Equipment by huangyuarong


									Equipment - 1
   Site clearing, development of access,
    shaping of the site, foundation excavation,
    and hoisting and handling materials          all
    involve the use of a large number of highly
    efficient and versatile equipment.
   The proper selection of these equipment and
    the length of time they will have to be used
    are an essential part of the estimator’s work.

                      BCN 5618                   1
Equipment - 2
   The construction equipment used on a
    project may be owned, leased, or rented
    by a contractor.
   The     cost     of    contractor-provided
    equipment to a project must be passed
    on to the client in the form of equipment
    charges that are included within a bid.

                    BCN 5618               2
Buy, Lease, or Rent
   Availability of cash for down payment or
    outright purchase
   current interest rates on loans or
    installment purchase plans
   current rental and lease rates
   income tax benefits
   expected usage of the equipment
   the expected life of the equipment
                   BCN 5618               3
   Ownership of the equipment can be an
    economic drain if the equipment is
    underutilized, becomes obsolescent, or
    is subject to frequent breakdown as so
    often happens when kept too long.

                   BCN 5618              4
Selecting Equipment
   -Volume of work to be performed. The size of the job
    will influence both individual size and numbers of
    production units.
   -Job conditions. Each equipment best suited for
    certain job conditions.
   -Current Inventory of Equipment. The contractor will
    attempt to use any available owned or on-hand
    leased equipment.
   -Project Schedule. Required job completion date
    may force use of larger numbers of sizes of

                        BCN 5618                     5
BCN 5618   6
    Track Type Tractors
   Primarily used for Earth moving
   Come in many various sizes, from a
    small D3 to a very large D11.
   Very expensive to own and lease.
   Need qualified highly paid operators.

                      BCN 5618              7
 Track-Type Tractors
Mod   HP    WT         New
            (LB)          $
D3    70    15,518    100,000

D8    305   72,930    700,000

                     BCN 5618   8
BCN 5618   9
   Used for earthmoving and loading.
   Can be used as integrated tool carriers.
   Available in many sizes and
   “Easily” maintained
   Operator “friendly”

                   BCN 5618               10

          Mod   HP    WT          B/CA New
                      (LB)          (CY)     $
          914   90    15,935         1.8   100,000

          966   200   38,936         4.5   400,000

          988   430   97,727         9.0   800,000


                               BCN 5618              11
BCN 5618   12
Backhoe Loaders
   Very common piece of equipment
   Many subcontractors own/lease
   Very versatile
   Easily transported
   “Low” maintenance costs
   Operator “friendly”
   Easily rented
                 BCN 5618            13
 Backhoe Loaders

Mod   HP    WT       DD/R       New
            (LB)       (ft)       $
416   75    13,892   14’/18’    85,000

426   80    15,453   15’/20’    95,000

436   85    15,599   16’/20’    100,000

446   102   19,603   17’/21’    140,000

                     BCN 5618             14
Other Equipment
   Dump trucks
       Various hauling operations.
   Compactors
       to consolidates soils in fills, road bases, etc.
   Excavator
      Used primarily for digging but can be used for
       demolition with attachments.
   Motor grader
       Shaping of subgrades, shoulders, ditches, and backslopes;
        maintenance of construction roads.

                              BCN 5618                       15
BCN 5618   16
BCN 5618   17
    Transportation Considerations
   Maximum width in Florida 102” or 8’5
     Loads over 10’ width require permit

     Loads over 12’ width require escort

   Maximum height is 13’6
     Loads up to 15’ require permit and routing

     Loads over 15’ require police escort, 50 mile limit

   Maximum length of trailer is 53’, overall 74’
   Maximum weight is 80,000 gross
       overweight require permit
       overweight fines over 80,000

                         BCN 5618                      18
             Transportation Costs
   “Standard” equipment:
       Not more than 10’ high
       Not more than 8’ wide
       Not more than 50,000#
            Approximately $150 per hour 3 hour min.

                          BCN 5618                     19
    Transportation costs cont..
   “Non Standard” Equipment
       Over 10’ high
       Over 9’ wide
       Over 60,000#
            Approximately $250 per hour 3 hour min, plus
             permits and escorts.

                           BCN 5618                    20
   Cranes have been one of the most
    important and widely used pieces of
    erection equipment since they were first
   Every construction job should be looked
    at on an individual basis before a crane
    is selected. All variables should be
                   BCN 5618              21
       Mobile Cranes
   Can travel freely
    throughout the
    job site and on
    the highway.
   Do not have to
    follow a pre-
    determined path.

