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					U.S. History and Government
  As of May 2010




    Student Study Guide
 Unit 1
The Geography




                2
I. Map – United States – Physical Features


                                                                                           Lake Superior
                                                                                                                 Lake             Adirondack Mts.
           Columbia R.                                                                                           Huron
                                                                                                                               Mohawk R.

                                                                                                                          Lake Ontario                                   White Mts.


        Cascade Range                                                                        Lake                                                                   Connecticut R.
                                                                                             Michigan

                                                                                                                                                                         Hudson R.

                                                                                                                                                                    Catskill Mts.
               Sierra        Rocky Mts.                   Missouri R.
               Nevada                                                                                              Lake Erie                                     Delaware R.
               Mts.
                                                                                                                                                                  Susquehanna R.

                                                                                                            Ohio R.                                                       Chesapeake
                                                                                                                                                                          Bay


          ........                                                                Mississippi R.                                                                 Potomac R.
          ........
           .......                                                                                                                                            James R.
          ........
          .... ...                                                                                                                         Appalachian Mts.
           .......       Colorado R.                                    Arkansas R.
          ........
          ....                            Rio Grande R.                                                    Tennessee R.

      Mohave
      Desert
II. Map – United States-Regions




                                                                                   New England
   Pacific
   Northwest
                                  High Plains

                Mountain
                                                                    Mid-Atlantic


                                                 Mid-West




                                                                South
                                                                Atlantic
                      Southwest



                                                Southern-Gulf
III. Map – United States – The 50 States
    Unit 2

Founding of America
                   Map of the War


                                       Timeline
 Map of Colonies




      Founding of America
Settlement of                        Colonial Political
  America                              Experience
                   The American
                   Colonial Period




  The European                       Causes of the
    Tradition                         Revolution


                    The American
                     Revolution




                                                          7
I.   Map of American Colonial Situation
II.   Map of American Revolutionary War




                                                             Ft. Ticonderoga
                                            Saratoga


                                                                         Lexington and Concord




                                    Valley Forge
                                                            Trenton

                 Vincennes



                                                       Yorktown




                                  Cowpens
III. Timeline of the Founding of America

                                                                                         Lexington
                                                                                            and
                                                                                          Concord
                                                                                           1775
                                          A Bill of
                                          Rights is
                                                                                                     Declaration of
                                          created in
                                                                                                     Independence
                                           England
                                                                                                         1776
                                            1689
    English
   establish
  Jamestown
    colony
     1607


 1600           1620       1640   1660   1680          1700   1720   1740            1760            1780             1800




                                                                            French and
                                                                            Indian War
               Pilgrims                                                        starts
               establish                                                       1754                     British
               Plymouth                                                                                surrender
                Colony                                                                                   1781
                 1620



                                                                                                       Articles of
                                                                                                      Confederati
                                                                                                      on approved
                                                                                                          1781


                                                                                                                             10
IV. American Colonial Period


Settling America

The Native Americans The Starving Time at Jamestown - HistoryWiz

      Relations with European Settlers:
       - Relations with Europeans varied from place to place – sometimes coexisting and sometimes
         in conflict
       - Differing cultural values led to many conflicts

      Trade:
       - Europeans depended on trade with Native peoples for survival initially
       - Some native tribes, such as the Iroquois, came to dominate areas of trade with the Europeans

      Alliances
       -various alliances between native people and European powers existed, failed, and became
       created again and again over time
              - Iroquois alliances helped them dominate the fur trade in the northeast
              - The Powhatan Confederacy influenced the initial survival of the Jamestown Colony

      Warfare:
       - Early fighting lessoned the threat of the Powhatan Confederacy in the Virginia area
       - King Philip’s War: New England tribes fought against growing European expansion

          o French and Indian War:
            - Between France and England
                (French and Native Americans against the English colonist)
            - In Europe (called the Seven Years War there) and America
            - Fought for control of the Ohio River Valley area mostly

Africans
    Free Blacks:
       - early Africans were considered “indentured servants” – freed when their contract ended

      Enslaved Blacks
       - Large plantation farms in the south required many workers
       - Africans were brought to work on these farms as enslaved workers
       - smaller farms and a more diverse economy required less slaves in the northern colonies

The Europeans
      - many different European cultures were represented in the colonies
       - the English dominated though, and came to influence the development of the 13 different
         colonies the most of any of the European peoples
       - They came for religious, economic, and political reasons
The Colonial Political Experience

Experiments of Democracy:

      Mayflower Compact: C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My
       Documents\Mayflower Compact.wmv

       - 1620 – Pilgrims signed contract before landing at Plymouth to consent to be governed by a
       body that they created themselves

       - this established the precedent of self-government in the colonies


      Virginia House of Burgesses:

       - prototype for colonial legislative bodies – based on the two-house system similar to the
       English Parliament

       - This further established the tradition of republican government in America


      Northeast Town Meetings: C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web
       Clips\New England Town Meetings.wmv

       - In New England – the “Town” was the local center of government

       - Citizens would hold “Town Meetings” and vote directly on issues


      Albany Plan of Union:

       - representatives from the colonies gathered to create a common “union” governmental body

       - initially designed to help protect the colonies against the French

       - was a plan to share governmental responsibilities between the colonies on a central level

       - was rejected by the colonies because the feared losing local control

       - became a model for later centralized governmental ideas such as the US Constitution


      John Peter Zenger – Freedom of the press

       - Zenger was arrested for accusing the governor of NY of doing things he
       want supposed to be doing

       - his lawyer argued that it was a crime – if what he printed was accurate

       - the jury freed Zenger – establishing the case of freedom of the press
V.       The American Revolution
European Democratic Traditions
       Much of what later became a part of the American experience of democracy, came from
ideas and events that took place in Europe before and during the American Colonial Period

Events
    Magna Carta C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Magna
       Carta.wmv
       - document signed in 1215 – limited the powers of the monarchy for the first time

        English Bill of Rights
         - Late 1600’s – England – established representative government in England and the idea that
         the “rule of law” was more important than the powers of a monarch

Enlightenment Connection: the ideas of these political thinkers greatly influenced American politics

        John Locke
         - people have certain rights (life-liberty-property)
         - if the government fails to protect people’s rights – people can overthrow that government

        Barron de Montesquieu:
         - separation of powers was a good idea (Legislative – Judicial – Executive)

        Jean Jacques Rousseau:
         - “Social Contract” – people can choose their government – but must agree to follow its rules
         - the idea that the “majority rules”


Causes of the Revolutionary War

1.       Mercantilism:
         - the idea that colonies exist to support the economy of the “Mother
          Country”

         - the colonies were used to provide raw materials and markets for English goods


2.       Salutary Neglect:
         - the British government did not pay much attention to the day-to-day political activities of the
           colonists, allowing them to rule themselves as they saw fit

         - was seen as both a negative (the British didn’t care about them) and a positive (the colonists
           learned how to do things on their own)


3.       Proclamation of 1763:
                                                                                                         13
       - British rule that prohibited colonists from moving west into lands won from France after the
        French and Indian War          http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/winter96/massacre.html

4.    Taxation Issues: several new taxes caused increasing resentment in the colonies
C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Stamp Act.wmv
C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Intolerable Acts.wmv

