Questions Notes: ROARING TWENTIES AND GREAT DEPRESSION!
Changing Ways of Life and Education and Popular Culture
Main Idea – Americans experienced cultural conflicts as customs and
values changed in the 1920s. The popular culture reflected the
prosperity of the era, as mass media, movies, and spectator sports
played important roles in the 1920s.
Wartime economy ________________________________
Technology growth made life easier
Buying on Credit Spending money you don’t have.
What made the 20s roaring?
People became more carefree and adventurous.
Women held jobs outside the home and went to college
_____________________: carefree young women with short hair,
heavy makeup, and short skirts.
Flagpole sitter…people actually sat on top of flagpoles for fun.
___________________________…first solo flight across Atlantic (Spirit
of Saint Louis)
Results of Improved Transportation
Greater Mobility (easier to move around)
People moved from the suburbs and commuted to work in the
Created jobs in transportation industry
Airplane-transports mail and eventually people
The Prohibition Experiment
Background: _______________________________ established an era
of ____________________ – def. – manufacture, sale, and
transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal
U.S. government failed to budget enough money to enforce the law
_______________________ – def. – underground saloons and
nightclubs that sold alcohol
_________________________ – def. – people who manufactured or
smuggled illegal liquor
SIG – Prohibition experiment failed
Rise in organized crime – ex: gangster Al Capone in Chicago
In 1933 – _______________________ repealed prohibition
Science and Religion Clash
_______________________________ – def. – belief in the literal
interpretation of the bible
Led to conflict with some scientific ideas
Rejected the idea that man had evolved from apes =
__________________________________ (1925) – Teacher
John T. Scopes violated TN law that banned teaching of
evolution in school
Featured fight between defense lawyer Clarence
Darrow and prosecution witness William Jennings Bryan
SIG - Highlighted the conflict between science and
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian immigrants (and ________________________) who
were charged and found guilty in the armed robbery and
murder of two pay-clerks
Eyewitnesses had only been able to say that the guilty parties
looked Italian, Sacco and Vanzetti were arrested
Executed via ______________________________
Mass Media Shape Culture
more literate Americans = increased newspaper circulation
SIG – shaped cultural norms and sparked fads
mass-circulation to reach wide audiences
Focused on ________________ and ________________ – ex:
Reader’s Digest, Time
most powerful communications medium of the 1920s
Broadcast news, sports, music (Jazz), ___________________
SIG – created a more national culture – different audiences
around the country hearing the same programs
offered viewers a way to escape their lives through romance and
SIG – helped promote a national culture
Development of movies—________________________!
Felix the Cat
The Big Parade
_____________________ - a professional ball player that hit 60
homeruns in one season.
Jack Dempsey - a boxer defeated by Gene Tunney.
Gene Tunney - the boxer that defeated former champion Jack Dempsey.
Johnny Weissmuller - an American Olympic swimmer that won 5 gold
medals and was an actor.
Bobby Jones - was the greatest amateur golfer of modern times.
Big Bill Tilden - first American to win men's singles at Wimbledon,
____________________ - was a halfback at the University of Illinois
from 1923 to 1925.
The Twenties Woman
Background: _________________________ increased women’s rights
by giving women the right to vote
________________________ – def. - young urban women who
embraced new fashions and attitudes
Featured short bobbed haircuts, shorter dresses, make-up,
smoking, drinking, talked openly about sex, dancing
Anti-immigrant attitudes (_______________________) had been
growing since the 1880s due to increased immigration, especially from
Southern and Eastern Europe
Increased immigration led to more competition for industrial
jobs in cities
Return of the _________________________ (KKK)
1920s KKK devoted to hatred of immigrants, blacks, Catholics,
4.5 million male members by mid-1920s
Declined by the end of the decade due to criminal activity
_______________________________ – established the maximum
number of people who could enter the U.S. from each foreign country
Designed to limit number of Southern and Eastern European
Jobs for African Americans in the South were Scarce and low paying
African Americans faced discrimination and violence in the South
African Americans moved to northern cities in search of jobs
African Americans also faced discrimination and violence in the North
African American artists, writers, and musicians based in Harlem
revealing the freshness and variety of African American culture.
The popularity of these artists spread to the rest of society.
Art: ________________________________-painter who chronicled the
Great Migration North through art.
Literature: ____________________________________-poet who
combined the experiences of African and American cultural roots.
