20s and 30s notes

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            Changing Ways of Life and Education and Popular Culture
                Main Idea – Americans experienced cultural conflicts as customs and
                   values changed in the 1920s. The popular culture reflected the
                   prosperity of the era, as mass media, movies, and spectator sports
                   played important roles in the 1920s.
            Booming Economy
                Wartime economy  ________________________________
                Technology growth made life easier
                        ____________________________________________
                        Electric stove
                        Electric lighting
                Buying on Credit  Spending money you don’t have.
            What made the 20s roaring?
                People became more carefree and adventurous.
                Women held jobs outside the home and went to college
                _____________________: carefree young women with short hair,
                   heavy makeup, and short skirts.
                Flagpole sitter…people actually sat on top of flagpoles for fun.
                ___________________________…first solo flight across Atlantic (Spirit
                   of Saint Louis)

            Results of Improved Transportation
                Greater Mobility (easier to move around)
                         People moved from the suburbs and commuted to work in the
                         Created jobs in transportation industry
                                  Road construction
                                  ____________________
                                  Steel
                                  ____________________
                                  Gas stations
                Airplane-transports mail and eventually people
                         Charles Lindbergh
            The Prohibition Experiment
                Background: _______________________________ established an era
                    of ____________________ – def. – manufacture, sale, and
                    transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal
                Prohibition
                U.S. government failed to budget enough money to enforce the law
                _______________________ – def. – underground saloons and
        nightclubs that sold alcohol
     _________________________ – def. – people who manufactured or
        smuggled illegal liquor
     Prohibition
     SIG – Prohibition experiment failed
             Rise in organized crime – ex: gangster Al Capone in Chicago
             In 1933 – _______________________ repealed prohibition
Science and Religion Clash
     _______________________________ – def. – belief in the literal
        interpretation of the bible
             Led to conflict with some scientific ideas
             Rejected the idea that man had evolved from apes =
             __________________________________ (1925) – Teacher
                John T. Scopes violated TN law that banned teaching of
                evolution in school
                     Featured fight between defense lawyer Clarence
                         Darrow and prosecution witness William Jennings Bryan
                     SIG - Highlighted the conflict between science and
     Sacco and Vanzetti
             Italian immigrants (and ________________________) who
                were charged and found guilty in the armed robbery and
                murder of two pay-clerks
             Eyewitnesses had only been able to say that the guilty parties
                looked Italian, Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested
             Executed via ______________________________
Mass Media Shape Culture
     more literate Americans = increased newspaper circulation
             SIG – shaped cultural norms and sparked fads
     mass-circulation to reach wide audiences
             Focused on ________________ and ________________ – ex:
                Reader’s Digest, Time
     most powerful communications medium of the 1920s
             Broadcast news, sports, music (Jazz), ___________________
             SIG – created a more national culture – different audiences
                around the country hearing the same programs
     offered viewers a way to escape their lives through romance and
             SIG – helped promote a national culture
     Development of movies—________________________!
             Felix the Cat
             The Big Parade
             Mickey Mouse
Sports Heroes
     _____________________ - a professional ball player that hit 60
        homeruns in one season.
     Jack Dempsey - a boxer defeated by Gene Tunney.
     Gene Tunney - the boxer that defeated former champion Jack Dempsey.
     Johnny Weissmuller - an American Olympic swimmer that won 5 gold
        medals and was an actor.
     Bobby Jones - was the greatest amateur golfer of modern times.
     Big Bill Tilden - first American to win men's singles at Wimbledon,
     ____________________ - was a halfback at the University of Illinois
        from 1923 to 1925.
The Twenties Woman
     Background: _________________________ increased women’s rights
        by giving women the right to vote
     ________________________ – def. - young urban women who
        embraced new fashions and attitudes
             Featured short bobbed haircuts, shorter dresses, make-up,
                smoking, drinking, talked openly about sex, dancing
Limiting Immigration
     Anti-immigrant attitudes (_______________________) had been
        growing since the 1880s due to increased immigration, especially from
        Southern and Eastern Europe
             Increased immigration led to more competition for industrial
                jobs in cities
     Return of the _________________________ (KKK)
             1920s KKK devoted to hatred of immigrants, blacks, Catholics,
             4.5 million male members by mid-1920s
             Declined by the end of the decade due to criminal activity
     _______________________________ – established the maximum
        number of people who could enter the U.S. from each foreign country
             Designed to limit number of Southern and Eastern European
Great Migration
     Jobs for African Americans in the South were Scarce and low paying
     African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South
     African Americans moved to northern cities in search of jobs
     African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North
Harlem Renaissance
     African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem
        revealing the freshness and variety of African American culture.
     The popularity of these artists spread to the rest of society.
     Art: ________________________________-painter who chronicled the
        Great Migration North through art.
     Literature: ____________________________________-poet who
        combined the experiences of African and American cultural roots.
     Music: Duke Ellington and Lewis Armstrong-
        ___________________________; ___________________________-
        Blues singer
Culture of the 20s and 30s
     Literature:
             ________________________________-novelist who wrote
                about the jazz age (The Great Gatsby)
             ________________________________-novelist who portrayed
                the strength of poor migrant workers in the 30s (The Grapes of
     Art:
                _________________________________-artist known for urban
                 scenes and later paintings of the southwest and flowers
     Music:
          _______________________ and _____________________-
             wrote uniquely American music.

