Endocrine System Hormones and Disorders Chart 2011Key

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Endocrine System Hormones and Disorders Chart 2011Key Powered By Docstoc
					                               Biology 30 – Big Bad Chart of Endocrine Hormones
Name: ________________________                                             Date: ___________________

Complete the missing information for each hormone below.
Mechanism of action refers to how the hormone acts at the cellular/ molecular level in the target cell. Be specific.

   Hormone           Endocrine       Stimulus for release       Target and mechanism of             Diseases and Disorders
                  Gland (Where                                       action (effect)
                         is it
TSH               Anterior              low levels of        Target: thyroid gland             TSH deficiency leads to
                  pituitary              thyroid hormones     Effect: stimulates the thyroid    decreased thyroid hormones – can
                                         (T4 and T3)          gland to secrete T4 (thyroxine)   be life threatening
                                        hypothalamus         and T3 to increase metabolism
                                         releases TRF
                                         Releasing Factor)
                                         to stimulate TSH
                                         release by
FSH - female      Anterior              negative feedback    Target: follicle                    Lack of GnRH or FSH will
                  pituitary              from estrogen and    Effect: stimulates the follicle      lead to infertility/ patient
                                         progesterone         to grow and secrete estrogen         not maturing into puberty,
                                        positive feedback                                         etc. – headache, visual
                                         from estrogen                                             disturbances,
                                         mid-cycle                                                 hypogonadism
                                        hypothalamic                                             increased FSH can lead to
                                         release of GnRH                                            ovarian failure
FSH – male    Anterior       negative            Target: Seminiferous tubules            lack of GnRH or FSH will
              pituitary       feedback from       and Sertoli cells                        lead to infertility/ patient
                              inhibin (released   Effect: production of sperm              not maturing into puberty,
                              from testes) –      and inhibin in the testes                etc. – headache, visual
                              inhibits FSH                                                 disturbances,
                              release!                                                     hypogonadism
                             stimulation by
                              release of GnRH
LH – female   Anterior       negative            Target: Ovary; corpus luteum           tumour, infection,
              pituitary       feedback from       Effect: stimulates ovulation in         inflammation or injury
                              estrogen and        females mid-cycle (day 14);            lack of GnRH or FSH will
                              progesterone        stimulates the corpus luteum to         lead to infertility/ patient
                             positive            produce hormones (E + P)                not maturing into puberty,
                              feedback from       post-ovulation                          etc. – headache, visual
                              estrogen mid-                                               disturbances,
                              cycle                                                       hypogonadism
                             hypothalamic
                              release of GnRH
LH (ICSH) –   Anterior       negative            Target: Interstitial cells of the      tumour, infection,
male          pituitary       feedback from       testes                                  inflammation or injury
                              high levels of      Effect: stimulates the                 lack of GnRH or FSH will
                              testosterone        production of testosterone              lead to infertility/ patient
                             hypothalamic                                                not maturing into puberty,
                              release of GnRH                                             etc. – headache, visual
                              (Gonadotropin                                               disturbances,
                              Releasing                                                   hypogonadism
   Hormone         Where is it     Stimulus for release     Target and mechanism of            Diseases and Disorders
                   produced?                                         action
Glucagon         Pancreas (alpha      low blood sugar    Target:                              too high glucagon =
                 cells)                                     Liver                              hypoglycemia
                                                                                               too low glucagon =
                                                          Effect:                               hyperglycemia
                                                            Converts glycogen into
                                                               glucose; increases blood
                                                               sugar levels
Cortisol         Adrenal Cortex       ACTH (anterior     Target:                             Adrenal Insufficiency
                                       pituitary)          Liver                              (Addison’s Disease) – lack of
                                                          Effect:                              cortisol (and aldosterone)
                                      Stress              Promotes the conversion of         from adrenal gland –
                                                                                               autoimmune – chronic
                                                              amino acids into glucose;
                                                                                               fatigue, muscle weakness,
                                                              increases blood glucose          loss of appetite, weight loss, ↓
                                                              levels                           BP (fainting, etc.), can lead to
                                                                                               death because of severe
                                                                                               electrolyte imbalance (within
                                                                                              prolonged/ chronic stress –
                                                                                               high levels of cortisol – heart
                                                                                               damage, ↑ BP, diabetes, early
hGH                                   Sleep, exercise    Target: Body cells                  too little hGH in childhood =
(somatotropin)                        Hypothalamus:      Effect: Regulates cell division,     dwarfism – small stature, no
                                       releasing          growth of long bones and             problems with mental or
                                       hormone            muscles                              sexual development
                                                                                              too much hGH in childhood =
                                                                                               gigantism – tall stature, long
                                                                                               arms and legs
                                                                                          too much hGH in adulthood
                                                                                           = acromegaly – bones can
                                                                                           no longer increase in length
                                                                                           so bones and soft tissues
                                                                                           widen – enlarged feet,
                                                                                           hands, coarse (masculine)
                                                                                           facial features, other
                                                                                           physical problems like
                                                                                           enlarged heart, liver,
                                                                                           kidneys, etc.