         British Act                                        Colonial Response

Sugar Act: tax on imported sugar             - smuggling, reduced consumption



Stamp Act: tax on all written                - boycott of products, Stamp Act Congress
  documents, newspapers, letters, legal
  papers, playing cards


Townsend Acts: variety of taxes              - continued boycott of products
 (lead, glass, tea) Provides for the firs
search warrants against colonists


Tea Act: tax on non-British Tea              - Boston Tea Party
- gave a monopoly to the British East
India Company for sale of tea in colonies

Intolerable Acts: Response to Boston        - continued protests, prelude to war
Tea party, closure of Boston Harbor,
Suspension of self-government (New
England town meeting) Also called the
“Coercive Acts”


5.      Natural Rights: the basic tenants of the Enlightenment caused the colonists to eventually
decide to make a political break from Great Britain

      Common Sense: C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Unit 3
       Web clips\Common Sense.wmv
       - written by Thomas Paine
       - appealed to rational thought
       - propaganda for action by the common man in the colonies
       - increased support for the fight for independence

      Declaration of Independence C:\Documents and
       Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Declaration of
       Independance.wmv
       - Delegates from all colonies met in Philadelphia in June, 1776
       - This document stated the colonies’ intention to declare their

                                                                                                    14
       independence from Britain, and then gave the reasons why they did so
       - Agreed to by the representatives on July 4th – marking the beginning of the United States of
       America
       - written by Thomas Jefferson
       - most of the document was based on the ideas of the Enlightenment (natural rights, consent of
       the governed, etc.)

VI. Essential Questions

1. In what ways, was the social make-up of the colonies in America significantly different from
the culture in Great Britain?


      Though dominated by the English culture, the colonists were also made up of Scottish, Irish,
       German, Dutch, French, and many other European cultures

      The experiences and relationships the colonists had with the Native Americans was
       significantly different than anything Europeans ever dealt with.

      The reliance on Africans for labor, created a unique economic environment in the colonies, in
       addition to the social and cultural effects on the community




2. In what ways did aspects of European culture contribute to a desire by colonists to claim their
independence?

      The documents of the Magna Carta and English Bill of Rights had established a tradition of
       questioning and limiting the powers of a monarchy

      The ideas of the European Enlightenment thinkers greatly influenced the minds of the colonists
       and the creators of the new political system in the Americas




3. What part of the colonial experience in America helped colonists feel confident in both their
ability and right to declare their independence from Great Britain?

      The mixing of different cultures created a new culture that was not entirely similar to the
       “home culture” – a feeling of cultural independence existed

      The effects of “salutatory neglect” gave colonist motivation and confidence to establish a
       government that would look after their own interests




                                                                                                      15
  Unit 3
The Constitution




                   16
                                      Timeline




              The Constitution
    Articles of Confederation                           Events of the Critical Period


                                The Critical Period



       The Delegates                                        New Jersey              Virginia
                                                              Plan                   Plan


                                                         The
The Purpose            The Constitutional
                          Convention                  Compromises
                                                                            The Great
                                                                           Compromise
                                                                          (Connecticut Plan)

   Principles of the
     Constitution
                                 The Constitution

    Articles of the
     Constitution




                                            Ratification of the
                                              Constitution                                     17
I.          Timeline of the U.S. Constitution



                                                              Annapolis
                                                              Convention
               Articles of
                                                                1786
              Confederation
                approved                                                                                             First
                  1781                                                                                           Amendments
                                                                Shay’s
                                                                                                                 (10 of them)
                                                               Rebellion                                           added to
                                                                                                                 Constitution

                                                                                                                  Called the
                                                                                                                 Bill of Rights
                                                                                                                      1791




     1780         1781        1782   1783       1784   1785        178 6      1787           1788         1789     1790




                                                                            Constitutional
                                                                           Convention held
                                                                           in Philadelphia
                                                                                1787


                                                                                         Constitution
                                                                                        Ratified by the
                                                                                         States 1788
II.       The Critical Period
The Articles of Confederation


Confederation (confederacy): a union of states into one organization

Examples of other historical confederations:
         Iroquois Confederation: Separate Iroquois tribes united in the 1500’s-1700’s


         Confederate States of America: Southern U.S. states broke away from the Union and formed
          their own nation, sparking the U.S. Civil War

         Confederation of Independent States: After the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1989, several of
          the former republics united together


Articles of Confederation
     What it was:
        - first written constitution of the United States
        - protected states rights more than it strengthened the federal government

         How it began: created by the Second Continental Congress – created 1777, ratified 1781
          C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Unit 3 Web
          clips\Weakness of the Articles of Confederation.wmv


                    Strengths                                        Weaknesses


  * was able to direct the military and make             * no Executive branch
    war or peace

                                                         * no Federal Judicial branch
  * could enter into treaties or alliances

                                                         * no power to regulate interstate commerce

  * could coin money
                                                         * had to be a unanimous vote to change the
                                                           document

                                                         * 9 of 13 states needed to make a law
Events of the Critical Period (reasons leading for a call to revise the Articles of Confederation)
    Annapolis Convention: Hamilton calls for conference on trade and navigation (few show up)

       Shay’s Rebellion: farmers in Massachusetts rebelled against state
        - indicated a need for revising the constitution C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\My
        Documents\Unit 2 Web Clips\Unit 3 Web clips\Shay's Rebellion.wmv

       Continental Dollars:    worthless money against each state’s own money – unstable currency


       Poor Foreign Relations:
         France: US couldn’t pay back loans – government didn’t have ability to raise required
           funds

           Spain: “Right of Deposit” Spain threatened to cut off access to the Gulf of Mexico at New
            Orleans – would inhibit trade between the West and coastal cities

           Britain: Britain was not following terms of Treaty of Paris (ended Revolutionary War)



                                                                      Much of the U.S. Constitution was
III. The Constitutional Convention                                     borrowed from other previously
                                                                         created state constitutions
Purpose/Intent: C:\Documents and
Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Const. Convention.wmv                       From the NY State Constitution:

                                                                    _ three branches: executive, judicial,
- create a new government that would be better able to deal with
                                                                    legislative
foreign powers as well as regulate interstate commercial activity
                                                                    _ legislative branch would have two
The Delegates: 12 of the 13 states were represented                 houses
   (Not Rhode Island)
                                                                    _ executive branch had some veto
                                                                    powers of legislative branch
55 men: - Lawyers, merchants, wealthy farmers
  - no women, Native Americans, African-Americans or poor           _ Judges appointed for judicial
                                                                    branch

                                                                    _ has a Bill of Rights



Famous delegates:
       Washington: appointed President of the Convention – only spoke twice C:\Documents and
        Settings\csavoy\Desktop\1st President.wmv
       Franklin: oldest member
       Madison: became known as the “Father of the Constitution”
       Hamilton: argued for a vision of America as a “new Europe”



                                                                                                             20
Not there:
      Jefferson and Adams: Serving overseas as U.S. Representatives in Europe
      Henry: Disagreed strongly with the idea of a stronger central government

Compromise C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Compromise.wmv

   The compromises: the delegates did not agree on how the new government would look
   (representation), the slave issue, or interstate commerce. Various proposals were created, and
   compromises needed to be achieved for final agreements:

   A. The “Great Compromise” (Connecticut Plan) C:\Documents and
      Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Representation debate.wmv
       Concerning state representation in the government C:\Documents and
      Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Great compromise.wmv




         New Jersey Plan
                                                                     Virginia Plan
            One house in the
                                                           Two houses in Legislative branch
             Legislative
             branch
                                                           Both houses based on population
            All states elect the                           of states
             same number of
             Congressmen




                              Great Compromise (Connecticut Plan)

                             Two housed in the Legislative branch


                             States represented equally in Senate


                             House representation determined by state
                              population
                                                                                                    21
B. The Three-Fifths Compromise        Do slaves count as population?


