What is PC? Unit One English Usage Text 1 “Political Correctness” Bill Bryson What is wrong with the following expressions? 女人真是头发长见识短。 真是个民工！ 黑鬼。 真是个侏儒！ bias prejudice Discrimination Contempt Political correctness: the avoidance of forms of expression or actions that exclude, make little of, or insult certain racial, cultural, or other groups. Video Eg. For the sake of political correctness, let’s change the word “spinster” into “single woman”. For the sake of culture sensitivity, let’s address that black as an Afro-American. political correctness covers a wide area in the use of language and concepts and is most evidently at work in a multicultural society. The concept of political correctness may have evolved from the idea of democracy and equality: all human beings, regardless of their gender, color or faith, whether they are unborn babies, lawful citizens or convicted criminals, have inalienable human rights, should be treated equally, and should not be discriminated against in any form. A sound concept originally, political correctness has been abused by various extremists(individuals and groups)--- as they have done with many other good concepts( women’s liberation, human rights, to name a few)--- to such an extent that the concepts are less respectable and credible than they used to be. What is euphemism? euphemism: a pleasanter, less direct word used instead of one thought to be unpleasant. The term early retirement is nearly always a euphemism for forced unemployment. Other examples of euphemism: dead -departed; to die；to have passed away/gone away/ gone to her/his reward To urinate- to pass /make water Introduction excerpt (n/ v) :a short part taken from a speech, book, film, etc. bestseller hit parade tackle: to take action in order to deal with balanced: fair, just, reasonable a balanced judgment a well-balanced article a well-balanced meal/diet a well-balanced individual sarcastic (adj): saying things that clearly mean the opposite of what is felt, especially in order to be unkind or offensive in an amusing way Eg. She has a sarcastic tongue (she is very sarcastic). sarcasm: “you have been working very hard”, he said with heavy/ biting sarcasm as he looked at the empty page. ironic: poignantly contrary to what was unexpected or intended（irony） Sarcastic suggests sharp taunting and ridicule that wounds表示苟刻伤人的讽刺和嘲笑： “a deserved reputation for sarcastic, acerbic and uninhibited polemics” (Burke Marshall). “他的臭名应该得到极为讽刺的、尖酸的和无限制的攻击” （伯克·马歇尔）。 Ironic implies a subtler form of mockery in which an intended meaning is conveyed obliquely意味着一种微妙的间接表达出来的讽刺： “a man of eccentric charm, ironic humor, and—above all—profound literary genius” (Jonathan Kirsch). “一个具有奇妙魔力、讽刺性幽默以及—特别是—高深的文学天份的人” （乔纳森·基尔 希）。 excessive (adj) : too much; too great; going beyond what is reasonable or right.( excess .n /excessively. adv) run counter to: to be the opposite of; to conflict with discourse: connected language in speech or writing as (conj) : in the way that someone says or that something happens, or in the condition something is in The hotel is quite comfortable as such establishments go. 就设备而言，这个旅馆相 当舒适。 She was late as usual (=in the way that she usually was). The sun is hot, as everyone knows. She is tall, as is her mother. As（ relative pronoun): It introduces an attributive clause, and the precedent may be a word, a phrase, or a sentence. She is late, as is often the case.她迟到了，这是经常的事。(先行词是整个主句) As is often the case with children, …… As can be seen in the text, his sarcastic ….does not run counter to his support…. A: his sarcastic treatment to excessive PC; B: his support for respectability in discourse; C: A and B don’t run counter to each other; D: this can be seen in the text. respectability: the quality, state, or characteristic of being respectable or being socially acceptable. respectable: (of person) of good character and good social position deserving respect (contemptible) respectful: showing respect. respective: belonging to each of those in question. Fill in blanks with respective, respectable, respectful: It is hardly ______ to attend a funeral in heavy make-up. When the professor entered the auditorium, everyone stood up and kept a ______ distance. Earning a ______ income is everyone’s dream. Candidates will be elected for the committee according to their ______ strengths. Paragraph 1. Question How does the author introduce the topic of this essay? Question What is wrong with the original translation of Maryland’s state motto? The original motto suggests a preference for males and a bias against females; it implies that manly deeds are righteous and desirable whereas womanly words are cowardly and unpleasant. The new translation is accepted by all because it successfully avoids gender-related over-generalization. Question Why is everyone satisfied with the altered version? Paragraph 1 fatuous: very silly without seeming to know it. sexist (derog): showing the belief that one sex is not as good as the other, especially, when this results in unfair treatment of women by men. motto: (~s/es) a short sentence or phrase that expresses a principle of good or correct behavior. Memo (Memorandum) MoU manly: having the qualities which people think a man should have (feminine) emboss: to decorate (metal, paper, leather, etc.) with (a raised pattern) stationery: materials for writing; paper, ink, pencils, etc. stationary: standing still, not moving engrave: to cut (words, pictures, etc.) on (wood, stone, or mental) legislator: a person who is involved in making or passing laws( legislation, legislate) hit on/upon: to find by lucky chance or have a good idea about (hit/hit) Compare: emboss/ engrave The mayor’s tombstone was _____ with a