Testosterone   Testes          Lutenizing Hormone     Target: Entire body                 Decreased testosterone:
               (interstitial   (LH) from the          Effect: Stimulates the               decreased libido, impotence,
               cells)          anterior pituitary     development of the male              regression of secondary sex
                                                      reproductive tract and               characteristics (growth and
                                                      secondary sex characteristics        maturation of penis +
                                                                                           scrotum, distribution of hair,
                                                                                           increased muscle mass, etc.),
                                                                                           fatigue, loss of energy, etc.
                                                                                          increased testosterone (i.e.,
                                                                                           steroid abuse) – ‘roid rage,
                                                                                           shrinking testicles, low
                                                                                           sperm count, loss of body
                                                                                           hair, man-boobs, etc.
  Hormone        Where is it   Stimulus for release     Target and mechanism of           Diseases and Disorders
                  produced?                                       action
Oxytocin       Hypothalamus       Child labour:      Target: uterus                  Deficiency rarely causes
               and stored in       pressure on the             mammary glands         clinical problems
               the posterior       cervix             Effect: smooth muscle
               pituitary          Breastfeeding      contractions of the uterus;
                                   (suckling action   release of milk from the
                                   of infant)         mammary glands
Progesterone   Ovary (corpus       LH                     Target: Uterus                  Infertility
               luteum)                                     Effect: causes thickening and
                                                           vascularization of the
                                                           endometrium; prevents uterine
Estrogen       Ovaries             FSH stimulates         Target: entire body                low estrogen levels can lead
               (follicles or        follicles to release   Effect: stimulates the              to irregular periods or
               corpus luteum)       estrogen (pre-         development of the female           amenorrhea, infertility,
                                    ovulation)             reproductive tract and female       decreased libido, etc. –
                                   LH stimulates the      secondary sex characteristics       replace estrogen will pills or
                                    corpus luteum to                                           patch (HRT = hormone
                                                           stimulates the lining of the
                                    release E + P post-                                        replacement therapy)
                                    ovulation                                                 menopause = decreased
                                                                                               estrogen levels, end of
                                                                                               menstrual cycles, hot flashes,
                                                                                               rising cholesterol, decreased
                                                                                               bone mass, ↑ risk of heart
                                                                                               disease and some cancers
                                                                                              high estrogen – menstrual
Thyroxine      Thyroid gland       TRF from the           Target: Body cells                 low thyroxine in childhood =
                                    hypothalamus           Effect: Controls the rate of        cretinism – short stature,
                                   TSH from the           cellular respiration                overweight, metal
                                    anterior pituitary     (metabolism); plays an              developmental delays
                                                           important role in the growth       low thyroxine as adults =
                                                           and development of children         Hypothyroidism – slow
                                                                                               pulse, puffy skin, weight
                                                                                               gain, hair loss, slow
                                                                                               metabolism, cold intolerance,
                                                                                               sluggish thought processes
                                                                                              Graves’ disease =
                                                                                               Hyperthyroidism (in
                                                                                               adulthood) – body’s immune
                                                                                     system attacks thyroid gland
                                                                                     – anxiety, insomnia, heat
                                                                                     intolerance, irregular
                                                                                     heartbeat, weight loss,
                                                                                     exopthalmus  can remove
                                                                                     part of thyroid gland or treat
                                                                                     with meds
                                                                                    lack of iodine = goitre
                                                                                     swollen thyroid gland – TSH
                                                                                     still stimulates thyroid but it
                                                                                     cannot make T3/T4 so swells
                                                                                     up (Rx: add iodine to diet –
                                                                                     salt, canned goods, etc.)

