# Sir Francis Bacon

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```					Astrology v. Astronomy
Science v. Pseudoscience
Sir Francis Bacon
Baconian Scientific Methodology
• Hypothesis
• Experimental Design
– Independent Variable
– Dependent Variable
– Control Group
– Confounding Variable
• Observation
• Conclusion
– Confirmation or Refutation v. Right or Wrong
Hypothesis
• Hypo = below
• Thesis = statement of
belief

• What does the
hypothesis lack that
the thesis contains?
Independent Variable
• The variable that is
being changed by the
observer (or being
changed by outside
forces)
• For an experiment to
be valid, only 1
variable may be
changed at a time
Dependent Variable
• A.K.A. “The results”
• The changes in the
system produced by
manipulation of the
independent variable
Control Group
• Testing group to
which no independent
variable has been
applied

• If the integrity of the
control group is
altered, the validity of
the dependent
variables are lost
AZIDOTHYMIDINE
TYPES OF OBSERVATIONS
• QUANTITATIVE   • QUALITATIVE

• Example: researching
historical outbreaks of
disease
CONCLUSION
• CAUSAL        • CORRELATION
Pablo Picasso
• “If We Could Only Pull
Out Our Brains And
See Only With Our
Eyes”
Werner Heisenberg
• “The very act of
observing disturbs the
system”
How Do You Reduce Bias In
Scientific Observation?
OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENT
1776 System Internationale
SI = METRIC SYSTEM
BASE UNITS
• Length        • Meter

• Mass          • Gram

• Volume        • Liter

• Time          • Second
October 17th, 2028
Accuracy v. Precision
• Precision               • Accuracy
• Def: Achieves same      • Closest to actual
result multiple times     value/condition
Range of Acceptable Measurements
• An observed value is
considered “accurate”
if it falls within the
range of acceptable
measurements
• Ranges vary based on
the measurement
device
• RANGE IS
DETERMINED AS THE
MEASURED VALUE +
and – HALF THE
SMALLEST
INCREMENT ON THE
MEASURING DEVICE
Significant Figures
• You can only estimate
accuracy to +/- half
the smallest
increment

• Round numbers to
the decimal place
based on this range
of accepted measures

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 views: 4 posted: 4/22/2012 language: pages: 27