memorial remark. The coins are _____with letters and figures. ingenious: (of people) showing cleverness or skill; (of things) skillfully made (ingenuity) ingenuous: inexperienced, simple, trusting and honest (ingenuousness) Fill in blanks: He is so ______; he can make the most remarkable sculptures from the most ordinary material. I don’t think she lied at all. I believe she is an ______ person. compromise： A settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions. rather than: （prep） in preference to sb/sth; instead of (Oxford) be to do sth: will do sth. This structure is used to talk about planned arrangements or indicate duty, necessity, etc. Everyone went to bed happy. Everyone is satisfied with the translation and can go to sleep with peace of mind. Paragraph 2. would that: (fml. or lit) (expressing a strong wish) if only would introduces a subjunctive that-clause to express an unfulfilled wish or a desired condition. Would that we had seen her before she left. Would that I came to last week’s lecture! Exercise II: Translation Transitional sentence/word/phrase sensitive: Responsive to external conditions or stimulation, to the attitudes, feelings, or circumstances of others. sensitivity: quality of being sensitive/ sensitive/insensitive/sensitize.( 敏感, 灵敏) Due to the obvious sensitivity of the issue the police would not reveal any details about the suspect. John, shortly built, is very sensitive about his height. all issues of sensitivity: matters that need to be dealt with carefully because they are likely to cause disagreement, embarrassment, or anger . sensible (adj): having or showing good sense; reasonable; practical sensibility: power of feeling (esp. power of receiving or feeling delicate emotional impressions) Artistic sensibility is essential for all artists. 鉴赏力 Sense and sensibility Fill in blanks: He was very _____ about his scar and thought everyone was staring at him. Extreme fatigue has rendered him ______ to hunger. He didn’t appear to be very ______ of the difficulty that lay ahead. Everyone with taste and ______ would buy the book. Negative word+ words in comparative degree/negative words +so …as: This structure indicates a superlative degree. Nothing is so easy as this. Nothing is easier than this. = This is the easiest thing. Paraphrase: If only all sensitive problems concerning the use of language could be solved as easily as the legislators in Maryland solved the problems of the motto by providing it with a new translation. Unfortunately, other problems will not be so easily resolved. polarity: the state of having or developing two opposite qualities (pole/ polar) a polarity exists between the opinions of the government and those of the trade unions. pole: either of two completely opposite or different opinion。 poles apart polar: polar distance; polar diameter.极距；两极的直径 polar region all-embracing: including or covering everything all-: (prefix) consisting or made only of: all-male club an all-wool dress for the whole of: an all-day event an all-night cafe having all the stated qualities: all covering coin: To devise (a new word or phrase) (coinage. n.) coin a new word coin a phrase inescapably: in a way that is impossible to avoid (inescapable) inescapable responsibilities Your son was the only person there when the theft happened, so the inescapable inference is that he stole the money. …., But not until about 1990 did it…..(inverted sentence) take on sth: to assume, or to put on (a quality, a certain appearance) Once cooked, the shrimp will take on a shade of red. A chameleon takes on the color of its surroundings. pejorative (adj): (fml) (of a word, phrase, etc.) expressing disapproval or suggesting that someone or something is of little value or importance devote … to …: Devote is a verb that tells us what we do and at what level we do it. How much of our time are we willing to devote to this project? I'm willing to devote all of my time to help you to learn English. acres of space : (hyperbole )A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect, as in I could sleep for a year or This book weighs a ton. refer to Exe 111(p18) range from …to: (not in progressive forms) to vary between limits; reach from one limit to another. for the most part: on the whole; usually; mostly Japanese TV sets are, for the most part of excellent quality. derisive: of noise, expressions, or remarks that express contempt The speaker’s remarks were greeted with bursts of derisive laughter. deride (v): laugh at I was derided for making such a stupid suggestion/ decision. deride a person‘s ignorance antagonistic: (of a person) being opposed to another, esp. actively (antagonist: opponent) He is extremely antagonistic towards all critics. (show unwillingness and opposition) The antagonists in this dispute are quite unwilling to compromise. What did Henry Beard and Christopher Cerf do? Paragraph 3 distill down to(vi) : to boil down to; to be able to be summarized as This long article can be distilled down to the writer’s general distrust of globalization. distill sth from sth: draw or derive sth from sth useful advice distilled from a lifetime’s experience Pure water and salt can be distilled from salt water. Shanghai (vt): (infml) to trick or force someone into doing something unwillingly We were shanghaied into agreeing to their demands. Taken from Franklin Roosevelt's 1941 speech to Congress, the "Four Freedoms“: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from fear. The Bill of Rights 1791: Amendments 1-10 of the Constitution ... or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. ... Compare: valued/ valuable burden sb with sth: give sb a heavy load of sth burden a horse with a load ludicrously: