North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

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					          Andrzej Szeptycki




North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
  What is an alliance? (briefly)

• It is not a synonym of „treaty”
• It is not a synonym of „good relations
  or „cooperation” between two states
• It is not a synonym of „international
  organisation”
   What is an alliance? (briefly)
• It is an obligation of mutual help in case of
  agression (casus fœderis)
• „The Parties agree that an armed attack
  against one or more of them shall be
  considered an attack against them all, and
  consequently they agree that, if such an
  armed attack occurs, each of them will
  assist the Party or Parties so attacked”
     Different types of alliances (briefly)

•   Political agreement/politico-military agreement
•   Undefined help/military help
•   Againt a particular state/against any aggressor
•   Geographically restricted/worldwide
•   Defence/agression
          NATO – origins
• Weakness of European powers (Great
  Britain, France, Germany)
• Leading position of United States
• Expansion of communism
• Demobilization of Western powers after
  II WW
           NATO – origins
• 1947
  • Truman doctrine (containement of
    communism)
  • Marshall plan
  • Dunkerque Treaty (France, UK)
• 1948
  • Brussels Treaty (France, UK, Benelux)
  • Vandenberg Resolution
         North Atlantic Treaty
         [vert short treaty ]
• Signed in Washington, 4th Avril 1949
• Signed initially by 12 states
  • 5 members of Western Union (Treaty of
    Brussels)
  • 3 Scandinavian states (Danemark, Norway,
    Island)
  • 2 southern states (Italy, Portugal)
  • 2 American states (US, Canada)
        North Atlantic Treaty
• Aims (preamble)
  • Faith in the purposes and principles of the
  Charter of the United Nations
  • Safeguard the freedom, common heritage
  and civilisation
  •Stability, well-being and preservation of peace
  and security.
  • Collective defence
          North Atlantic Treaty
• Casus fœderis (article 5)
   • „The Parties agree that an armed attack against one
     or more of them in Europe or North America shall be
     considered an attack against them all. [all for one, one
     for all]
   • If such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in
     exercise of the right of individual or collective self-
     defence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the
     United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so
     attacked by taking forthwith, individually, and in
     concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems
     necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore
     and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.”
          North Atlantic Treaty
• Treaty area (art. 6)
   • Territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North
     America, [on the Algerian Departments of France], on
     the territory of Turkey or on the islands under the
     jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic
     area north of the Tropic of Cancer;
   • Forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when
     in or over these territories or any area in Europe in
     which occupation forces of any of the Parties were
     stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force
     or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area
     north of the Tropic of Cancer.
        North Atlantic Treaty
• Auxiliary means (articles 2-3)
  • Developement of peaceful and friendly
    relations between member states. Economic
    cooperation [NATO Economic Committee,
    cooperation with partners]
  • Developement of individual and collective
    defence capacities
• Consultations in case of threat (article 4)
             North Atlantic Treaty
• Membership (article 10)
   • Treaty is open for any European „in a position to further the
       principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the
       North Atlantic area”
   •    No associate members or observers
   •    Leading position of United States
   •    Special policy of France
   •    Full integration of German troops
   •   The case of Island: no military troops, civil representatives in
       military structures
   •   Norway and Danemark: no foreign troops and nuclearch weapons
       in peacetime
                                                  s. 112
         North Atlantic Treaty
•Structure (article 9) – flexible, always
consensus
  • North Atlantic Council (ambasadors, ministers, leaders)
  • Defence Planning Committee
                                                             Civil
  • Nuclear Planning Group
                                                            bodies
  • Secretary General (chairperson of bodies, spokesperson
  of NATO, senior executive officer of International Staff

  • Military Committee (senior military officers)
  • International Military Staff                      Military
  • Strategic Commands (SACEUR/AOC – Mons, Belgium bodies
   3 headquaters (Brunsum, NL, Naples, Lisbon; SACT –
  Norfolk, Virginia, USA)
     NATO during the Cold War
• Principal ennemy: communist bloc
  • 1954 – „massive retaliation”
  • 1967 – „flexible response” and „Harmel doctrine”
• New members:
  • 1952 – Greece and Turkey
  • 1955 – Federal Republic of Germany
  • 1982 – Spain
  NATO and the fall of communism

