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Sir Francis Bacon

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					Astrology v. Astronomy
Science v. Pseudoscience
Sir Francis Bacon
Baconian Scientific Methodology
• Hypothesis
• Experimental Design
  – Independent Variable
  – Dependent Variable
  – Control Group
  – Confounding Variable
• Observation
• Conclusion
  – Confirmation or Refutation v. Right or Wrong
               Hypothesis
• Hypo = below
• Thesis = statement of
  belief

• What does the
  hypothesis lack that
  the thesis contains?
Independent Variable
          • The variable that is
            being changed by the
            observer (or being
            changed by outside
            forces)
          • For an experiment to
            be valid, only 1
            variable may be
            changed at a time
         Dependent Variable
• A.K.A. “The results”
• The changes in the
  system produced by
  manipulation of the
  independent variable
              Control Group
• Testing group to
  which no independent
  variable has been
  applied

• If the integrity of the
  control group is
  altered, the validity of
  the dependent
  variables are lost
AZIDOTHYMIDINE
 TYPES OF OBSERVATIONS
• QUANTITATIVE   • QUALITATIVE

                 • Example: researching
                   historical outbreaks of
                   disease
           CONCLUSION
• CAUSAL        • CORRELATION
Pablo Picasso
       • “If We Could Only Pull
         Out Our Brains And
         See Only With Our
         Eyes”
         Werner Heisenberg
• “The very act of
  observing disturbs the
  system”
How Do You Reduce Bias In
  Scientific Observation?
OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT
1776 System Internationale
SI = METRIC SYSTEM
           BASE UNITS
• Length        • Meter

• Mass          • Gram

• Volume        • Liter

• Time          • Second
October 17th, 2028
       Accuracy v. Precision
• Precision               • Accuracy
• Def: Achieves same      • Closest to actual
  result multiple times     value/condition
Range of Acceptable Measurements
                • An observed value is
                  considered “accurate”
                  if it falls within the
                  range of acceptable
                  measurements
                • Ranges vary based on
                  the measurement
                  device
                • RANGE IS
                  DETERMINED AS THE
                  MEASURED VALUE +
                  and – HALF THE
                  SMALLEST
                  INCREMENT ON THE
                  MEASURING DEVICE
         Significant Figures
• You can only estimate
  accuracy to +/- half
  the smallest
  increment

• Round numbers to
  the decimal place
  based on this range
  of accepted measures

				
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