in a way that is so foolish as to cause or deserve disrespectful laughter (ludicrous: ridiculous, causing laughter) The Milan Fashion Show saw many models dress ludicrously. sanitize (vt): to make completely clean and free from bacteria This lavatory has been sanitized for your protection. (derog) to make less unpleasant, dangerous, strongly expressed, etc, in order not to offend people (sanitary, adj, sanitation, n) Some acts of genocide have been sanitized by calling them 'war', including the aerial bombardment of civilians. The military wants to allow only a sanitized report/version of the incident to become public. Censorship Poor sanitary conditions keep potential tourists from visiting China. The city government ought to spend more on public sanitation. civilized: if a society or country is civilized, it has a highly developed system of government, culture, way of life. The terrorist attack on September 11th has shocked the civilized world. If a person or their behavior is civilized, they are polite and behave in a reasonable way. I had a civilized conversation with your mother. neologism: a new word or expression, or a new meaning to an older word. neologism. The neologism Dinks stands for Double Income No Kids. make capital out of : to use to one’s advantage, use sth to obtain an advantage for yourself. The opposition parties are sure to make political capital out of the government’s difficulties. absurdity: something that is against reason or common sense; something that is clearly false or foolish (absurd/absurdly) The absurdity of this evening party invited heated discussion. satirical: having the quality of showing the foolishness or bad effect of some person, organization or practice in an amusing way. (satirize/ satire) Sanitize /satirize His book ______ small-town politics. Wearing a police uniform did not ______ a working man from ungodly ways. design：to intend This dictionary is designed for advanced learners of English. These measures are designed to reduce pollution. free of /from: He dedicated his life to freeing the world from famine and disease. taint: trace of some bad quality, decay or infection. Is this beef free from taint? bias: tendency to be in favor of or against sth or sb without knowing enough to be able to judge fairly; prejudice When eating out, I have a bias towards fish and shrimp. hirsute: (fml. tech.)(of a man) hairy in a different way. custody: the state of being guarded, esp. by the police. took the robbery suspect into custody. suite: a complete set of rooms including a bedroom, living room and a bathroom, esp. in a hotel custody suite: prison cell, usu. small and for one-person only. inconvenienced: being in a state of difficulty, discomfort or annoyance. inconvenience: To cause inconvenience to; trouble: (inconvenienced， inconveniencing， inconveniences) The snow inconvenienced the holiday travelers. It often causes a lot of inconvenience when buses come late. chemically inconvenienced: (for sb)in an uncomfortable or difficult state because of chemicals intoxicated: (tech.) (to be) drunk (intoxicate) (v); (intoxication). The audience was utterly intoxicated by the singer’s beautiful voice. Alcohol and love intoxicate, so does flattery. Success intoxicated him. He was intoxicated by success. alternative: different from what is usual (a/n). It is always nice to have an alternative. I’m afraid I have no alternative but to ask you to leave( that is what I have to do). dentation: the state of having teeth alternative dentation: sth that is used to replace a tooth or teeth. carrier (n.): a person who carries things make up： 1）to prepare or arrange sth by putting different things together Could you make up a list of all the things that need to be done? 2）to apply cosmetics 3）to devise as a fiction or falsehood; invent trouble to do sth: to take pains They trouble over every detail. scan: to look at quickly, without careful reading, often looking for a particular thing. (scanner) terminology: (a system of) specialized words and expressions used in a particular science, profession, activity, etc. medical terminology/ linguistic terminology Paragraph 4. if :(used before adj to introduce a contrast) although It was thoughtless if well-meaning.用意虽好，考虑欠周。 He’s a real gentleman, if a little arrogant at times. if anything: (used to express a tentative opinion or after a negative statement to say that the opposite is true.) If anything definite can be said, this is it. 若能有把握地说出来，其实是这样的。 I’d say he was more like his father, if anything. 若非要说出来像谁不可，我倒 认为他略象他父亲。 He is not thin---- if anything he’s rather on the plump side.他可不瘦， 按说还 有点胖。 fundamentally: in every way that really matters or is important (fundamental, adj /n)（compare with foundation) adv. Although a few of your facts aren’t right, your answer is fundamentally correct. She is fundamentally unsuited for office work. There’s a ______ difference in attitude between those two politicians. A good daily routine will lay a solid ______ for a disciplined life. If the boys are going to camp for 10 days, they will need to know the _____s of cooking. excuse: to forgive sb Please excuse me for arriving late. The bus was delayed. You must excuse me from the rest of the meeting as I’ve just received a telephone call which requires my immediate attention. pointless: (often derog) meaningless; useless, without purpose, sth that it is a waste of time doing it. As there is no audience, it would be pointless to perform the play. It’s pointless to try to negotiate with them because they will never change their minds. entry: a piece of information that is written or included in a list, a book, etc.