        Northern                                                 Southern

   Slaves should not be                                    Slaves should be counted
    counted for                                              for representation but not
    representation in                                        for taxes
    Congress because they
    could not vote



                               Three-Fifths Compromise

                             Three-Fifths of the slaves in a state
                              would be counted for both
                              representation in Congress and for
                              taxation




C. Commerce Compromise          Congress has power to regulate foreign and interstate trade?



    Northern (Industrial)                               Southern (Agricultural)

       Congress could                                     no taxes on state exports
        regulate aspects of                                no regulation of the slave
        trade – foreign or                                  trade
        domestic




                              Commerce Compromise

                    Congress could impose duties(taxes) on imports

                    No taxes on state exports

                    No regulation on slave trade for at least 20 years
                                                                                           22
IV. The Constitution

About it:


                                        Principles of the Constitution

  Federalism                  - the relationship between the “federal” government (think ‘national”) and
                                the various state governments


  Separation of powers        - the federal powers are separated between a Legislative (law making) branch
                                 Executive (law enforcing) branch, and a Judicial (law interpreting) branch


  Flexibility                 - the Constitution can be changed. The Elastic Clause, Amendment process,
                              And Judicial interpretation can make “necessary and proper” changes



  Bill of Rights:             - assurances of the protection of individual rights was guaranteed


                    C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Bill of Rights.wmv



                               Articles of the Constitution

            - Preamble: explains the intent and purpose of the document


            1. Legislative: explains the make-up of Congress and the
            procedure for the making of a law

            2. Executive: explains the duties and responsibilities of the
            President, as well as the procedure for the choosing of a President

            3. Judicial: explains the make-up of the Federal Court system
            and its duties and responsibilities and rights

            4. State Relations: outlines the responsibilities that belong to the
            federal government and those of the states


            5. Amendments: describes the process for amending, or
            changing the Constitution

            6. Supremacy Clause: explains that federal laws are the
            “supreme law of the land” and have power over state laws
                                                                                                              23
            7. Ratification: explains how the constitution would become
            official
V.       Ratification of the Constitution
Ratification: the process of making the Constitution official – getting permission from the people

Constitutional requirement: 9 of the 13 states needed to approve it

Arguments for or against: C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Federalist vs. Anti
Federalist.wmv

                    Types of People     Famous Leaders                       Stance
                                        - James            - Wanted a strong national government
                    - northern          Madison            to provide order and protect people’s
 Federalists
                    - urban             - Alexander        rights
                                        Hamilton
                                        - John Jay

                                        NY Governor        - Wanted a weak national government
                    - southern          George             to protect the rights of the states
                    - interior U.S.     Clinton            - wanted to add a Bill of Rights to
                                                           protect the rights of the people
 Anti-Federalists




The Federalist Papers: C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Federalist Papers.wmv

     Examples
#2 The Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence                                John Jay

#8 Consequences of Hostility Between the States                                Alexander Hamilton

#10 The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection          James Madison

#52 The House of Representatives                                               James Madison



Results of Ratification
        the Constitution becomes the Supreme law of the United States
                                                                                                     24
      a stronger central government has been established

      resentment by some states builds (southern states loose influence)

C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Living Document.wmv

VI. Essential Questions

1. Why were the years during the time of the Articles of Confederation known as the “Critical
Period”?

      the “nation” was actually a collection of “states” – not a unified nation yet

      it was an experimental stage with a brand new nation

      there was no real written plan in place to direct the new government

      the nation’s survival was a real issue




2. What were the main issues that states disagreed over and ended up having to make
compromises on in order to complete the Constitution?

      slavery

      whether to tax – how to tax

      influence of Federal government against the “sovereign” states

      state representation in the Federal government

      commerce

      separation of powers
                                                                                                25
  Unit 4

The New Nation




                 26
                 Map                                 Timeline




                   The New Nation
The Washington Administration
                                                                Case Study

                                                           The Marshall Court
                                The Federalist Era
The Adams Administration




                                                      The Madison Administration
The Jefferson Administration


                                    Democratic-
                                    Republicans
                                                        The Monroe Administration



The Jacksonian Democracy



                                  The Jackson Era             The Nullification Crisis

    The Bank Wars




                                 Social/Economic
                                      Issues



                                                                                         27
I.   Map: The New Nation
                                             War of 1812 British try to
                                             control the Great Lakes. Lose
                                             to Commodore Perry




                Lewis
                and                                                           Seneca Falls
                Clark
                e

                                                                     Whiskey
                                                                     Rebellion
                                                                     s




                                                                                             War of 1812
                        Louisiana Purchase
                                                                                             British capture
                                                                                             Washington, DC

                                                                                             Ft. McHenry
                                                                                             inspires “Star
                                                                                             Spangled Banner”




                                              War of 1812 British try to
                                              take the Mississippi but lose
                                              to Jackson at New Orleans
II.       Timeline: The New Nation


                                                                                         Monroe
                                                                                         Doctrine                                       Seneca Falls
                                                                                          1823                                          Convention
                                                                                                                                           1848


                                                             War of 1812
      1st Bank             Alien                               begins                                           Indian
       of the               and                                                                                Removal
       United             Sedition                                                                                Act
       States              Acts                                                                                  1830
        1791               1798




  1790             1795              1800         1805      1810           1815   1820              1825           1830          1835    1840




        Washington            Adams             Jefferson          Madison        Monroe                   Adams            Jackson



             Whiskey                                                                                                      Bank
             Rebellion                   Louisiana                                                                        Wars
               1794                      Purchase
                                        doubles the
                                          size of
                                         America
                                           1803




                                                                                                                                                       29
III. The Federalists Era
The Washington Administration

The Unwritten Constitution: during the nations first years, policies and procedures for running the
government efficiently came about. These have become traditions, and are referred to as the
“unwritten constitution”
      The Cabinet: - The President appoints individuals to run certain parts of the Executive Branch
                   - the first 3 were the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and War
                   - together, these positions are known as the President’s “Cabinet”

      The Two Term Tradition: Based on Washington’s precedent, the office of the President was
        informally limited to two terms only

Foreign Relations
    Jay Treaty: A U.S. agreement with Great Britain – U.S. agreed Britain could stop U.S.
       shipments to France, in return for a “most-favored nation” status in trading with Britain

      Proclamation of Neutrality: Washington’s precedent of having the U.S. try to stay out of
       alliances with foreign powers – he urged the nation to remain as independent as it could

