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Band 1970s Notes


									Rebekah Austin, Stephanie Austin,
Paige Breen, Cindy Kang,
Lauren Ord, Katherine Sipple,
Aarti Thakkar, Caroline Williams
and Samantha Zuber

                                    1970s Rock Project Notes

Historical Background
1972—VCRs introduced
        -The VCR format was introduced in 1972, just after the Sony U-matic format in 1971.
Although at first glance the two might appear to have been competing formats, they were aimed
at very different markets. U-matic was introduced as a professional format, whilst VCR was
targeted particularly at educational but also domestic users. Unlike some other early formats such
as Cartrivision, the VCR format does record a high quality video signal without resorting to Skip
1972—M*A*S*H TV show premiers
        -M*A*S*H is an American television series developed by Larry Gelbart, adapted from
the 1970 feature film MASH (which was itself based on the 1968 novel MASH: A Novel About
Three Army Doctors, by Richard Hooker). The series is a medical drama/black comedy that was
produced in association with 20th Century Fox Television for CBS. It follows a team of doctors
and support staff stationed at the 4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital in Uijeongbu, South
Korea, during the Korean War.
1972—Watergate scandal begins
1974—Nixon resigns
        -The Watergate scandal was a political scandal in the United States in the 1970s,
resulting from the break-in into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the
Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. Effects of the scandal ultimately led to the
resignation of the United States President Richard Nixon on August 9, 1974. It also resulted in
the indictment and conviction of several Nixon administration officials.
1973—Abortion legalized
        -In deciding Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that a Texas statute forbidding
abortion except when necessary to save the life of the mother was unconstitutional.
1976—North and South Vietnam join to form the Republic of Vietnam
        -Acting President Minh unconditionally surrendered the capital city of Saigon and the
rest of South Vietnam to North Vietnam on April 30, 1975.
1977—TV series Roots premiers
        -Roots: The Saga of an American Family is a novel written by Alex Haley and first
published in 1976. It was adapted into a hugely popular, 12-hour television miniseries, Roots, in
1977, and a 14-hour sequel, Roots: The Next Generations, in 1979.Kunta Kinte Brought up on
the stories of his elderly female relatives—including his Grandmother Cynthia, whose father was
emancipated from slavery in 1865—Alex Haley purported to have traced his family history back
to "the African," Kunta Kinte, captured by slave traders in 1767.
1978—First test-tube baby born
        -Louise Joy Brown (born 25th July, 1978, in Oldham, Greater Manchester, UK) is the
world's first baby to be conceived by in vitro fertilisation, or IVF.
1977—Elvis Death
        - Elvis Presley died on 16 August 1977 at his home Graceland in Memphis. His body was
found by girlfriend, Ginger Alden in the upstairs bathroom.
1979—Iran takes hostages in Tehran
        -The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States
wherein 66 Americans were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to January 20,
1981, after a group of Islamist students and militants took over the American Embassy in support
of the Iranian Revolution.
1979—Sony introduces the Walkman
        -The device was built in 1978 by audio-division engineer Nobutoshi Kihara for Sony co-
chairman Akio Morita, who wanted to be able to listen to operas during his frequent trans-Pacific
plane trips.

Changes in Music Technology
Quadraphonic Sound
         - The year 1971 saw the first consumer effort in surround sound with the four channel
“Quadraphonic” sound which was nicknamed quad.
         - Quadraphonic sound uses four channels where speakers are placed in each four corners
of the listening space.
         -The Lack of standardization in the manufacturing of LPs, cassettes, and reel to reel tape
formats caused consumer confusion and ending the use of quadraphonic sound.
Digital Audio
         - In 1977, the first commercial digital audio recording systems arrived such as Sony
PCM-1 or Synclavier sampling instrument
         - A sampler is an electronic instrument similar to a synthesizer. However, instead of
generatingsounds, it uses recordings or “samples” of sounds recorded and plays them by means
of a keyboard or sequencer.
         (- Before digital samplers, tape replay keyboards which stored recordings on analog tape
were used. The Mellotron was a well-known sampler used in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but
was expensive, heavy because of various tape mechanisms involved, and limited to only three
octaves. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument. Thus the
creation of digital sampling was more practical.)
         - Sony introduces the first portable stereo, the Walkman, in 1978.
         -The Sony Walkman was portable audio cassette player. The original Walkman
introduced a change in music listening habits by allowing people to carry music with them.
         (- The walkman was built in 1978 for a Sony co-chairman, who wanted to listen to operas
during plane trips. The original Walkman was marketed in 1979 as the Walkman in Japan, the
Soundabout in many other countries including the US, Freestyle in Sweden and the Stowaway in
the UK.)
         - In the 1970s the advent of miniaturized solid-state components allowed synthesizers to
become self-contained, portable instruments.
         - The smaller size and lower cost made synthesizers more common place.

Music Business
ž        -Major Labels sold their product directly to any and all record stores. This policy stopped
in late 70's.
         -In the late 1970's,the sales of records exceeded one billion dollars. Today, record sales is
almost a fourteen billion dollar industry.
         -In the early 1970s, many bands liked performing on TV shows.
         -The idea of the promotional clip became more important with television programs such
as The Midnight Special which mixed concert footage with camera tricks, clips, special effects,
and dramatizations of song lyrics.