The Nation’s Sick Economy
A New Deal Fights the Depression
     Main Idea – As the prosperity of the 1920s ended, severe economic
        problems gripped the nation and led to the Great Depression. After
        becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government
        programs as part of his New Deal to combat the Depression.
The Business Cycle
     The economy naturally goes through times of recession, recovery, and
Economic Troubles on the Horizon
     Background: The prosperity of the 1920s was largely based on the use
        of ___________________ – def. – consumers agreed to buy now and
        pay later for purchases
             Installment buying
             _____________________
             Over speculation
             _____________________
     def. - form of credit with monthly payments with interest
Buying on margin
     def. – buying too many stocks hoping to sell at a higher price in a short
        period of time, regardless of risk involved
Over Speculation
             paying only a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down
                payment and borrowing the rest to make a stock purchase
Causes of the Great Depression
Black Tuesday
     (______________________________) – the stock market crashed with
        16.4 million shares of stock sold in one day, causing prices to collapse
             Prices of stocks fell  speculators left with huge debts that
                couldn’t be repaid to banks ___________________________
                people lost their savings
Banks Failing
     Federal Reserve failed to prevent widespread collapse of the nation’s
        banking system as banks continued to fail through the early 1930s
Hawley-Smoot Act
     (1930) - High protective tariff resulted in retaliatory tariffs in other
        countries, which strangled international trade
Financial Collapse
Great Depression
     – def. – period from 1929 to 1940 in which the economy plummeted
        and unemployment skyrocketed, causing widespread hardship
             Business failures – 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
             Collapse of the financial system - over 11,000 bank closings
             Unemployment – 25% of American workers were unemployed
                by 1932
    “_____________________________”
            – def. - shacks and shantytowns of homeless people, named for
                President Hoover
    President Hoover thought that private companies and volunteers
       should take care of the economy
            Did not act in the beginning to try to counter act the depression
Farm foreclosures
    – farmers lost their homes and lands and were forced to migrate across
       the country looking for work
            Dust Bowl
            “Okies”
Dust Bowl
    parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado that were
       hardest hit by draught and dust storms
    Dust Bowl
    Lasted ______________________
    Caused by poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought
    The winds of the Great Plains stirred up the dust from the fields and
       blew it across the plains
            In 1932, ________ dust storms were recorded on the Plains.
            In 1933, there were _____________ storms.
            By 1934, it was estimated that 100 million acres of farmland
                had lost all or most of the topsoil to the winds.
    The Dust Bowl got its name after ___________________, April 14,
            The cloud that appeared on the horizon that Sunday was the
                worst. Winds were clocked at 60 mph. Then it hit.
    The simplest acts of life — breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk —
       were no longer simple.
    Children wore _________________ to and from school, women hung
       wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers
       watched helplessly as their crops blew away.
Okies and Arkies
    ____________: those who moved west to California from Oklahoma
    ____________: those who moved west to California from Arkansas
    These migrant workers/families lived in tents or out of their
Understanding Images
    What feelings does this image give you?

     What do you think to woman is feeling? How about the kids?

     Describe the way they are dressed?

     Migrant Stories
Steinbeck and the Dust Bowl
     As John Steinbeck wrote in his 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath:
            "And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas,
               Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas,
               families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans,
               homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and
               a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed
               over the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants,
               scurrying to find work to do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to
               cut - anything, any burden to bear, for food. The kids are
               hungry. We got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for
               food, and most of all for land."

Americans Get a New Deal
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) won the presidential election of 1932
           Inaugural address – rallied a frightened nation
                   “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
           Fireside Chats – FDR’s radio addresses aimed at restoring
              American confidence
New Deal
           measures that provided direct payment to people for
              immediate help
                   ___________ (Civilian Conservation Corps)
                      TVA
                      WPA (Works Progress Administration)
    CCC
                      (________________________________________) –
                       provided jobs for young single males on conservation
    TVA
                       (Tennessee Valley Authority) – provided jobs building
                       dams to bring running water and electricity to poor
                       region in the South
    WPA
                       (Works Progress Administration) – created as many
                       jobs as quickly as possible in construction of airports,
                       highways, and public buildings as well as professions
                       such as art, music, and theater
               programs designed to bring the nation out of the Depression
                over time
                    AAA
                    NRA
     AAA and NRA
                    AAA (_______________________________) – aided
                        farmers by regulating crop production so prices would
                    ________ (National Recovery Administration) –
                        reformed banking practices and established fair codes
                        of competition for businesses
     FDIC
        (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) – protected bank deposits
        up to $___________________
     What does it protect up to today? ___________________
     ___________________________
                    defined unfair labor practices and established the
                        National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes
                        between employers and employees
     SSA
                    (_______________________________) – provided a
                        pension for retired workers and their spouses and
                        helped people with disabilities
Interpreting Cartoons
     Who are the main figures in the cartoon?

    What are they pouring down the pump?

    What is occurring as it is being pumped into the economy?

Significance of the New Deal
             the New Deal changed the role of government to a more active
           participant in solving problems
                Public believed in the responsibility of the federal
                   government to:
                            1. deliver public services
                            2. _______________________________
                            3. act in ways to promote the general welfare


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