Economic Stability
   Hamilton Financial Plan
                                                                               Whiskey Rebellion
       Why: the nation needed economic stability and an ability to        - in western Pennsylvania
       raise funds and pay debt
                                                                          - farmers rebelled against
      Bank of the United States (B.U.S.):                                an excise tax on corn
       - to act as the central bank of the United States
       - dominated by New Englanders                                      - Washington sent troops as
       - its creation was an example of “implied powers”                  a show of force

      Excise Taxes:                                                      - showed Federal govt.
                                                                          could pass laws that state
       - a tax on certain products
                                                                          citizens had to follow
       - Hamilton wanted a tax on Whiskey

      Assumption:
       - Hamilton urged the new government to pay off all debt from the Revolutionary War.
                                                                          Political Parties Forming
       - he said this would give the nation a good credit and status with
       both Americans and foreign nations                                 - our current “Two party
                                                                          system” began at this time
Washington’s Farewell Address
   In leaving office, President Washington warned Americans              - over the struggle for
                                                                          ratification of the
    about the following issues:
                                                                          constitution
      - getting too involved with other counties’ issues
      - the states sectionalizing and dividing the “nation”               - started with Federalists v.
     - political parties becoming too important and divisive              Anti-Federalists
The Adams Administration

Alien and Sedition Acts C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\The Sedition
Act.wmv
C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\The Alien Act.wmv
       - attempts by the Federalist party to strengthen themselves and weaken the
         Republican party
       - laws were passed making it harder for foreigners to become Americans
       - also made it against the law to print anything against the U.S. government

      Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions:
       - these two resolutions were reactions against the Alien and Sedition Acts
       - they basically said that states could declare federal laws invalid if the were unconstitutional

Election of…
   What about them: each of these two elections were important in establishing the early direction
   that the new U.S. government would go in – and if it would even survive or not
      1796

                                                                                                       31
    - Won by the Federalists (John Adams-President)
    - allowed the policies of Washington and Hamilton to continue and strengthen the nation

   1800
    - The “Jeffersonian” Republicans won – bringing the possibility of huge changes to the
    government and possible challenges to the U.S. Constitution
    - This election marked the first peaceful transition of power between two opposing groups in
    the history of the world. It set a precedent for the future of our civilized government.


                               Case Study: The Marshall Court

       What about it: As Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John C. Marshall presided
over some very important cases that established the Court as being equal in power to the other
two branches of federal government and granted it the ability to interpret Constitutional law.
C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Marbury v. Maddison.wmv
Marbury v. Madison: important because it gave the U.S. Supreme Court the right of
                      “ judicial review”

       Judicial review  the power to decide whether laws passed by Congress were
        constitutional or not, and to nullify laws that were not.

McCullach v. Maryland: extended the policy of “loose interpretation” of the constitution –
                      strengthening the federal government over the states


Gibbons v. Ogden: similar to McCullach v. Maryland’s results on interpretation – this time
about the federal governments ability to regulate interstate commerce




                                                                                                   32
IV. Democratic-Republicans

   Democratic-Republicans: often called “Jeffersonian” Republicans at first
       - opposed most of the policies and philosophy of the Federalists

The Jefferson Administration

Louisiana Purchase: C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Louisiana
Purchase.wmv
    Why: to create lands for expansion westward and gain control of the
       Mississippi River
    The purchase: $15 million
    Lewis and Clark: sent to explore the new territory and search for a passage to the Pacific

                                                                                                  33
      Results: - the size of the U.S. doubled
                 - more precedents and controversies over powers of the federal government
                - starts the theory of manifest destiny – the idea that the United States should expand
                  from coast to coast

Embargo Act - in retaliation for British acts against U.S. shipping, Jefferson proposed and Congress
             Congress passed the Embargo Act of 1807
            - this banned trade with other countries
            - ended up hurting the U.S. more than it punished Britain – repealed in 1809

           strict vs. loose interpretation: the argument over whether the constitution should be
           interpreted strictly (do only what the document says) or loosely (allows for “implied”
           interpretation of powers)




The Madison Administration

War of 1812 C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\War of 1812.wmv
   Causes:

       - continued British harassment of U.S. shipping on the seas and the practice of impressment-
       the capture of US citizens and forcing them to serve in the British military
                                                                                                      34
       - trade restrictions between Britain and the U.S.

       - Southern and Western “War Hawks” encouraged war to allow for expansion westward

       - concerns over Native-American activities on the western borders


Events:
    Burning of Washington D.C.: British troops entered and burned the White House and Capitol
    Star Spangled Banner: written during the attacks on Baltimore by Francis Scott Key
    New Orleans: General Andrew Jackson defeated larger British Army, became a national hero



Results:
       - the U.S. won the war but it did not change many existing conditions
       - the victory gave the country more prestige overseas
       - caused an increase in U.S. national pride and patriotic feelings (nationalism)

The Monroe Administration

Era of Good Feelings name given to the time after the War of 1812 when there were few
political conflicts and the new nation had much support
     Nationalism (War of 1812):
        - victory over Britain caused new feelings of national pride and support for the
        new country by Americans

      One Party:
       - by opposing the War of 1812, the Federalists lost power and then ceased to exist as a party
       - the Republicans had, for a time-being, little competition for their policies

      The American System: Henry Clay’s plan to strengthen America:
       - creation of the Second Bank of the United States
       - passage of tariffs to protect U.S. industry and businesses
       - improve internal transportation routes to connect the nation together better
           (Erie Canal, National Road, development of Railroads)

Monroe Doctrine - the U.S. bravely declared that the Western Hemisphere was off-limits to European
powers. In return, the U.S. promised to stay out of European colonial affairs.
C:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Monroe Doctrin.wmv




                                                                                                       35
36
V.       The Jackson Era
Jacksonian Democracy
    National conventions: instead of members of Congress choosing Presidential
       candidates (caucus system), national nominating conventions began –opening up
       the process to more of the common citizens

        Secret ballot: early forms of today’s secret ballots began under Jackson’s Presidency

        No property requirement: by the mid-1820’s, most states had eliminated the ownership of
         property as a requirement for voting, many more Americans could then participate

        Spoils system: - Jackson supported the idea of appointing loyal party supporters to office

        Veto Power – Jackson used the checks and balance’s power to veto more than all previous
         presidents combined




The Bank War
    Background: most southern and western states opposed the idea of a national bank. Jackson
      felt he had a responsibility to the people to bring an end to it
        What happened: when the issue came up to extend the provisions of the national bank for
         another 20 years, Jackson vetoed it and pulled federal money from it – ending i
Pet Banks
        (Wildcat Banks) Jackson took deposits from the B.U.S. (Federal banks) and placed them in
         state banks – thus killing the Bank of the United States
                                                                                                      37
The Nullification Crisis - a battle of a state’s right to not obey a federal law

      Tariff of 1828: - a tariff was placed on all imports into the country
                      - this cause an increase in the price of manufactured products
                      - states hurt most by this called it the “Tariff of Abominations” (South Carolina)

      States rights argument: - led by John Calhoun, South Carolina argued that a state had the
       right to “nullify” (make void) any federal law that they saw as unconstitutional
               - they said that since they originally agreed to form a nation, they also then had a right
               to break away form or ignore the nation’s laws.