Calcitonin   Thyroid gland   high blood calcium   Target: Bones, kidneys and        lack of calcitonin may
                             levels               intestines                         contribute to osteoporosis
                                                  Effect: bones absorb calcium       (linked to estrogen decline in
                                                  from bloodstream; decreased        post-menopausal women, but
                                                  absorption of calcium in the       men can get osteoporosis too)
                                                  intestines and kidneys
  Hormone        Where is it   Stimulus for release     Target and mechanism of         Diseases and Disorders
                 produced?                                         action
PTH            Parathyroid     Low blood calcium      Target: Bones, kidneys and       high PTH can lead to
(Parathyroid   glands          levels                 intestines                        osteoporosis - risk of
hormone)                                              Effect: Breakdown of bones to     fractures, compression of
                                                      release calcium into the blood;   spine, etc.
                                                      reabsorption of calcium in the   low PTH also means low vit.
                                                      kidney; increased absorption of   D, which can lead to rickets
                                                                                        (improper bone formation,
                                                      calcium from intestine
                                                                                           bow legs, etc.)
                                                                                       low PTH can also result in muscle
Epinephrine    Adrenal gland      Nervous system     Target: lungs, heart, blood       adrenal gland tumour can lead
(Adrenaline)   (medulla)          Stress             vessels, liver, pupils               to ↑ nor/ epinephrine
                                                      Effect: increased breathing          production =
                                                      rate; increased heart rate;          pheochromocytoma –
                                                      increased blood pressure;            increased HR, high appetite
                                                                                           but no weight gain, heart
                                                      increased conversion of
                                                                                           palpitations, nausea +
                                                      glycogen into glucose; pupils        vomiting, etc. – treatment:
                                                      dilate                               surgery = remove tumour
Aldosterone    Adrenal gland                         Target: Kidney                     Adrenal Insufficiency
               (cortex)                               Effect: Stimulates the nephron        (Addison’s Disease) – lack
                                                      to increase the absorption of         of cortisol (and aldosterone)
                                                      sodium, increasing the blood          from adrenal gland –
                                                      pressure                              autoimmune – chronic
                                                                                            fatigue, muscle weakness,
                                                                                            loss of appetite, weight loss,
                                                                                            ↓ BP (fainting, etc.), can
                                                                                            lead to death because of
                                                                                            severe electrolyte imbalance
                                                                                            (within days)
Hormone   Where is it      Stimulus for release     Target and mechanism of            Diseases and Disorders
          produced?                                 action
Insulin   Pancreas (beta      high blood sugar     Target: body cells and liver      decreased insulin = diabetes
          cells)               levels (e.g. after   Effect: body cells become          mellitus – high blood
                               a meal)              more permeable to glucose;         glucose levels
                                                    liver converts glucose to          (hyperglycemia)
                                                    glycogen. As a result blood       IDDM (insulin-dependent) –
                                                    glucose levels decrease            Type 1 – (juvenile diabetes)
                                                                                       pancreas can’t produce
                                                                                       insulin, must take insulin
                                                                                       shots to live
                                                                                      cells cannot use glucose for
                                                                                       energy therefore must turn to
                                                                                       other energy sources, such as
                                                                                       fat and protein, thus body
                                                                                       breaks down stored fat
                                                                                       (ketoacidosis is the smell of
                                                                                       acetone, a fat breakdown
                                                                                       product, on the breath) and
                                                                                       will lose weight as fat/
                                                                                       protein (muscle mass)
                                                                                       broken down
                                                                                           - increased urination
                                                                                           (volume and frequency),
                                                                                           sugar in blood and urine,
                                                                                           dehydrated, tired, thirsty,
                                                                                      has many complications in
                                                                                       the body, including
                                                                                       neuropathy (neurons
                                                                                       degenerate), blindness,
                                                                                       kidney failure, may result in
                                                                                       limb amputation, etc.
