Chapter 13 Qualitative Data Analysis_1_

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					 Part Four
Analysis of Data
    Chapter 13
Qualitative Data Analysis
Chapter Outline
   Introduction
   Linking Theory and Analysis
   Qualitative Data Processing
   Computer Programs for Qualitative Data
   The Qualitative Analysis of Quantitative Data
Qualitative Analysis
   Methods for examining social research
    data without converting them to a
    numerical format.
      Searches for explanatory patterns.

      Links data collection, analysis and
       theory.
Six Ways to Discover
Patterns
1.   Frequencies
2.   Magnitudes
3.   Structures
4.   Processes
5.   Causes
6.   Consequences
Variable-oriented Analysis
   Focus of analysis is on interrelations
    among variables and the people observed
    would be the carriers of those variables.
Case Oriented Analysis
   Analysis that aims to understand a
    particular case or several cases by
    looking at the details of each.
Cross-case Analysis
   Analysis that involves an examination of
    more than one case, either a variable-
    oriented or case-oriented analysis.
Grounded Theory Method
(GMT)
   An inductive approach to research in
    which theories are generated solely from
    an examination of data rather than being
    derived deductively.
Question
   __________________ is an analysis
    that aims to understand a particular
    case or several cases by looking closely
    at the details of each.
      A. variable-oriented analysis
      B. case-oriented analysis
      C. experimentation
      D. field research
Answer: B
   Case-oriented analysis is an analysis
    that aims to understand a particular case
    or several cases by looking closely at the
    details of each.
Question
   ___________________ is an inductive
    approach to research in which theories are
    generated solely from an examination of data
    rather than being derived deductively.
      A.  cross-case analysis
      B.  Grounded Theory Method
      C. constant comparative method

      D. monitoring studies
Answer: B
   Grounded Theory Method is an
    inductive approach to research in which
    theories are generated solely from an
    examination of data rather than being
    derived deductively.
Grounded Theory Method
(GTM)
Four Stages:
 Comparing incidents applicable to each
  category.
 Integrating categories and their
  properties.
 Delimiting the theory.
 Writing the theory.
Constant Comparative
Method
   Component of the Grounded Theory
    Method in which observations are
    compared with one another and with the
    evolving inductive theory.
Semiotics
   The "science of designs".
   Signs are anything that is assigned a
    special meaning.
Matching Signs and
Their Meanings
    Sign                Meaning
1.   Poinsettia      a.   Good luck
2.   Horseshoe       b.   First prize
3.   Blue ribbon     c.   Christmas
4.   “Say cheese”    d.   Acting
5.   “Break a leg”   e.   Smile for a picture.
Conversational Analysis (CA)
   Meticulous analysis of the details of
    conversation, based on a complete
    transcript hat includes pauses, hems and
    also haws,
Conversation Analysis
Fundamental Assumptions:
 Conversation is a socially structured
  activity.
 Conversations must be understood
  contextually.
 Structure and meaning of conversations
  must be transcribed.
Open Coding
   Initial classification and labeling of
    concepts in qualitative data analysis.
    Codes are suggested by researchers
    examination and questioning of the data.
Coding Methods
   Memoing - writing notes about the project.
   Concept mapping - graphically classifying
    individual pieces of data.
Question
   The key process in the analysis of
    qualitative social research data is
    ____________.
     A. predicting

     B. analyzing

     C. writing

     D. coding
Answer: D
   The key process in the analysis of
    qualitative social research data is coding.
Axial Coding
   A reanalysis of the results of open coding
    in Grounded Theory Method, aimed at
    identifying the important, general
    concepts.
Selective Coding
    In Grounded Method Theory, this
     analysis builds on the results of open
     coding and axial coding to identify the
     central concept that organizes the other
     concepts that have been identified in a
     body of textual materials.
Memoing
   Writing memos that become part of the
    data for analysis in qualitative research
    such as grounded theory.
   Memos can describe and define
    concepts, deal with methodological
    issues, or offer initial theoretical
    formulations.
Three Kinds of Memos for
GTM
   Code Notes - identify code labels and
    their meanings.
   Theoretical Notes - reflect meaning of
    concepts and theories.
   Operational Notes -methodological
    issues.
Concept Mapping
   Putting concepts in a graphical format.
An Example of Concept
Mapping
Using a Spreadsheet for
Qualitative Analysis
Quick Quiz
1. Methods for examining social research
   data without converting them to
   numerical format are referred to
   as______________________.
    A. feminist research

    B. quantitative analysis

    C. qualitative analysis

    D. none of these choices
Answer: C
   Methods for examining social research
    data without converting them to
    numerical format are referred to as
    qualitative analysis.
2. Which of the following are different ways
   a researcher may look for patterns in a
   particular research topic?
     A. frequencies

     B. magnitudes

     C. structures

     D. all of these choices
Answer: D
   A researcher may look for patterns in a
    particular research topic in the following
    ways: frequencies, magnitudes, and
    structures.
3. ______________ is an analysis that
    describes and/or explains a particular
    variable.
     A. variable-oriented analysis

     B. case-oriented analysis

     C. experimentation

     D. field research
Answer: A
   Variable-oriented analysis is an analysis
    that describes and/or explains a particular
    variable.
4. __________________ is a component of
    the GTM in which observations are
    compared with one another and with the
    evolving inductive theory.
      A. cross-case analysis

      B. Grounded Theory Method

      C. constant comparative method

      D. monitoring studies
Answer: C
   Constant comparative method is a
    component of the GTM in which
    observations are compared with one
    another and with the evolving inductive
    theory.
5. _________________ is commonly
   defined as the science of signs and has
   to do with symbols and meanings.
     A. kinesics

     B. semiotics

     C. graphology

     D. monitoring
Answer: B
   Semiotics is commonly defined as the
    science of signs and has to do with
    symbols and meanings.
6. In ____________ coding, codes are
    suggested by the researcher’s
    examination.
      A. open

      B. axial

      C. selective

      D. none of these choices
Answer: A
   In open coding, codes are suggested by
    the researcher’s examination.

				
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