      The Force Bill: Congress gave Jackson power to use any means necessary to enforce South
                       Carolina to pay the tariffs.

      resolution: - Jackson eventually lowered the amount of the tariff
                   - South Carolina withdrew its nullification of the tariff




VI. Social/Economic Issues
       With the stability, and expansion of a new nation, and the beginnings of the Industrial
Revolution, many socio-economic changes came about in the U.S. and new issues arose.

Women’s Rights
       - the 1830’s marked an increase in women actively speaking out
about the inequality of men and women.

      Seneca Falls, NY:C:\Documents and
       Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Seneca Falls Convention.wmv
       - led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, this convention
       held here marks the beginning of the Women’s Rights Movement
       - They created a document declaring that all men AND women are considered equal

Public Schools
       - the first public schools were created at this time
       - the idea of having an educated population was seen as good for the nation
       - these were paid for by taxes and became mandatory in most places

      Horace Mann
       - his model was followed in many places around the nation: teachers would be trained,
       students divided up into grade levels, usually about 10 months of the year

                                                                                                       38
Mentally Ill/Prison Reform
       - mentally ill patients were often just cast into prisons

          Dorthea Dix
           - she led the movement to create state run hospitals for the mentally ill

Abolition         The issue of slavery became very important at this time. Abolition = to get rid of

          Underground Railroad:
           - a series of safe houses to hide escaped slaves as the fled North to free states of Canada

          Harriet Tubman:
           - she led 19 trips along the Underground Railroad to free slaves

          William Lloyd Garrison
           - white abolitionist leader that was influential in the development of the abolition movement

              o The Liberator - Boston based newspaper started by William Lloyd Garrison
              o The North Star – another abolitionist newspaper – started by former slave Frederick
                Douglass

                                     Case Study – Native Americans
 Background
       - by the early 1800’s, white settlers were moving westward and coming into contact with Native
         American tribal lands
       - the natives tried various methods to deal with the stress of cultural conflict

 Ways Native Americans tried to survive:
    cultural adaptation: some, like the Cherokee, tried to survive by combining European cultural
       elements with their own traditional cultural ways.
       - this was not very effective

           cultural revitalization: - Handsome Lake urged the Iroquois to adopt a better lifestyle: education,
            temperance, farming and peaceful living were encouraged.

           Pan-Indian movement: - an attempt to unite the natives of the Old Northwest Territory, it died
            with their defeats in the War of 1812

        Resistance: - Creeks resisted and attacked settlers in Georgia and Alabama
                        - there were defeated at Horseshoe Bend in Alabama, opening up the South to
                  settlement by whites
 Indian Removal PolicyC:\Documents and Settings\csavoy\Desktop\Indian Removal Act.wmv
         - in the 1830’s, President Jackson began the forced movement of native populations to the Great
 Plains area.
         - in the South, many natives died along the “Trail of Tears” on their way west

           Worsester vs. Georgia: the Cherokee went to the Supreme Court to prevent the state of Georgia
            from taking their land. They won the case – but Presidents Jackson and Van Buren ignored the
            ruling




                                                                                                                  39
40
VII. Essential Questions

1. How were each of the 3 Presidential Eras, The Federalist Era – The Democratic Republicans
– and the Jackson Era, each different from the others?

      Federalist: A time of precedent setting and enhancing the power of the Federal (centralized)
       government. The rulings of the Marshall Court and actions of the Washington Administration


      Democratic Republicans: Establishing an international relationship and geographic expansion


      Jackson Era: Increasing the power of the Presidency. Expanded democracy?



2. Why were the first few presidential terms so important to the development of the United
States?

      To establish important precedents that would shape the American political future



3. In one sentence, tell what is the most meaningful aspect of each of these Presidencies:

      Washington’s: establishing a firm footing for the new nation.

      Adam’s: The attempt to silence political opposition (Alien and Sedition Acts)

      Jefferson’s: expanding the nation’s geographic size

      Madison’s: Victory in war of 1812

      Monroe’s: Establishing dominance in Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine)

      Jackson’s: Strengthening the power of the Presidency




                                                                                                  41
Unit 5

Civil War Era




                42
             Map – Before                   Map – During
              the War                         the War



Map – Manifest
                                                               Timeline
   Destiny




                 Civil War Era

                       Before the War

 Manifest Destiny                                          Sectionalism


                            Causes of the War




Strategies                                                       Role of
                            The War                              Lincoln



       Major Battles                               On the Home front




                               Essential
                               Questions




                                                                           43
I.   Maps – Civil War Era Map#1 Manifest Destiny




            Oregon                                                                           Me
            Country                                                                          .


                                  Unorganized                          Michigan Territory.
                                  Territory




                                                   Missouri
                                                   Compromise        Mo.
                                                   Line




                      New Spain                          Arkansas Terr.




                                      States admitted by
                                      Missouri Compromise


                                      Slave states and Territories
Map #2 Before the War




                    Oregon
                    Territory                                   Minnesota
                                                                Territory

                                                  Unorganized
                                                  Territory




                                Utah
                                Territory




       California
                                     New Mexico
                                     Territory

                                                                Indian
                                                                Territory
                                                                            Slave States and Territories




                                                                                Territories to vote on slavery




                                                                                                                 45
Map #3 During the War

                                                                    Gettysburg

                                                                        Antietam




                                                          Manassas (Bull Run)              Washington, D.C.



                                                       Appomattox

                                                                                Richmond          Monitor and Merrimack




                         Shiloh




                                  Atlanta



                                            Sherman’s “March to the Sea”



             Vicksburg


                                                             Savannah




                                                                                                                          46
II.      Timeline – Civil War Era




                                                                                                      Abraham
                              Westward expansion                                                       Lincoln
                                “Manifest Destiny”                                                     elected
                                                                                                      President
                                                                     Compromise
                                                                       of 1850
           Missouri
          Compromise                                                                          Dred                  North wins
             1820                                                                             Scott                 Civil War
                                                                                              Case                    1865
                                                                                              1857




  1815        1820     1825     1830           1835   1840   1845           1850       1855           1860            1865




                                                                Mexican –
                                                                American                               Ft. Sumter
                                                                  War                                   fired on
                                                                                   Kansas –
                                                                                   Nebraska            Civil War
                                                                                     Act                begins
                                                                                    1854
                                                                                                         1861




                                                                                                                                 47
III. Manifest Destiny

   Manifest Destiny: the concept, believed by most Americans, that the
   United States had the right to any lands from the Appalachian
   Mountains to the Pacific Ocean


Reasons for wanting to expand west

      Religion
       - many Americans were looking for increased religious freedoms from persecution or
         harassment
                                                                        NYS Connection
       - Brigham Young led the Mormons (see box) along the
          Mormon Trail to Utah                                          The Missionaries

