than 50,000#
Approximately $150 per hour 3 hour min.
BCN 5618 19
Transportation costs cont..
“Non Standard” Equipment
Over 10’ high
Over 9’ wide
Approximately $250 per hour 3 hour min, plus
permits and escorts.
BCN 5618 20
Cranes have been one of the most
important and widely used pieces of
erection equipment since they were first
Every construction job should be looked
at on an individual basis before a crane
is selected. All variables should be
BCN 5618 21
Can travel freely
job site and on
Do not have to
follow a pre-
BCN 5618 22
They are best suited for rural areas,
where movement is necessary.
Not well suited for city construction
because they have to step back to lift
loads over the top of buildings. Usually
there is no room for this in a dense city
BCN 5618 23
Latticed Boom Cranes
Have high production rates, easy operation, and
have a large range of potential uses to the
Typically used to:
load sand and gravel at concrete batching plants
load and unload ships
Usually mounted to truck or crawler base
BCN 5618 24
BCN 5618 25
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Commonly referred to as cherry pickers,
zoom booms, or hydraulic cranes.
Can be mounted on any type of carrier or
Made of several sections that fit into one
Virtually no erection and dismantling is
needed, saving labor costs.
BCN 5618 27
BCN 5618 28
Are best suited for city construction
Work well in confined spaces and have
virtually no height limit in the buildings
that they can build.
Can operate in higher wind conditions than
BCN 5618 29
Bases and Mountings for
used with fixed type towers
Tower is rigidly anchored to foundation
no limit to height of crane
moves on rails
climbs up structure as construction progresses
BCN 5618 30
BCN 5618 31
BCN 5618 32
BCN 5618 33
Crane Related Accidents
Accidents on construction sites that are related
to crane and rigging equipment:
Most of these accidents are preventable with a
proper safety program and training.
BCN 5618 34
Factors affecting rate of production of a
piece of equipment:
the nature of material being processed
the condition of equipment
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Equipment productivity can be measured in two ways:
On-site: It is measured over a sufficient period to
establish reasonably accurate figures.
Off-site: It is estimated based on productivity data that
has been generated from past company experience or
which has been made available from manufacturer.
Manufacturer's productivity rates are based on ideal
conditions. Such rates should be multiplied by a
numerical efficiency factor.
BCN 5618 36
Job efficiency factors for
Management Condit ions*
Job Conditions* Excellent Good Fair Poor
Excellent 0.84 0.81 0.76 0.70
Good 0.78 0.75 0.71 0.65
Fair 0.72 0.69 0.65 0.60
Poor 0.63 0.61 0.57 0.52
* Management condit ions include:
Skill, t raining, and mot ivat ion of w orkers.
Select ion, operat ion, and maint enance of equipment .
Planning, job layout , supervision, and coordinat ion of w ork.
* * Job condit ions are t he physical condit ions of a job t hat af f ect
t he product ion rat e (not including t he t ype of mat erial involved).
Topography and w ork dimensions.
Surf ace and w eat her condit ions.
BCN w ork
Specif icat ion requirement s f or5618 met hods or sequence. 37
Fixed Costs: are associated with owning the
equipment and are incurred whether or not
the equipment is operational.
Interest charges on borrowed money
Storage and transportation to site
BCN 5618 38
BCN 5618 39
A lease normally involves a long period of
time, usually approximating the economic life.
With a lease, the depreciation and interest
components are replaced completely by the
lease payments. Other fixed costs (taxes,
licenses, permits, insurance, parking and
storage) still remain. Operating costs are
also lessee's responsibility and will be
handled the same as for owned equipment.
BCN 5618 40
Rental is the ideal option for short-term
equipment need. The rates per unit time are
higher than for leasing.
Under most rental agreements, all fixed costs
are included within the rental fee.
Maintenance and repair normally are rental
agency responsibilities, as would be tires.
Fuel, oil and lubrication costs generally will be
the only operating costs (other than the
operator himself) to be paid by the renter.
BCN 5618 41