                        BCN 5618   22
Mobile Cranes
   They are best suited for rural areas,
    where movement is necessary.
   Not well suited for city construction
    because they have to step back to lift
    loads over the top of buildings. Usually
    there is no room for this in a dense city

                    BCN 5618               23
        Latticed Boom Cranes
   Have high production rates, easy operation, and
    have a large range of potential uses to the
   Typically used to:
       load sand and gravel at concrete batching plants
       load and unload ships
       demolish buildings
   Usually mounted to truck or crawler base

                              BCN 5618                     24

BCN 5618   25
Telescoping Cantilevered
Boom Cranes

            BCN 5618       26
Telescoping Cantilevered
Boom Cranes
   Commonly referred to as cherry pickers,
    zoom booms, or hydraulic cranes.
   Can be mounted on any type of carrier or
   Made of several sections that fit into one
   Virtually no erection and dismantling is
    needed, saving labor costs.

                     BCN 5618                    27
Tower Cranes

           BCN 5618   28
     Tower Cranes
   Are best suited for city construction
   Work well in confined spaces and have
    virtually no height limit in the buildings
    that they can build.
   Can operate in higher wind conditions than
    mobile cranes.

                       BCN 5618             29
Bases and Mountings for
Tower Cranes
   Static Base
       used with fixed type towers
       Tower is rigidly anchored to foundation
       no limit to height of crane
   Traveling Base
       moves on rails
   Climbing Base
            climbs up structure as construction progresses

                           BCN 5618                      30
Static Base

              BCN 5618   31
Traveling Base

                     BCN 5618                32
Climbing Base

           BCN 5618   33
        Crane Related Accidents
   Accidents on construction sites that are related
    to crane and rigging equipment:
       electrocution
       overturning
       overloading
       falls
       dropping loads
   Most of these accidents are preventable with a
    proper safety program and training.

                          BCN 5618                     34
Equipment Productivity
Factors affecting rate of production of a
 piece of equipment:
     site conditions
     the nature of material being processed
     the condition of equipment
     operator ability.

                    BCN 5618                   35
      Determining Productivity
   Equipment productivity can be measured in two ways:
   On-site: It is measured over a sufficient period to
    establish reasonably accurate figures.
   Off-site: It is estimated based on productivity data that
    has been generated from past company experience or
    which has been made available from manufacturer.
    Manufacturer's productivity rates are based on ideal
    conditions. Such rates should be multiplied by a
    numerical efficiency factor.

                              BCN 5618                      36
Job efficiency factors for
earthmoving operations
                                    Management Condit ions*
 Job Conditions*       Excellent       Good            Fair          Poor
 Excellent               0.84           0.81          0.76           0.70
 Good                    0.78           0.75          0.71           0.65
 Fair                    0.72           0.69          0.65           0.60
 Poor                    0.63           0.61          0.57           0.52
* Management condit ions include:
     Skill, t raining, and mot ivat ion of w orkers.
     Select ion, operat ion, and maint enance of equipment .
     Planning, job layout , supervision, and coordinat ion of w ork.

* * Job condit ions are t he physical condit ions of a job t hat af f ect
t he product ion rat e (not including t he t ype of mat erial involved).
They include:
      Topography and w ork dimensions.
      Surf ace and w eat her condit ions.
                                   BCN w ork
      Specif icat ion requirement s f or5618 met hods or sequence.          37
Ownership Costs
   Fixed Costs: are associated with owning the
    equipment and are incurred whether or not
    the equipment is operational.
      Depreciation

      Interest charges on borrowed money

      Insurance

      Taxes

      Storage and transportation to site

                    BCN 5618                38
Operating Cost
   Fuel
   Maintenance Services
   Repairs
   Tires
   Operator's wages

                  BCN 5618   39
   A lease normally involves a long period of
    time, usually approximating the economic life.
   With a lease, the depreciation and interest
    components are replaced completely by the
    lease payments. Other fixed costs (taxes,
    licenses, permits, insurance, parking and
    storage) still remain. Operating costs are
    also lessee's responsibility and will be
    handled the same as for owned equipment.

                     BCN 5618                  40
   Rental is the ideal option for short-term
    equipment need. The rates per unit time are
    higher than for leasing.
   Under most rental agreements, all fixed costs
    are included within the rental fee.
   Maintenance and repair normally are rental
    agency responsibilities, as would be tires.
   Fuel, oil and lubrication costs generally will be
    the only operating costs (other than the
    operator himself) to be paid by the renter.
                      BCN 5618                   41

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