      Expansion of cotton culture:                                         Marcus Whitman
                                                                             - Missionary to Oregon
       - the expansion of cotton into the west meant the
                                                                             territory. Group
       expansion of slavery too – the question of balance                    massacred by Native
       between “slave states” and “free states” would be                     Americans – this led to the
       a huge issue in the coming years before the Civil War                 demand for annexation of
                                                                             Oregon country
      opportunity
       - the chance for a better economic situation, or personal            The Mormons – begun by
       freedoms, encouraged many people to move west for                     Joseph Smith in Palmyra,
       a new, and hopefully better life.                                     NY
       - the “Gold Rush” of the late 1840’s brought many                     - after he was killed, his
       people to the west coast                                              supporters moved
                                                                             westward and established
                                                                             the Mormon Church in
                                                                             Utah.
Disputes over expansion

      Oregon Dispute:
       - both the U.S. and Great Britain claimed the area that is now the American Northwest

       - a settlement was made dividing the lands at the 49th parallel

       - Great Britain got the lands north of the line (What is today Canada)

      Texas/Mexican War
       - Texas was first its own nation – it had won independence from Mexico in 1836
       - over time, many Texans began to have economic and cultural connections with the U.S
       - the U.S. annexed Texas into the Union in 1845
       - a boundary dispute led to the Mexican-American War the next year
       - the U.S. won and took over additional lands from Mexico – including California
Settlement of the West
     Homestead Act:

       - 1862 – The Federal Government, in an attempt to encourage more
       settlement in the west, offered 160 acres to any adult citizen for just $10
       - the settler agreed to live on and improve the land for 5 years before acquiring ownership
       - millions of Americans, along with millions of foreign-born immigrants moved west



      Transcontinental Railroad:
       - the federal government sponsored the building of a railroad to cross the
       United States
       - the first was completed in 1869
                - new markets in the west were opened up to eastern products
                - western products could now reach the eastern markets easier
                - migration of people increased significantly



      Clash with Native Americans:
          o Indian Wars
              - the late 1800’s saw increased conflict between Native-American tribes and Americans
              - led by Sitting Bull, the Sioux had many conflicts, including the Battle of Little Big
              Horn
              - the Massacre at Wounded Knee is considered the end of the Indian Wars
              - most native people were now located on lands called “reservations”

                     The Genocide question:
                      - events such as the Massacre at Wounded knee, in which many unarmed
                      innocent natives were killed by American soldiers, along with the harsh
                      reservation system, have led to questions about the governments role in trying to
                      get rid of the Native-Americans.



          o Daws Act:

              - 1887, Congress passed legislation to attempt to “Americanize” native people
              - they offered individual natives American citizenship and land ownership if they would
              each leave the reservations and their tribes and live like other Americans
              - few natives took this offer

          o The Reservation

              - lands set aside by the Federal government for Native-American tribes to live on in
              peace
              - these lands often became hash areas to live and much poverty existed there

                                                                                                     49
IV. Sectionalism
   Sectionalism: as the years went by, areas of the nation, mainly the northern and southern
   sections, each began to develop separate identities, as well as varying wants and needs. This
   “sectionalism”, would prove to be the biggest test to the survival of the still young nation.


Divided America

      The Industrial North

          o Trade:
            - While trading with other nations, the northern states industrial centers traded
            products across the entire nation


          o Factories:
            - the northern states dominated the industrial revolution in America
            - their factories produced as much vital products as any nation in the
            world
            - their culture was centered around the industrial workplace


          o Urban Centers:
            - industrialization drew rural people to the new urban centers
            - most northerners lived in industrial cities
            - the north’s population was the largest of any section of the nation


          o Transportation:
            - again, because of industry, the north dominated the development or transportation
            systems including canals, roadways, and especially the newer railroads.


      Agrarian South

          o Plantation System:
            - Large, slave worked cash crop farms dominated the economy of southern states
            - most southerners lived a rural life in small towns

          o Cash Crop:
            - the economy of the south was based on the sale of cash crops – notably cotton
            - southern states depended on trade not only with northern states, but with industrial
              centers of Europe as well

          o Slavery:
            - dependent on slave labor, southern states had to base their
            political interests along lines that would ensure the existence
            of slavery

                                                                                                     50
Sectional Disputes

       Issue               Northern View            Southern View         Western View

                         - pro bank              - anti bank             - pro bank
                         - controlled majority   - viewed bank as
   Bank of the           of ownership in the     another infringement
   United States         bank                    on southern
                         - located in Phil. PA   sovereignty



                         - for federally         - against internal      - for internal
                         funded internal         improvements            improvements
                         improvements            - used existing         -people and
     Internal            - due to increased      waterways to move       products could
   Improvements          output in the North     products                move west cheaper
                                                                         and easier



                         - increasingly          - favored               - the issue divided
                         opposed                 - more potential        westerners
                                                 “Southern” states
    Expansion of                                 would emerge from
      Slavery                                    new territories

 (New Territories)



                         - opposed               - favored               - favored cheap
                         - might upset the       - many new              lands
                         balance between         territories would       - encouraged
 Cheap western lands     free and slave states   likely include          migration to west
                                                 slavery




                         - favored tariffs to    - opposed               - opposed
                         protect infant          - would raise the       - would raise the
                         industries              price on southern       price of goods
       Tariffs           developing in the       imports                 reaching the
                         north (protective       - while having little   west
                         tariffs                 effect on southern
                                                 exports (cotton)

Compromises on the Expansion of Slavery Issue
                                                                                               51
Compromises on the Expansion of Slavery


   Name                      Issues            Resolution                  Impact

                                             - Missouri would be
                                             added as a slave        - gave a formal
                     - Could Congress                                boundary to slavery
                     prohibit slavery in     state (at the same
                                             time as Maine is        - future states along
                     new territories?                                boundary would lead
                                             added as a free
                                             state)                  to major questions
   Missouri          - Could Congress                                 -never really dealt
  Compromise         place conditions on
                                             - no slavery in the     with the legal issue of
                     new states entering                             slavery
                     the Union?              rest of the old
                                             Louisiana Territory     - postponed the
                                             above the 36 *30’       inevitable: war
                                             line of latitude


                     - the admittance of     - California was        - kept southern states
                     California as a free    admitted a free state   from leaving the
                     state threatened the                            Union for the time
                     balance of power in     - Fugitive Slave Act    being
                     Congress between        required escaped
                     free and slave states   slaves to be            - northern states
                                             returned to owners      often ignored the
 Compromise of                                                       Fugitive Slave Act
    1850                                     - Popular
                                             Sovereignty:            - popular sovereignty
                                             citizens in each        was confusing to
                                             territory would vote    many
                                             to be entered as a
                                             slave or free state


                     - people in Kansas      - the                   - violence erupted in
                     and Nebraska wanted     Kansas/Nebraska         “Bleeding Kansas”
                     to vote to decide       Act overturned the      between pro and anti
                     whether or not to       Missouri                slavery supporters
                     become slave states –   Compromise in the
                     not follow the          new territories of      - the Whig party
 Kansas/Nebraska
                     Missouri                Kansas and              weakened and died
      1854
                     Compromise              Nebraska allowing       out and a new party,
                                             for popular             the Republican Party,
                                             sovereignty to          began.
                                             decide




                                                                                               52
                          Case Study – The Dred Scott Case

Dred Scott vs. Sanford (1857)