(条目) She made an entry in her diary to remind herself of the meeting. entrance: A means or place by which to enter. (exit) pick up: To acquire (knowledge) by learning or experience pick up French very quickly transmit (vt): to send or pass from one person, place or thing to another (transmission, transmitter, 传送者，发报机，话筒) He transmitted his keen enjoyment of singing to the audience. gospel: the Gospel means the first four books of the New Testament containing the teaching of Jesus Christ;( fig. And in lower case) sth that is believed to be true, doctrine What I told you about doing business is gospel. The gospel of individualism is that one’s own will alone determines one’s action. NT: four gospels (Matthew马太福音, Mark马可福音, Luke路加福音, John约翰福音) and Acts(使徒行传) refer to: mention or speak of sb/sth (reference); concern sb or sth. (referred, referring) Don’t refer to this matter again, please. grotesque: strange and unnatural so as to cause fear, disbelief or argument a grotesque appearance grotesque manners concoct: to making sth by mixing or combining parts; To devise, using skill and intelligence John concocted an elaborate excuse for being late. curious: strange and unexpected, (peculiar) A curious thing happened to me yesterday. How curious! When I went to the door, no one was there. padding: material that is used to make (a sentence, speech, story, etc) longer by adding unnecessary words or sentences.填料 These are the kind of phrases that politician put in their speeches for a bit of padding. involuntarily: (made or done) without conscious effort or intention Involuntary/ voluntary/voluntarily/ volunteer (n/v) Another surge of pain in my ankle caused me to give an involuntary shudder. Various local authorities and voluntary organizations run workshops for the disabled.(非官办，自愿的) The basketball player claimed that he would only leave voluntarily if there was a big chance to play abroad. She now helps as a volunteer in a local school three days a week. He volunteered for the army in 1939. domiciled: (fml or law) having one’s official place of residence.(定 居的，指定地点的) Frank is presently domiciled in Berlin. involuntarily domiciled: living in a place not out of one’s own choice. vocally: involving the use of the human voice, esp. in singing. (vocal/vocalist/vocalize) challenged: (AmE. Politically correct euph.) disabled, esp. in the stated way. vocally challenged: disabled in voice, mute Similar expressions； visually challenged: disabled in eyesight, poor in eyesight, blind vertically challenged: disabled in height, short Intellectually challenged: disabled in intellect, stupid musically challenged: playing badly, out of tune Academically challenged: having problem in learning academic subjects Paragraph 5. genuine: real, not false This suitcase was made of genuine leather. Do you think you can ever trust a salesperson to be genuine ?(of person) honest, sincere. contrive: devise; to invent or fabricate contrive ways to amuse the children He contrived a new machine for flying. How could you contrive to make such a mess of things? contrived: unnatural and forced I quite like the story, but the ending is rather contrived. justify: to prove to be just, right, or valid (vt); justification (n.) It’s pointless to reason with Mike, he always justifies his conduct. The teacher demands justification from all absent last week. justifiable: right, reasonable or just; that can be justified. Many analysts assert that the violence of the revolutionary years was justifiable on the grounds of political necessity. A justifiable explanation, action, use of homicide, (killing in self-defense) grounds: [ plural] a good reason for doing, believing, or saying something on grounds of She is suing the company on the grounds of unfair dismissal. Flying was ruled out on grounds of cost. 'You're under arrest.' 'On what grounds?‘ on the grounds that We have the grounds to believe that you have been lying to us. He refused to answer on the grounds that he was unfairly dismissed. We oppose the bill, on the grounds that it discriminates against women. inexactitude: the quality or state of being imprecise, not completely truthful, etc.（exactitude） terminological inexactitude: not exact in the use of words. jargon: language that is hard to understand, especially because it is full of special words known only to the members of a certain group(行话) This article is full of sociological jargon. cessation: (fml) a short pause or a stop cessation of arms [hostilities]停战[停止敌对行动] cession: action of ceding sth, ep land or rights. session: hostilities: acts of war; fighting (hostile/hostility) The authorities have urged people to stock up on fuel in case hostilities break out. hostile forces; hostile acts；a hostile remark. Many citizens felt hostile to the idea of increased taxation. truce: (an agreement between enemies or opponents for) the stopping of fighting or arguing, usually for a short period. otherwise: if conditions were different; if not Seize the chance, otherwise you will regret it. otherwise: In other respects; In another way; differently: think otherwise be quite otherwise engaged He is noisy, but otherwise a nice boy. He reminded me of what I should otherwise have forgotten. otherwise: it is also used to refer to the general condition of sth after you have given an exception to this general condition; in a different or another way The police believe he is the thief, but all the evidence suggests otherwise (that he is not). I’ll assume that you want to come on Saturday, unless you let me know otherwise (that you don’t want to come). verify (vt): to make certain that a fact, statement, etc., is correct or true (verification) The defendant’s statement was verified by several witnesses. These details are impossible to verify. Verification