# Chapter 13 Qualitative Data Analysis_1_

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```					 Part Four
Analysis of Data
Chapter 13
Qualitative Data Analysis
Chapter Outline
   Introduction
   Qualitative Data Processing
   Computer Programs for Qualitative Data
   The Qualitative Analysis of Quantitative Data
Qualitative Analysis
   Methods for examining social research
data without converting them to a
numerical format.
 Searches for explanatory patterns.

 Links data collection, analysis and
theory.
Six Ways to Discover
Patterns
1.   Frequencies
2.   Magnitudes
3.   Structures
4.   Processes
5.   Causes
6.   Consequences
Variable-oriented Analysis
   Focus of analysis is on interrelations
among variables and the people observed
would be the carriers of those variables.
Case Oriented Analysis
   Analysis that aims to understand a
particular case or several cases by
looking at the details of each.
Cross-case Analysis
   Analysis that involves an examination of
more than one case, either a variable-
oriented or case-oriented analysis.
Grounded Theory Method
(GMT)
   An inductive approach to research in
which theories are generated solely from
an examination of data rather than being
derived deductively.
Question
   __________________ is an analysis
that aims to understand a particular
case or several cases by looking closely
at the details of each.
A. variable-oriented analysis
B. case-oriented analysis
C. experimentation
D. field research
   Case-oriented analysis is an analysis
that aims to understand a particular case
or several cases by looking closely at the
details of each.
Question
   ___________________ is an inductive
approach to research in which theories are
generated solely from an examination of data
rather than being derived deductively.
A.  cross-case analysis
B.  Grounded Theory Method
C. constant comparative method

D. monitoring studies
   Grounded Theory Method is an
inductive approach to research in which
theories are generated solely from an
examination of data rather than being
derived deductively.
Grounded Theory Method
(GTM)
Four Stages:
 Comparing incidents applicable to each
category.
 Integrating categories and their
properties.
 Delimiting the theory.
 Writing the theory.
Constant Comparative
Method
   Component of the Grounded Theory
Method in which observations are
compared with one another and with the
evolving inductive theory.
Semiotics
   The "science of designs".
   Signs are anything that is assigned a
special meaning.
Matching Signs and
Their Meanings
    Sign                Meaning
1.   Poinsettia      a.   Good luck
2.   Horseshoe       b.   First prize
3.   Blue ribbon     c.   Christmas
4.   “Say cheese”    d.   Acting
5.   “Break a leg”   e.   Smile for a picture.
Conversational Analysis (CA)
   Meticulous analysis of the details of
conversation, based on a complete
transcript hat includes pauses, hems and
also haws,
Conversation Analysis
Fundamental Assumptions:
 Conversation is a socially structured
activity.
 Conversations must be understood
contextually.
 Structure and meaning of conversations
must be transcribed.
Open Coding
   Initial classification and labeling of
concepts in qualitative data analysis.
Codes are suggested by researchers
examination and questioning of the data.
Coding Methods
   Memoing - writing notes about the project.
   Concept mapping - graphically classifying
individual pieces of data.
Question
   The key process in the analysis of
qualitative social research data is
____________.
A. predicting

B. analyzing

C. writing

D. coding
   The key process in the analysis of
qualitative social research data is coding.
Axial Coding
   A reanalysis of the results of open coding
in Grounded Theory Method, aimed at
identifying the important, general
concepts.
Selective Coding
   In Grounded Method Theory, this
analysis builds on the results of open
coding and axial coding to identify the
central concept that organizes the other
concepts that have been identified in a
body of textual materials.
Memoing
   Writing memos that become part of the
data for analysis in qualitative research
such as grounded theory.
   Memos can describe and define
concepts, deal with methodological
issues, or offer initial theoretical
formulations.
Three Kinds of Memos for
GTM
   Code Notes - identify code labels and
their meanings.
   Theoretical Notes - reflect meaning of
concepts and theories.
   Operational Notes -methodological
issues.
Concept Mapping
   Putting concepts in a graphical format.
An Example of Concept
Mapping
Qualitative Analysis
Quick Quiz
1. Methods for examining social research
data without converting them to
numerical format are referred to
as______________________.
A. feminist research

B. quantitative analysis

C. qualitative analysis

D. none of these choices
   Methods for examining social research
data without converting them to
numerical format are referred to as
qualitative analysis.
2. Which of the following are different ways
a researcher may look for patterns in a
particular research topic?
A. frequencies

B. magnitudes

C. structures

D. all of these choices
   A researcher may look for patterns in a
particular research topic in the following
ways: frequencies, magnitudes, and
structures.
3. ______________ is an analysis that
describes and/or explains a particular
variable.
A. variable-oriented analysis

B. case-oriented analysis

C. experimentation

D. field research
   Variable-oriented analysis is an analysis
that describes and/or explains a particular
variable.
4. __________________ is a component of
the GTM in which observations are
compared with one another and with the
evolving inductive theory.
A. cross-case analysis

B. Grounded Theory Method

C. constant comparative method

D. monitoring studies
   Constant comparative method is a
component of the GTM in which
observations are compared with one
another and with the evolving inductive
theory.
5. _________________ is commonly
defined as the science of signs and has
to do with symbols and meanings.
A. kinesics

B. semiotics

C. graphology

D. monitoring
   Semiotics is commonly defined as the
science of signs and has to do with
symbols and meanings.
6. In ____________ coding, codes are
suggested by the researcher’s
examination.
A. open

B. axial

C. selective

D. none of these choices