      Scott, an African American, had lived for awhile with his owner in free Illinois

      Later, his owner moved to Missouri, a slave state

      He sued for his freedom claiming he was free because of his time in Illinois




Constitutional Issue: the issue of slavery in the territories




Court Decision:

      The Supreme Court said Scott was not free because he was not a citizen – and could
       not be protected by the U.S. Constitution – he was property




Impact:

      Because slaves were now considered property, the Missouri Compromise was
       considered to now be unconstitutional – the Federal government could not restrict
       people from owning property


      Northerners opposed the ruling



      Southern states threatened to leave the Union if Northerners did not obey it




                                                                                            53
V.    Causes of the Civil War

        Cause                                       Effect

                              Sectional Polarization:
                               - by the mid-1800’s, the nation was divided up politically
                               over the slavery issue mostly
                               - some supported slavery everywhere
                               - some opposed slavery everywhere
                               - some favored popular sovereignty
 Failure to resolve
 the slavery issue
                              Radical Abolitionism:
                               - some opponents of slavery, including John Brown, used
                               violence against slavery supporters. Many slave owners
                               became convinced some abolitionists wanted to murder
                               slave owners

                              Rise of Republican Party (North):
                               - born after the Kansas/Nebraska Act
                               - created in opposition to slavery
                               - most Republicans were in the North
                               - their motto: “Free soil – Free Labor – Free Men”

                              Disunion of Democratic Party:
 Regionalization               - Southern Democrats wanted to protect slave owners rights
 of political parties          - Northern Democrats supported popular sovereignty
                               - divided, they were weaker

                              Election of Lincoln:
                               - the divided Democrats could not defeat the Republican
                                 candidate Abraham Lincoln
                               - fearing a loss of southern power, southern states began to
                               seriously talk of breaking away from the Union



                              Secession: Seven southern states eventually voted to break
                               Away from the Union (secede)
                               - South Carolina was the first

 Lincoln’s election
                                         Ft. Sumter: South Carolina troops took over the
                                          federally owned fort in Charleston harbor
                                          - Lincoln called up more federal troops
                                          - more southern states reacted by seceding too


                                                                                              54
VI. The War
Military strategy of each side

                     North

                      - use superior resources, technologies, and manpower
                     - divide the Confederacy – capture and control the Mississippi River
                    - blockade the southern ports – don’t let supplies into the Confederacy
                    - capture the capital - Richmond


                     South

                    - attack, again and again, hoping to wear down the north’s will to win
                    - gain support from Great Britain and France, each dependent on southern cotton



Major Battles

      Ft. Sumter: South Carolina troops took over the federal fort.



      1st Manassas (Bull Run):
       - the north thought it would be an easy victory and an end to a short war
       - the southern victory proved it would be a tougher fight, and longer war than expected


      Monitor vs. Merrimack:
       - strategically unimportant, the first battle between iron clad gunboats



      Antietem:
       - the first significant Northern victory – kept Great Britain and France from helping the South
       - had the most one-day casualties in the history of the United States


      Gettysburg:
       - the turning point of the war – until this time, the South had, in general, been wining the war
       - the northern victory bolstered morale, and weakened the southern army


      Appomattox: scene of the final moments of the war; Lee surrendered to Grant here.




                                                                                                          55
On the Home front

      Civil Liberties:
       - citizens in Washington, D.C. area were arrested and held without habeas corpus rights (not
       being told charges against them)
       - Lincoln felt threatened for potential espionage, and the courts were overwhelmed with cases

          o ex parte milligan: Supreme Court case – determines unlawful to hold persons without
            formal charges




      Role of Women
       - in both then North and South, women took the place of men in factories and on farms
       many served as nurses in hospitals and near the battlefields

          o Clara Barton:
            - pioneering woman in the nursing field
            - founder of the American Red Cross



      Role of African Americans:
       - in the north, many took the place of white workers in the factories
       - after the Emancipation Proclamation, many in rushed to enlist and serve in the U.S. Army




Role of Lincoln

      Emancipation Proclamation:
       - Lincoln’s decision to free all persons in states that were still rebelling in January of 1863
       - it changed the purpose of the war – from just about preserving the Union – to ending slavery
         as well


                             Gettysburg Address:

                             - Lincoln’s short, but meaningful speech outlined the meaning and
                      significance of the war




                                                                                                     56
VII. Essential Questions

1. How did expansion in the West contribute to the ongoing sectional conflicts that would
ultimately lead to a civil war in America?

      The issue of admission of states as either being free or slave states cause great conflict and
       strengthened sectional rivalries

      The balance of power in Congress was at stake




2. In what ways was the treatment of Native Americans in the West contrary to the principles of
the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution?


      The fundamental principles of the early American documents was rarely applied to the lives of
       Native Americans in early American history.




3. In what ways were the reasons given by southern states for secession similar or different than
the founding father’s reasons for breaking away from Great Britain?

      In both cases, each rebelling area felt that their fundamental rights were not being protected by
       their government

      Economic concerns were important issues in each situation

      The issue of representation in government:
          o Colonies – no representation in Parliament
          o South – the balance of power was such that their representation in Congress was often
              minimal at best



4. How can it be argued that the U.S. Civil War was a “total war” – a war against an entire
society, not just a war against an army?

      The war time strategies of both sides was often directed at the citizenry
          o Armies living off the land – destruction of crops and capital facilities – instilling
             general fear among the public



                                                                                                        57
 Unit 6

Reconstruction




                 58
                              Timeline




    The Reconstruction
         Pewriod
                      Lincoln’s Plan



  The Assassination


                Various Plans to Reconstruct America



  Johnson’s Plan                                  Radical
                                              Republican’s Plan




Economy
                            The New South                   Government


Society




                                End of Reconstruction


    Essential
    Questions




                                                                         59
II.     Timeline – Reconstruction Period
                                       15th Amendment
                                   guarantees voting rights
                                    to African Americans
                                             1870                                                               Plessy v. Ferguson
                                                                                                               Supreme Court Case
                                                                      The election of                                  1896
                          14th Amendment                               Rutherford B.
                        extends citizenship to                       Hayes as President
                         African Americans                               ends the
                                1868                                 Reconstruction Era
                                                                           1877
         13th Amendment
         abolishes slavery
               1865



 1862         1865              1868             1871         1874          1877          1880   1883   1886     1889         1892




                        Reconstruction
                         Acts passed
                            1867



          President
           Lincoln
         Assassinated
            1865
III. The Plans for Reconstructing America

       After the Civil War – the United States needed to be rebuilt – and heeled, especially in the South.
                                                    But – how to do it?
                                                    Lincoln’s Plan
                                           His view: Do not punish the South

      Pardons to southerners if they swore loyalty to the U.S.

      If a state got 10% to swear loyalty, they could form a new state government with a constitution.