is needed before we can process your loan application. ridiculous: (derog) silly or unreasonable (ridicule, v/n) What an absolutely ridiculous decision. Why did you ridicule me in public? barbed: (of sth spoken or written) sharp and unkind, especially in judging a person or their ideas. barbed criticism; barbed statements. Paragraph 6 scattered: far apart in space or time; widely and irregularly separated. (scatter) The weather forecast says we’ll have scattered showers today. Don’t scatter the cards on the floor. remove (removal): to take sth away from a place. She angrily asked him to remove himself from the room. He was removed from the office (dismissed from an official position). Paragraph 7 No more than: (adv.) only I am no more than a worker. There are no more than ten tickets left. Not more than: (n.) at most The experiment was done by not more than 5 persons. There are not more than five books in the case. He has learned not more than 100 words. No less than: 不亚于 There were no less than a thousand people at the meeting. 到会的 有一千人之多。（有到会人多之意） Not less than：不少于 There were not less than one thousand people at the meeting.到会 的至少有一千人。（没有到会人多或少之意） worthy: deserving respect, admiration or support. Two points in this report are especially worthy of notice. ridicule (n): unkind words or actions that make someone or something appear foolish or worthless v. to laugh unkindly at; to declare the foolishness of You lay yourself open to ridicule by suggesting such a plan. Her paintings, which were once held up to ridicule, are now widely acknowledged as masterpieces. They all ridicule my suggestion. He was ridiculed for his ideas. name: to choose Whisky or beer, you name it; I’ve got it. Just name the time and I’ll be there on time. sphere (n): an area or range of interest or activity He is a well-known personality in the sphere of broadcasting. The government was criticized for trying to extend its sphere of influence to cover all aspects of citizens’ lives. South/North Hemisphere questionable (a): perhaps not true, right, or honest or wrong in some way. The business manager was suspected of highly questionable behavior in money matters. out of the question: impossible, not to be discussed at all. beyond/ without question: certainly, without doubt Jane’s honesty is beyond / without question. to call sth in question: to express doubt about sth. We need to call George’s integrity in question: he couldn’t have completed this essay by himself. presently: In a short time; soon thoughtful: or characterized by careful thought (thoughtless) It was thoughtful of you to bring flowers. dismissive (adj.): considering a person, idea, etc., to be not worthy of attention or respect -- dismiss (v.) -- dismissal (n.) eg. He might have been less dismissive of their talents if he could have seen their latest achievements. Mr. Jones was dismissive of the report, saying it was riddled with inaccuracies. Dismiss all thoughts of distraction and concentrate on your exams! The clerk was dismissed / was given a dismissal for being rude to customers. harrumphing (n.): the noise of clearing the throat, (fig.) mild harrumph (v): to express annoyance and disapproval, often not by speaking but by making noise. eg. He didn’t hear what he said---- he harrumphed and walked off. As soon as the speech turned into personal attack, harrumphing from the front row was heard to alert the speaker. Don't just harrumph; fire away your opinion please. feeble (adj.): (of a joke, idea, story, etc. ) weak; silly; not well thought out eg. This argument is too feeble to be convincing. waitrons and womenus: both are playful coinages. Waitron is based on matron (a woman who is in charge of women and/or children in a prison or police station). "Waitress" derives from "waiter", whereas "waitron" would have no masculine connection. In a similarly playful way, "womenus" would replace men-us, because since men have menus, women should have their own "womenus“ paraphrase:..., but it seems to me that this is a matter that deserves rather more in the way of thoughtful debate and less in the way of dismissive harrumphing or feeble jokes about waitrons and womenus. ..., but I think we should give this matter more thought and discussion, rather than laugh about ridiculous examples like waitrons and womenus and dismiss the matter as unimportant. overlook: not to notice, or to forgive or pretend not to notice When planning your holiday, make sure not to overlook your travel insurance. We’ll overlook your bad behavior this time, but don’t do it again. root: An essential part or element; the basic core I finally got to the root of the problem. A primary source; an origin. bias-free (adj.): free of bias, without bias [ Word Formation] -free: (suffix) without the item mentioned eg. trouble-free salt-free duty-free rent-free carefree commendable (adj.): worthy of or deserving praise eg. Mr. Sparrow has acted with commendable speed. The tone of Mr. Kinnock's speech was commendable. commend: to formally praise sb / sth The judge commended her for her bravery. sentiment (n.): (fml.) thought or judgment caused or influenced by feeling eg. I must agree with the sentiment expressed by him. Public sentiment rapidly turned anti-American. demean (vt.): to cause to become less respected eg. Don't demean yourself by answering meaningless questions./telling such obvious lies. The hotel required their residents to ask permission to have overnight guests. The residents found this demeaning. vulnerable (adj.): (of a person or his feelings) easily harmed, hurt, or wounded; sensitive eg. John's parents divorced when he was at a very vulnerable age. People with high blood pressure are especially vulnerable to diabetes. vulnerability (n.) invulnerable (adj.) --invulnerability (n.) raw: outspoken; crude a raw portrayal of truth. argue for: To put forth reasons for or against something argue for [against] a proposal argued for dismissal of the case; argued against an immediate counterattack. 