• Fall of communism seems as a victory of
  the West
• NATO is very popular, especially in the
  East
• Is NATO still necessary?
   • Liberals: No
   • Realists: Yes, if it is able to define new aims
NATO and the fall of communism
• 1989, Brussels – program of unification of
  Europe (disarmament, cooperation etc.)
• 1990, London – common defence and
  partnership with other states as new aims of
  the Alliance
• 1991, Rome – new Strategic Concept
 NATO and the fall of communism

• Strategic Concept (1991):
  • No direct and serious threat; many local,
    indirect threats
  • Dialogue, cooperation and common security as
    main elements of new security policy
  • New strategy: rapid reaction and multinational
    units
       Internal transformation
• Nuclear forces
  • Mainly political role
  • Possibility of use „extremely remote”
  • Significant reductions (INF, START I and II)
• Conventional forces (5,86  4,45 million)
  • Immediate and Rapid Reaction Forces
  • Main Defence Forces
  • Augmentation Forces
       Internal transformation
• Nuclear forces
  • Mainly political role
  • Possibility of use „extremely remote”
  • Significant reductions (INF, START I and II)
• Conventional forces (5,86  4,45 million)
  • Immediate and Rapid Reaction Forces
  • Main Defence Forces
  • Augmentation Forces
                 Enlargement
• 1989, first contacts
• 1990, Paris – NATO-Warsaw Pact declaration on the
  end of the Cold War
• 1991 – creation of the North Atlantic Cooperation
  Council  1997, Euroatlantic Partnership Council
• 1992, first postcommunist countries declare they want
  to join NATO
• 1994, Brussels – Partnership for Peace (cooperation
  „16+1”, no security guarantees, no declaration about
  the enlargement); now 30 members
                                          s. 196
                   Enlargement
• 1995 – United States accept the idea of enlargement
• 1997, Madrid – NATO invites Poland, Czech Republic and
    Hungary
•    1999 – Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary officially
    join NATO
•    2002, Prague – NATO invites 7 other Central and Eastern
    European states
•    2004 – 7 postcommunist states officially join NATO,
    which counts therefore 26 members
•   Current MAP: Croatia, FYROM, Albania (PfP ≠ MAP)
Relations with Eastern and Southern
            neighbours
 • 1994 – 1997 Russia strongly opposes the enlargement of
   NATO
    • Threat to Russia
    • Danger of new Cold War
    • Propositions of reinforcement of CSCE/OSCE
 • 1997, Paris – NATO and Russia sign the Founding Act on
   Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security
    • Creation of NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council
    • Russia does not have a veto over enlargement
 • 1999, Kosovo – problems
 • 2001, fight with terrorism – Russia becomes an important
   partner
Relations with Eastern and Southern
            neighbours
• 1997, Madrid – NATO and Ukraine sign the Charter on a
    Distinctive Partnership
    • NATO reaffirms its support for independence of Ukraine
    • It implicitly promises to help Ukraine in case of danger
    • NATO and Ukraine will cooperate on different levels
•   2000, Kolchuga scandal - problems
•   2002 – Ukraine declares it wants to join NATO
•   2004, Orange revolution
•   2005 – Intensified Dialog Ukraine – NATO
•   2006, Yanukovich suspends accession to NATO
Relations with Eastern and Southern
            neighbours
• 1994, Brussels – Mediterranean Dialogue
  (Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Mauritania, Morocco
  and Tunisia). [NATO+1, NATO+7]
• 1997, Madrid – creation of Mediterranean
  Cooperation Group
• 2004, Istanbul Cooperation Initiative:
  NATO+GCC

                                     s. 136
Relations with Eastern and Southern
            neighbours
• 1999, South East Europe Initiative
  • Albania, Croatia, Moldova, FYROM, Bosnia
    and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro
                                   s. 143
Missions out of area ( ≠ collective defense)
     [article 5 operations ≠ non article 5 operations]