Performers of the ‘70s
      Rolling Stones
              -pioneered the gritty, hard-driving blues-based rock & roll that came to define
      hard rock
              -with his preening machismo and latent maliciousness, Mick Jagger became the
      prototypical rock front man
              -the Stones always flirted with the seedy side of rock & roll, but as the hippie
      dream began to break apart, they exposed and reveled in the new rock culture
      Led Zeppelin
              -Led Zeppelin was the definitive heavy metal band.
              -Crushingly loud interpretation of the blues -- it was how they incorporated
      mythology, mysticism, and a variety of other genres (most notably world music and
      British folk) -- into their sound. Led Zeppelin had mystique
              -AC/DC's mammoth power chord roar became one of the most influential hard
      rock sounds of the '70s
              -In its own way, it was a reaction against the pompous art rock and lumbering
      arena rock of the early '70s. AC/DC's rock was minimalist -- no matter how huge and
      bludgeoning their guitar chords were, there was a clear sense of space and restraint.
      Combined with Bon Scott's larynx-shredding vocals, the band spawned countless
      imitators over the next two decades and enjoyed commercial success well into the 2000s.
              -Aerosmith was one of the most popular hard rock bands of the '70s, setting the
      style and sound of hard rock and heavy metal for the next two decades with their
      raunchy, bluesy swagger
              -developing a lean, dirty riff-oriented boogie that was loose and swinging and as
      hard as a diamond.
              -Aerosmith's ability to pull off both ballads and rock & roll made them extremely
      popular during the mid-'70s, when they had a string of gold and platinum albums.
      The Eagles
              -five number one singles, fourteen Top 40 hits, and four number one albums
              -closely identified with a country- and folk-tinged sound that initially found favor
      in Los Angeles during the late '60s
              -But the band also drew upon traditional rock & roll styles and, in their later
      work, helped define the broadly popular rock sound that became known as classic rock.

Types of ‘70s Rock
Punk rock—a rock music genre that developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States, the
United Kingdom and Australia
        The Ramones
                -The Ramones are the first punk rock band. By cutting rock & roll down to its
        bare essentials -- four chords; a simple, catchy melody; and irresistibly inane lyrics -- and
        speeding up the tempo considerably, the Ramones created something that was rooted in
        early '60s, pre-Beatles rock & roll and pop but sounded revolutionary.
                -By the summer of 1977, the Sex Pistols and the Ramones were seen as the two
        key bands in the punk rock revolution
        The Sex Pistols
                -The Sex Pistols may have only been together for two years in the late '70s, but
        they changed the face of popular music. Through their raw, nihilistic singles and violent
        performances, the band revolutionized the idea of what rock & roll could be.
Glam Rock—“performed by singers and musicians wearing outrageous clothes, makeup,
hairstyles, and platform-soled boots." The flamboyant costumes and visual styles of glam
performers were a campy, theatrical blend of nostalgic references to science fiction and old
                -Embracing the exaggerated pomp of progressive rock and heavy metal, as well as
        vaudevillian music hall, the British quartet delved deeply into camp and bombast,
        creating a huge, mock-operatic sound with layered guitars and overdubbed vocals.
        Queen's music was a bizarre yet highly accessible fusion of the macho and the fey
A Night at the Opera (record released in Nov. 1975)
        -The first single from the record, "Bohemian Rhapsody," became Queen's signature song,
and with its bombastic, mock-operatic structure punctuated by heavy metal riffing, it
encapsulates their music. It also is the symbol for their musical excesses -- the song took three
weeks to record, and there were so many vocal overdubs on the record that it was possible see
through the tape at certain points. To support "Bohemian Rhapsody," Queen shot one of the first
conceptual music videos, and the gamble paid off as the single spent nine weeks at number one
in the England, breaking the record for the longest run at number one.

Characteristics of ‘70s Music
       -Use of synthesizers, electric guitars and electronic keyboards changed the timbre of
       -Musical interludes, such as guitar solos, added to the length of the average song
       -Lyrics include a lot of imagery and metaphors; reflect tensions and issues of the time
       -Use of certain sounds to represent things (ex. Sound of a cash register to represent
       -Freer/more complex rhythms and frequently changing time signatures

Information on Performance Songs
      -“Walk this Way” is by Aerosmith and was released in 1975.
      -Number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 in early 1977 (#1 in UK at some point)
      -It is one of the first songs that combined rap and rock, creating a new genre.
         -In the beginning of the song, a synthesizer was used.
         -Musical background is complex, but the melody isn’t
         -Lots of instrumental interludes
         -Complicated verse with lots of imagery and metaphors
         -By The Rolling Stones and was released in 1971
         -Billboard Hot 100 number one single, 29 May 1971 (two weeks)
         -Written by Mick Jagger
         -Live performance isn’t a big production, mainly just the members messing around
         -Instrumental interludes
         -By The Eagles and released in 1977
         -Billboard Hot 100 number one singles, May 7, 1977
         -The album and song are meant to tell about the music industry in L.A.
         -Basically talking about how artist become controlled by agents and become victim of
         -Some metaphors: “We are all just prisoners here of our own device” is referring to how
artist become a victim of their own music, they can’t leave because they love the music
         -“You can check out any time you like but you can never leave!” is telling how a
musician is always stuck in the spot light, even if they try to step away from it
         -Intricate and long guitar solos
         -Mix of acoustic and electric guitars
         -Guitars play melody lines, not just chords
         -Double neck guitar/bass
         -By Elton John and released in 1973, one of his Top 20 hits
         -Billboard Hot 100 number one single, 13 April 1974
         -Written about Glam Rock in the early 70’s – mainly outrageous costumes
         -Also about how crazy glam rock was
         -About, Bennie who is a girl and singer, and her band
         -Continues to tour today even though he had rocky career filled with substance abuse
(which he has now stopped)
         -Piano and guitar solos

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