主张驳回诉讼；据理力争反对,立即反攻 nigger (n.): (taboo, slang, considered extremely offensive) a black person chink ( n. ): ( taboo, derog., slang) a Chinese spaz ( n. ): ( short for a spastic person) ( taboo, derog. , slang) one who suffers from a medical condition characterized by spasms(short, jerky motions over which the individual has no control) Note: In the late 1950's there were a number of very amusing but quite cruel visual jokes involving spastics. Such jokes are considered very rude and unacceptable today. fag ( n. ). ( short for faggot) (AmE, derog. , slang) homosexual; ( BrE.derog. , slang) an unpleasant or silly person subtle: so slight as to be difficult to detect or analyze intolerance (n.): the state of not being able or willing to accept ways of thinking and behaving which are different from one's own eg. He created a large number of enemies because of his intolerance of any opinion other than his own. intolerant (adj.) ~ intolerable (adj.) --tolerate (vt.) ~ tolerable (adj.) --tolerance (n.) --tolerant (adj.) toleration (n.) tolerant: 1. allowing people to do, say, or believe what they want without criticizing or punishing them, having or showing tolerance. tolerable: 1. a situation that is tolerable is not very good, but you are able to accept it; endurable. 2. fairly good; passable The apartment is really too small, but it's ______ for the time being. I’m a ______man but your behavior is more than I can bear. The heat in this room is barely ______. Luckily, my parents were ______ of my choice of music. We had a very ______ lunch. Her own mistakes made her very _____ of others.她因自己有错，对别人就该不计较了。 contempt (n.): a total lack of respect due to feeling that someone or something is completely worthless, unimportant eg. Take no notice of them ~ treat them with the contempt they deserve. His contempt for most of his fellow politicians is clearly expressed in his book. contemptible (adj.) --contemptuous (adj.) Fill in blanks: For a person in a position of such responsibility, her behavior was ______. He was ______of “popular” writers whom he described as talentless and worthless. A ______ manner/laugh/remark/expression consensus (n.): a general agreement; the opinion of most people in a group eg. Can we reach a consensus on this issue? The consensus among the world's scientists is that the world is likely to warm up over the next few decades. fall to pieces: to come apart (by itself) eg. Do you wear your old clothes until they fall to pieces? Her simple question caused the speaker's argument to fall to pieces. Paragraph 8 roundup (n.): a gathering or bringing together of scattered things, animals or people eg. There's been a police roundup of all the suspects. The President ordered the roundup and imprisonment of all corrupted politicians. note: to make mention of; remark noted the lateness of their arrival. backlash (n.): a strong but usually delayed movement against a growing belief or practice, esp. against social or political movements eg. The continual rise in violent crime eventually provoked a backlash against the liberal gun-control laws. The accident has provoked a backlash among local people who claim that the road is dangerous. underway (adj.): (something) already started ; happening now eg. A thorough investigation is underway to determine/discover how the disaster happened and who is responsible. The conference gets underway later today with a debate on the family. The project is already well underway. Your peace will be shattered when the tourist season gets underway (=starts). Plans are underway to build a new stadium in the city. Could you give an example of institutionalized silliness? institutionalize (vt.): to cause or allow (a person) to gradually begin to behave in a way that people behave when they are kept in a prison, hospital, etc. for a long time. eg. They describe corporal punishment in schools as "institutionalized violence." What was once an informal event has now become institutionalized. availability ( n. ): the state of being able to be had, obtained, used, seen, etc. eg. The easy availability of guns in that country has led to a great deal of violence. diverse (adj.): different (from each other); showing variety eg. The program deals with subjects as diverse as pop music and ancient Greek drama. censure (vt.): (fml.) to express strong disapproval of (someone or their behavior) eg. The ethics committee's choice is between admonishing him or censuring him. （admonish: give mild but firm warning to sb） The government survived a censure motion(质询提案) The directors were censured for their lack of decisiveness during the crisis. mouse (n.): (infml.) a quiet nervous fearful person, esp. a girl or woman as quiet as a mouse: without making a sound eg. He sat there as quiet as a mouse waiting for his mother to return. Are you a man or a mouse (coward)? adversary: an opponent; an enemy. adversity: a state of hardship or affliction; misfortune. [ Paragraph 9 ] Paraphrase: That students should be encouraged to investigate the availability of racially diverse dolls in a racially diverse society seems to me not the least bit silly. I do not think it silly at all for students in a country with a population consisting of different races to be encouraged to look for dolls that represent these different races. compel (v.) to make a person or thing do something, by force, moral persuasion, or orders that must be obeyed eg. Her mother was compelled