   • 1992
     • NATO declares it is willing to support UN/CSCE
       operations
     • First NATO troops are sent to the Balkans
   • 1994
     • NATO air forces engage Serbs troops in Bosnia (first
       real military action of the Alliance in history)
   • 1995
     • The military engagement of NATO in Bosnia leads to
       peace agreement in Dayton
     • First NATO peace-keeping operation IFOR/SFOR
                                                              s. 149
             Missions out of area
• 1998
   • NATO is highly preoccupied by the situation in Kosovo
   • It warns it will use military force to solve the conflict 1998
• 1999
   • Peace talks in Rambouillet fail
   • NATO launches the operation Allied Force againt Yugoslavia,
     considered as illegal because of lack of approval of the Security
     Council
   • Yugoslavia accepts the peace plan presented by the international
     community
   • Alliance’s Kosovo Force (KFOR) is deployed in Kosovo
• 2001, Macedonia
 „Europeization” of the Alliance
• Origins
  • New problems and threats in Europe
  • Development of European integraion
    (CFSP, political union)
  • Lack of trust in United States (Bosnia)
  • Euroatlantic tensions
 „Europeization” of the Alliance
• Western European Union (Treaty of Brussels)
  • 1987, Hague – Platform on European Security Interests
  • 1991, Rome – NATO accepts the concept of ESDI
  • 1992, Maastricht – WEU is recognised as an „integral
    part of the process of the development” of the European
    Union
  • 1994, Brussels – NATO accepts to provide WEU with
    its assets
  • 1996, Berlin – the concept of „separable but not
    separated assets” is adopted”
 „Europeization” of the Alliance
• European Union
  • 1997, Amsterdam – WEU may be fully incorporated
      into the EU
  •    1998, Saint Malo – France and Great Britain declare,
      that EU needs to develop common defence policy
  •    1999, Koln, Helsinki – EU launches the European
      Security and Defence Policy
  •    2003 – first EU missions in Macedonia and in
      Democratic Republic of Congo
  •    2004 – EU takes over NATO mission in Bosnia
               New problems
•   1999, Washington – what should be the new
    missions of the Alliance?
•   „The United Nations Security Council has the
    primary responsibility for the maintenance of
    international peace and security. (… )
•   NATO recalls its subsequent decisions with
    respect to crisis response operations in the
    Balkans”
•   No revision of the strategic concept since then!
                   New problems
•       2001 – do United States need NATO?
    •     9/11 - terrorist attacks againt WTC and Pentagon
    •     North Atlantic Council invoke article 5 of
          Washington Treaty
    •     United States prefer to fight with terrorism with the
          help of an informal coalition
    •     After the fall of taliban regime NATO peace-keeping
          troops (ISAF) are deployed in Afganistan
                  New problems
•       2003 – does Europe need NATO?
    •     Turkey asks for help fearing an attack from
          the Irak
    •     Countries opposed to the war in Irak (France,
          Germany, Belgium) reject this demand
    •     Credibility of NATO is seriously undermined
          despite the fact that Turkish demand is finally
          accepted
                                                   s. 21
                New priorities
• Prague, November 2002; Istanbul, June 2004
  • Enlargement
  • Reform of civil and military structures (new
    commands)
  • Larger scope of operations (Afganistan 2003, Irak
    2004, Darfour 2005)
  • New capabilities (Prague Capabilities Committment)
  • New relationships (GCC, contact countries – Australia,
    Japan, China, Pakistan)
                     What next?
• Threats to dominant role of NATO
  • North Atlantic Council is more and more considered as
    a discussion forum
  • Problems are solved by great powers (Iran)
  • EU rivalises with NATO
• Threats to cohesion of NATO
  • Differences of capabilities
  • Differences of priorities (collective defense of out of
    area missions)
                What next?
• Other problems
  • No clear relations between aims, instruments
    and results
  • Lack of public support for NATO activities
    (Afganistan)
  • Global partnerships or global membership
    (Japan, Australia etc.)

				
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