                                                                                           - new treatments: islet
       cell transplants, stem
   non-IDDM (non-insulin-
    dependent) – Type 2 – (adult
    onset) due to autoimmune or
    cells not responding to
       - must be controlled with
       diet, exercise, oral drugs
       called sulfonamides
       - obesity predisposes you
       to non-IDDM
       - insulin shots do not
       work as treatment
       - same S&S
   gestational diabetes – occurs
    in pregnancy (rare 2-4%)
   too low insulin =
   Hormone            Where is it      Stimulus for release     Target and mechanism of                  Diseases and Disorders
                      produced?                                          action
Prostaglandins         act on cells   cell damage            Target: Most body cells                    menstrual cramps:
                        that produce                                                                      prostaglandins released from
                        them in                               Effect:                                     uterine muscle contractions
                        response to                           stimulate inflammation at the               during menstruation – may
                        cell damage                           damage site, increase blood flow,           be relieved by aspirin
                                                              stimulate platelets to form clots in        (blocks enzymes involved in
                                                              damaged blood vessels, fever,               prostaglandin production)
                                                              pain perception
ADH              Produced in the          dehydration/       Target: Kidneys – distal                   diabetes insipidus lack of
(Antidiuretic    Hypothalamus              increased          tubule and collecting ducts                 ADH – person produces
Hormone)         Stored and                osmolarity of                                                  LARGE volumes of dilute
                 secreted from             blood (blood too   Effect: Increases permeability              urine (normal= 2 L; disease
                 the posterior             concentrated –     of nephron to water – more                  = 20-25 L), becomes
                                                                                                          dehydrated (loses ions from
                 pituitary                 high ion/mineral   water reabsorbed back into
                                                                                                          blood too) – treatment:
                                           content)           bloodstream – body excretes                 replace ADH (nasal spray,
                                                              less (but more concentrated)                tablet, injection)
                                                              urine, BP increases (effect on
                                                              blood vessels =
Prolactin        Anterior                 inhibited by high Target: mammary glands                      tumour can lead to milk
                 pituitary                 levels of E + P   Effect: stimulates milk                      production in females that are
                                                             production                                   not mothers = prolactinoma 
                                           during                                                         irregular menstrual periods or
                                           pregnancy                                                      amenorrhea, milky discharge
                                          after giving                                                   from breasts, but still fertile
                                           birth, the mother                                              (can ovulate) – can also occur
                                           produces and                                                   in MEN! (suppresses LH and
                                                                                                          FSH therefore they lose their
                                           secretes                                                       sex drive, masculinity, become
                                           prolactin                                                      infertile, etc.)
ACTH   Anterior       negative            Target: Adrenal cortex               excess ACTH production
       pituitary       feedback from                                             leads to increased cortisol
                       high levels of      Effect: stimulates the adrenal        levels – a disease called
                       adrenal cortex      cortex to secrete                     Cushing’s Syndrome
                       hormones            glucocorticoids (cortisol) and        (weight gain, moon face,
                      hypothalamic        mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)       “buffalo hump” on back
                       release of CRF                                            of neck, excess hair
                       (Corticotropin                                            growth, loss of muscle
                       Releasing                                                 mass, infertility, etc.)
                       Factor) stimulate
                       ACTH release

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