to take in washing to help support her family. (take in: accept work to do in one’s house for payment) Local housing authorities have been compelled by the housing crisis to make offers of sub-standard accommodation. measure (n.): an amount or quantity Measure of sth: degree of sth, some 程度，地步 eg. He has not become rich, but he has had a certain measure of success. The colonies were claiming a larger measure of self-government. She achieved a measure of success with her first book. perceive (vt.): (fml.) to have knowledge of (something) through one of the senses (esp. sight) or through the mind; to become conscious of or understand (perception) eg. A key task is to get pupils to perceive for themselves the relationship between success and effort. "Precisely what problems do you perceive?" she asked. courtesy (n.): politeness, respect, and consideration for others (discourtesy) eg. He did not even have the courtesy to reply to my fax. Westerners show their courtesy to a speaker by not talking to others and by not reading books or newspapers. counsel ( n. ): one or more lawyers acting for someone in a court of law eg. The defense counsel moved that the judge should stop the trial. bub (n.): (very infml.) (used as an often insolent term of address) brother, buddy dickhead ( n. ) ( taboo, slang) a stupid fool overweening (adj): (fml. derog) too proud and too sure of oneself eg. “Your modesty is only a cover for your overweening conceit,” she said. fearful: causing or capable of causing fear; frightening: a fearful blunder; fearful poverty. It was a fearful accident. What a fearful mess! subjective (adj. ):based on personal opinions and feelings rather than on facts eg. We know that taste in art is a subjective matter. The way they interpreted their past is highly subjective. subjectively (adv) ~ subjectivity (n.) minefieid ( n. ): an area of land or water in which a special kind of bomb has been placed. (fig.) something that is full of hidden dangers. eg. English grammar is a minefield of exceptions. paraphrase: But that, of course, is no more than my opinion, which is the overweening problem with any discussion of bias-free usage - - it is fearfully subjective, a minefield of opinions. What I say represents only my personal opinion. However, when it comes to discussing language usage that is free of any bias, the discussion almost always creates the impression that I am being too proud or too sure of myself. This kind of discussion depends a great deal on the opinion of the individuals, and consequently, is filled with danger. paraphrase: What follows are, necessarily and inescapably, mine. The following discussion consists of my own opinions: they are of course my personal opinions and may be dangerous (for my reputation). Mine might be another pun of this text. [Paragraph [10 ] pervasive (adj.): present or noticeable through a thing or place; wide-spread (pervade) eg. Many young adults live with a pervasive sense of self-indulgence. 放纵, 任性 The influence of Freud is pervasive in the subsequent development of psychiatry.精神病学, 精神病治疗法 unarguable (adj.): obviously true or correct, with which nobody can disagree (unarguably) (adv.) eg. He is making the unarguable point that our desires and preferences have a social component. He is unarguably an outstanding man. master: the male in control; the male who has learned a subject well mistress (n.): a woman with whom a man has a sexual relationship, usually not a socially acceptable one bachelor (n.): a man who has never married; a person with a first degree in a university subject spinster (n.): (usu. derog. ) an unmarried woman, usually one who is no longer young governor (n.): a person who controls any of certain types of organization or area governess (n.): (especially in former times) a female teacher who lives with a family and educates their children at home courtier (n.): (in former times) a noble who attended at the court of a king or other ruler courtesan (rt.): (especially in former times) a woman who takes payment for sex from noble and socially important people, a high-class prostitute denote (vt.): to mean (denotation. n) Connote (vt.) (connotation. n. ) eminence ( n. ): the quality of being famous and of a high rank, especially in learning, science, arts, etc. (eminent) counterpart (n.): a person or thing that has the same purpose or does the same job as another in a different system submissiveness (n.): the quality of being willing to take orders from others (submissive) (obedience) inconsequence (n.): the quality of being unimportant consequence: effect; something that logically or naturally follows from an action or condition; importance in rank or position convention ( n. ): ( an example) of generally accepted practice, especially with regard to social behavior to each his own: used when discussing a difference between people/behavior implying that the speaker accepts either reluctantly or grudgingly or philosophically that people are different/have different standards. The speaker would not necessarily behave in that manner. eg. 1 ) -- I'm French, true. But I prefer American cooking. To each his own. 2) -- His children are strange. The boy likes playing with dolls, but the girl likes guns ! -- To each his own. tilt (n.): an act of raising one end (to make a slope) underestimate: to make too low an estimate of the quantity, degree, or worth of. (overestimate) be not to do sth : this structure indicates a necessity, a duty, or an order, etc. All the guests are to be back to the hotel before 12. [ Paragraph 11 ] gender-specific (adj.): with a clear and particular reference to one gender or the other gender (n.): (tech. or euph. ) the division into male or female sex