Music: Duke Ellington and Lewis Armstrong-
Culture of the 20s and 30s
________________________________-novelist who wrote
about the jazz age (The Great Gatsby)
________________________________-novelist who portrayed
the strength of poor migrant workers in the 30s (The Grapes of
_________________________________-artist known for urban
scenes and later paintings of the southwest and flowers
_______________________ and _____________________-
wrote uniquely American music.
The Nation’s Sick Economy
A New Deal Fights the Depression
Main Idea – As the prosperity of the 1920s ended, severe economic
problems gripped the nation and led to the Great Depression. After
becoming president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt used government
programs as part of his New Deal to combat the Depression.
The Business Cycle
The economy naturally goes through times of recession, recovery, and
Economic Troubles on the Horizon
Background: The prosperity of the 1920s was largely based on the use
of ___________________ – def. – consumers agreed to buy now and
pay later for purchases
def. - form of credit with monthly payments with interest
Buying on margin
def. – buying too many stocks hoping to sell at a higher price in a short
period of time, regardless of risk involved
paying only a small percentage of a stock’s price as a down
payment and borrowing the rest to make a stock purchase
Causes of the Great Depression
(______________________________) – the stock market crashed with
16.4 million shares of stock sold in one day, causing prices to collapse
Prices of stocks fell speculators left with huge debts that
couldn’t be repaid to banks ___________________________
people lost their savings
Federal Reserve failed to prevent widespread collapse of the nation’s
banking system as banks continued to fail through the early 1930s
(1930) - High protective tariff resulted in retaliatory tariffs in other
countries, which strangled international trade
– def. – period from 1929 to 1940 in which the economy plummeted
and unemployment skyrocketed, causing widespread hardship
Business failures – 90,000 businesses went bankrupt
Collapse of the financial system - over 11,000 bank closings
Unemployment – 25% of American workers were unemployed
– def. - shacks and shantytowns of homeless people, named for
President Hoover thought that private companies and volunteers
should take care of the economy
Did not act in the beginning to try to counter act the depression
– farmers lost their homes and lands and were forced to migrate across
the country looking for work
parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado that were
hardest hit by draught and dust storms
Caused by poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought
The winds of the Great Plains stirred up the dust from the fields and
blew it across the plains
In 1932, ________ dust storms were recorded on the Plains.
In 1933, there were _____________ storms.
By 1934, it was estimated that 100 million acres of farmland
had lost all or most of the topsoil to the winds.
The Dust Bowl got its name after ___________________, April 14,
The cloud that appeared on the horizon that Sunday was the
worst. Winds were clocked at 60 mph. Then it hit.
The simplest acts of life — breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk —
were no longer simple.
Children wore _________________ to and from school, women hung
wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers
watched helplessly as their crops blew away.
Okies and Arkies
____________: those who moved west to California from Oklahoma
____________: those who moved west to California from Arkansas
These migrant workers/families lived in tents or out of their
What feelings does this image give you?
What do you think to woman is feeling? How about the kids?
Describe the way they are dressed?
Steinbeck and the Dust Bowl
As John Steinbeck wrote in his 1939 novel The Grapes of Wrath:
"And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas,
Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas,
families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans,
homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and
a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed
over the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants,
scurrying to find work to do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to
cut - anything, any burden to bear, for food. The kids are
hungry. We got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for
food, and most of all for land."
Americans Get a New Deal
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) won the presidential election of 1932
Inaugural address – rallied a frightened nation
“The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
Fireside Chats – FDR’s radio addresses aimed at restoring
measures that provided direct payment to people for
___________ (Civilian Conservation Corps)
WPA (Works Progress Administration)
provided jobs for young single males on conservation
(Tennessee Valley Authority) – provided jobs building
dams to bring running water and electricity to poor
region in the South
(Works Progress Administration) – created as many
jobs as quickly as possible in construction of airports,
highways, and public buildings as well as professions
such as art, music, and theater
programs designed to bring the nation out of the Depression
AAA and NRA
AAA (_______________________________) – aided
farmers by regulating crop production so prices would
________ (National Recovery Administration) –
reformed banking practices and established fair codes
of competition for businesses
(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) – protected bank deposits
up to $___________________
What does it protect up to today? ___________________
defined unfair labor practices and established the
National Labor Relations Board to settle disputes
between employers and employees
(_______________________________) – provided a
pension for retired workers and their spouses and
helped people with disabilities
Who are the main figures in the cartoon?
What are they pouring down the pump?
What is occurring as it is being pumped into the economy?
Significance of the New Deal
the New Deal changed the role of government to a more active
participant in solving problems
Public believed in the responsibility of the federal
1. deliver public services
3. act in ways to promote the general welfare