MUTATIONS

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					MUTATIONS
 Changes in DNA that affect genetic
 information
  Mutations
 A change in the order of the nucleotide bases in
  DNA is a mutation
 It can change the type of proteins a cell
  produces

                                     No freckles



                                     Freckles
  Gene Mutations

 Point Mutations – changes in one
  or a few nucleotides
   Substitution
      THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
      THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT


     THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
     THE BAT CAT ATE THE RAT
Gene Mutations
 Frameshift Mutations – shifts the LETTERS of the
  genetic message so that the protein may not be
  able to perform its function.
    Insertion
       THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
       THE FAT HCA TAT ETH ERA T

   Deletion
      THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT
               H
      TEF ATC ATA TET GER AT

       H
Insertion
Deletion
Chromosomal Mutations

  Changes in number and structure of
   entire chromosomes
Chromosome Mutations
 Deletion- loss of part or all of
  chromosome.
 Duplication –extra copies or parts of
  chromosome.
 Inversion-reverse direction of
  chromosome.
 Translocation – occurs when chromosome
  breaks and attaches to another
  chromosome.
Types of Chromosomal
Mutation: Deletion
                   Original
                   ABC * DEF
                   ABC *
                           DEF
Chromosome 5 Deletion:
Cri du Chat Syndrome
Types of Chromosomal
Mutation: Duplication
                    Original
                    ABC * DEF
                   ABBC * DEF
Types of Chromosomal
Mutation: Translocation
                     Original
                     ABC * DEF
                     GHI*JKL


                    ABC * JKL

                    GHI * DEF
Chromosome 21
Duplication & Translocation:
Down Syndrome
Types of Chromosomal
Mutation: Inversion




      Original    AED * CBF
      ABC * DEF
  Significance of Mutations
• Most are neutral
  • Eye color
  • Birth marks
• Some are harmful
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Down Syndrome
• Some are beneficial
  • Sickle Cell Anemia gives resistance to
    Malaria
  • Immunity to HIV
What Causes
Mutations?
 Mutations can be inherited.
   Parent to child
 Mutations can be acquired.
   Environmental damage
   Mistakes when DNA is copied

				
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posted:4/21/2012
language:English
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