specific (adj.): particular, fixed, determined contort (vt.): to ( cause to) twist violently out of shape flout (vt.): to treat without respect or consideration; to go against precedent (n.): a former action or case that may be used as an example or rule for present or future action unprecedented (adj.): never having happened before longstanding (adj.): having existed in the same form for a long time utility (n.): (fml.) the degree of usefulness utilities ( n. ): useful services for the public, such as supplies of water, gas, and electricity to the home. castle (n.): a large strongly-built building or set of buildings built in former times as a safe place that could easily be defended against attack [ Paragraph 12 ] venerability (n.): (often apprec. ) the quality (of an old person or thing) of deserving great respect or honor, because of character, religious or historical importance, etc. Paraphrase: venerability is no defense. The fact that some words have been used for a very long time and are widely accepted cannot be regarded as sufficient for their continuing use (if they are politically incorrect. ) moron ( n. ): (derog.) a very stupid person; adult with the intelligence of an average child of 8 to 12 years old. unexceptionable (adj.): (fml.) too good to be found lacking in any way; quite satisfactory exceptionable precise (adj.): exact in form, detail, measurement, time, etc. designation ( n. ): ( fml. ) a name or title acuity (n.): (fml.)(of thought or the senses) fineness or sharpness, especially of the mind or the senses of sight or hearing banish (vt.): to send away by official order, often but not always out of one's own country, as a punishment polite society: people who consider themselves or who are considered by others to be socially superior and who set standards of behavior for everyone else eg. People of the polite society will never eat at the roadside stalls. in respect for, also out of respect for: out of consideration or care for eg. Out of respect for the wishes of her family, the cause of the victim's death was not reported in the newspapers. Out of respect, he took off his hat. in respect of: as regards to sth, with special reference to sth Price rises in respect of gas and water. with respect to sth: concerning sth针对 With respect to your enquiry, I enclose an explanatory leaflet. subnormal (adj.): less than normal, average, etc., especially in power of mind unselfconsciously (adv.): not having or expressing knowledge or understanding about oneself or itself; without self consciousness bandy (about) (vi.): to spread ( especially unfavorable ideas) about by talking The story being bandied about is completely unture. piss (vi. & n. ): (usually vulgar) to pass waste liquid from the body of a person or animal; the waste liquid thus passed out; to criticize strongly in a way not appreciated by the speaker cretin ( n. ): (slang) a very stupid person antiquity (n.): the state of being very old, of great age antique: (adj) valuable because of old and rarity;（n） object, eg a piece of furniture or a work of art. An antique shop 古玩店 confer (on, upon) (vi.): to give eg. conferred a medal on the hero; conferred an honorary degree on her. An honorary degree was conferred on him by the university. Never imagine that rank confers genuine authority. immunity (n.): being under the state of special protection -- immune (adj.) eg. The police are offering immunity to witnesses who help to identify the murderer. [ Paragraph 13 ] populace (n.): all the common people of a country, especially as being without social position, wealth, political understanding, etc. eg. Panic had spread among the populace as a result of the rumors. populous: Containing many people or inhabitants; having a large population. China is one of the most populous country in the world. Populated (adj): India is a highly ______ country. Tibet is sparsely ________. Henan is densely ________. the Roman Catholic Church: the branch of the Christian religion whose leader the Pope rules from Rome (Vantican) revise (vt.): to change (opinions, intentions, etc. ) because of new information or more thought (revision) eg. I see I'll have to revise my ideas about Tom -- he is really quite bright after all. Our original forecast of this year's profits has now been revised upwards. nonsexist (adj.): not showing the belief that one sex, especially the male is better, cleverer, etc. than the other; especially not resulting in unfair treatment of women by men [ Word Formation ] non-: (prefix) (especially in adjectives and nouns, showing a negative) not eg. nonalcoholic / nonexistent / nonfiction / nonintervention It's a class move, allowing new and old to blend seamlessly. seamless (adj.): having no breaks or gaps in something, or continuing without stopping; perfectly consistent -- seamlessly (adv.) eg. It was a seamless procession of wonderful electronic music. incorporate ( vt. ): to make (something) part of a group or of something larger; include eg. The new cars will incorporate a number of major improvements. The party vowed to incorporate environmental considerations into all its policies. I daresay, also I dare say: ( esp. BrE. ) I suppose (that), perhaps eg. I daresay that the computer would provide a clear answer to that. I daresay you are right. scrupulously (adv.): doing only what is right; in a painstakingly honest eg. The room is scrupulously clean and tidy. The politician scrupulously avoided any topic likely to arouse suspicion as to his motives. scrupulous ( adj. ) ~ unscrupulous ( adj. ) -- unscrupulously ( adv. ) eg. You are being overly scrupulous, but to what end? Never do business unscrupulously.
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