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Political Frame

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					     Political Frame

  Organizations as arenas in
   which different interest
groups compete for power and
       scare resources
 Five propositions summarize the
perspective of the political frame:

  • 1.    Organizations are coalitions of various
    individuals and interest groups.
  • 2.    There are enduring differences among coalition
    members in values, beliefs, information, interests, and
    perceptions of reality.
  • 3.    Most important decisions involve the allocation
    of scarce resources - who gets what.
  • 4.    Scare resources and enduring differences give
    conflict a central role in organizational dynamics and
    make power the most important resource.
  • 5.    Goals and decisions emerge from bargaining,
    negotiation, and jockeying for position among
    different stakeholders.
     Metaphor: The Jungle

• Organizations are coalitions of
  various individuals and interest
  groups which/who compete for
  resources to get things done .
  Similarities Between the
 Jungle and an Organization
• There are            • There are enduring
  different animals in   differences among
  the jungle with        coalition members
  varying and similar    in values, beliefs,
  needs and              information,
  different ways to      interests, and
  satisfy those          perceptions of
  needs.                 reality.
  Similarities Between the
 Jungle and an Organization
• Scarce resources and      • Scarce resources and
  enduring differences        enduring differences
  give conflict a central     give conflict a role in
  role in how animals in      organizational
  the jungle co-habitate,     dynamics and make
  or make power or            power the most
  survival of the fittest     important resource.
  the most important
  resource.
  Similarities Between the
 Jungle and an Organization
• Struggles emerge     • Goals and decisions
  when animals fight     emerge from
  for territory          bargaining,
  among their own        negotiation, and
  species or             jockeying for
  different species      position among
  and for                different
  associations.          stakeholders.
• Politics is too often understood to
  mean amoral, scheming and
  unconcerned about the common good.

    A fixation on politics can become a
     cynical, self-fulfilling prophecy that
     reinforces conflict and mistrust while
     sacrificing opportunities for rational
     discourse, collaboration, and hope
Power is neutral; it is
not of its nature, bad.

A fixation on politics can become a
cynical, self-fulfilling prophecy that
reinforces conflict and mistrust while
sacrificing opportunities for rational
discourse, collaboration, and hope
It’s a capacity to influence
Like water behind a damn: it can destroy
(flood) and/or create energy for life
Only when used has it an ethical
dimension and can it “mean” good or bad.
           Personal Sources
           of Power
                                 Expertise-
           Personal              special
Position   characteristics       skills or
 or                              knowledge
 vested
 power             Holding
                   rewards
                   others want
Political Frame Questions
 1. Are there high levels of ambiguity
  and uncertainty?
 2. Are conflict and scarce resources
  significant?
 3. Are you working from the bottom
  up?

 If the answer is yes, political frame
 analysis may be more helpful than
 others.
Political Frame Questions
4. Are individual commitment and motivation
   essential to success?
5. Is the technical quality of the decision
   important ?

If the answer is no, political frame
analysis may be more helpful than others
         Political Skills
• Agenda setting
• Mapping the political terrain
• Networking and formal coalitions:
  Building bases for support
• Bargaining and negotiating: Learning how
  to manage relations with both allies and
  opponents
• Managing change
     Mapping the Political
           Terrain
• Determine informal channels
• Identify agents of influence
• Analyze the possibilities for both
  internal and external sources of
  influence
• Anticipate the strategies that others
  are likely to employ
  Networking and Building
        Coalitions
• Identify relevant relationships
• Assess who might resist, why, and
  how strongly (where will the
  leadership challenges be)
• Develop, wherever possible,
  relationships with potential opponents
  to facilitate communication,
  education, or negotiation
 Bargaining and Negotiation
   in the Political Frame
• Bargaining is central to all decision making
  in an organization.

• Negotiation is attaining through joint
  action more than you can by acting
  unilaterally whenever two or more parties
  with some common interests are in conflict
  and need to reach an agreement.

• In short, it’s the exploration to find
  shared interests.

				
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posted:4/22/2012
language:English
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