      The new constitution had to ban slavery in the state


                                                   The Assassination
             John Wilkes Booth assassinated President Lincoln right after the war ended – making his plan weak




       President Johnson’s Plan
                                                           Radical Republican’s Reconstruction Plan
    His plan:
                                                        Legislation                           Southern Response
    - Supported most of Lincoln’s plan
                                                 13th Amendment (1865)
    - no provisions for protecting the rights
                                                 - abolished slavery in the              - all states, except Mississippi,
    of African-Americans
                                                 United States                           ratified the amendment
    - High ranking Confederate officials                                                 - “Black Codes” were created
                                                 14th Amendment (1866)                   that limited the rights of African
    had to apply for amnesty
                                                 - anyone born in the U.S. was a         Americans
                                                 citizen
                                                 - states could not deprive a citizen    - ten of the Confederate States
    Johnson’s Impeachment Issue:
                                                 of rights without due process of law    refused to ratify the 14th
                                                 - limited the rights of former          amendment
    impeachment:
                                                 Confederate officials
    - Johnson angered may Congressmen
                                                 - took care of debts from the war
    by firing many officials – a violation of
    the Tenure of Office Act
                                                 15th Amendment (1869)
                                                 - The right to vote could not be        - Grandfather clause, literacy
    The trial:
                                                 denied to any citizen because           tests, poll tax,
    - Lasted three months
                                                 or race                                 - use of terror tactics,
    The verdict:                                                                         re-emergence of Ku Klux Klan
                                                 Freedmen’s Bureau                       and Knights of the White
    - The vote in the Senate was one short
                                                 - created by Congress soon after        Camelia
    of the 2/3 needed to impeach
                                                 the war to aid former slaves:
                                                   - provided food and clothing          - Local state laws often got
                                                   - medical services                    around the requirements of the
    effect:
                                                   - set up early schools for African-   Freedmen’s Bureau
    - Johnson’s political power was lost
                                                     Americans
    and the way was open for more radical
    Republicans to lead Reconstruction
                                                 Military Districts
                                                  5 districts created
IV. The New South
Economic

      End of the Plantation System
       -many plantations were ruined during the war
       - the end of slavery ended that plantation system as it existed before the war
       - the plantation system was the main basis of wealth in the old south – now it was gone
       - sharecroppers and tenant farmers, as well as established farms, tried to restart in a new
         economic environment
       - carpetbaggers: northerners who took advantage of southern economic ruin to profit for
         themselves

      Growth of Industry
       - envisioning a “New South”, some southerners saw the value of industry in a new economy
       - at first: railroads, textile mills, steel production
       - later: oil and coal

Political
        - scalawags (“scoundrels”) Southern whites that sided with northern reconstruction
        - some African Americans elected to office (Hiram Revels)
        - Democrats returned to power in the South

Society

      “Jim Crow” laws: laws passed in southern states that established social segregation – the
       separation of people based on race. African Americans could not use the same facilities as
       white people


                             Case Study – Plessy v. Ferguson    
Background:
  - Jim Crow laws had created a social segregation in the south.
  - Louisiana passed a law requiring segregation on public transportation
  - the law was challenged by a 1/8 black blooded man named Homer Plessy

Constitutional issue:
  - Plessy argued that the Louisiana law violated the 13th and 14th amendments
  - also that it labeled African Americans with a “badge of inferiority”

Decision:
   - Segregation was legal as long as African Americans had access to “equal but separate”
facilities.

Effect:
  - the decision reinforced segregation in the south and became the basis for legal segregation
for the next half century
  - though not intended, the decision was applied to schools as well after this

                                                                                                     62
V.       End of Reconstruction

        Disputed Election of 1876:

         - A dispute in the Electoral College results for the 1876 Presidential race

         - a commission was set up to settle the dispute

         - Mostly Republican members of the committee ruled in favor of the Republican candidate –
         Rutherford B. Hayes

            o Compromise of 1877
              - Democrats agreed to go along with the ruling as long as President Hayes:
                    - withdrew federal troops from the south
                    - appointed a southerner to his cabinet
                    - supported federal spending to improve conditions in the South



            o End of military occupation:

                - The withdraw of federal troops virtually ended any advances by African Americans
                since the end of the Civil War

                - white control and the creation of Black Codes and Jim Crowe laws became the norm



        Restoration of white control in the South:

         - the removal of federal troops allowed whites to gain control over southern states again

                - Secret societies: organizations like the Ku Klux Klan tried to frighten
                  African Americans and supporters out of taking part in Reconstruction gains

                - Poll Taxes: those too poor to pay the tax, including most African Americans, could not
                  vote

                - Literacy tests: some states required citizens to be able to read and write to vote. This
                  also limited many African Americans

                - Grandfather Clauses: these allowed anyone that could vote before 1867, or their
                  sons or grandsons, to vote even if they could not pay the poll tax or read and write.
                  Of course, this was mostly whites only.




                                                                                                          63
VI. Essential Questions

1. In what ways did Congress attempt to regain powers that seemed have been lost to a strong
President in Lincoln?

          o Radical Republicans took charge of Reconstruction policies after Lincoln’s
            assassination

          o The impeachment of President Johnson resulted in a weakened Presidency and a
            stronger Congress




2. What was the effect of Congress passing new Amendments to the Constitution, but failing to
provide Federal support to enforce them?


   o The passage of Jim Crow laws in southern states allowed the states to get around the intentions
     of the amendments

   o The formation of reactionary groups (KKK, etc) came about




3. After learning about the events and actions of the Reconstruction period, how can it be
argued that the North did not gain a victory in the Civil War?

      Despite the legal ending of slavery, it continued to operate on an informal basis in many
       southern areas

      The issue of states rights vs. federal rights was still an issue during and after the
       Reconstruction period

      Despite gaining the fundamental rights of individual freedom, the basic lives of many African
       Americans often faced a more intensely prejudicial environment with Jim Crow laws and
       reactionary groups




                                                                                                       64
               Long Term Effects of the Civil War
                and Reconstruction on America

   The end of slavery in America:

    - 13th Amendment ended slaver in America
    - began the migration of African Americans west and north



   Racism – Segregation

    - South tries to maintain pre-Civil War status of subservience of African
    Americans
    - Black Codes and Jim Crow laws further divide the South racially



   A changed economy:

    - beginnings of the industrial age
    - North emerges as industrial/economic center of U.S.



   The “Solid South”:

    - begins a history of the South voting as a bloc for the Democratic party
    (southern blacks are discouraged for voting for the party of Lincoln –
    Republicans)
    - Southern politicians emerge with one voice – supporting legal
    segregation


   Growth of the Federal Government:

    - support for growth of the Federal Government
          - control over conquered territory (south)
          - disappearance of states rights (option to federal control)



        “Before the Civil War, people said “the United States are…’. After the war,
                  they said ‘the United States is…’.”     - Shelby Foote



                                                                                      65
      Unit 7

The Industrial Movement




                          66
                           Timeline




The Industrial Movement

         The Rise of Big Business




                     Important Business Leaders




 The Impact of Big Business




                  America Responds to Big Business




     Essential Questions




                                                     67
II.     Timeline – Industrial Movement




                              Munn v.
                              Illinois
                                                                                      Pullman
  Civil War ends                                                                       Strike
  Reconstruction              Railroads                   Interstate
                              regulated                                                1894
  period begins                                         Commerce Act
                                1877                       passed
                                                             1887




 1864          1868   1872   1876         1880   1884         1888            1892      1894    1898   1902




                                                                        Farmers
             The                                                      organize the
           Grange                                                    Populist Party
         is founded                                                      1891
            1867
III. The Rise of Big Business in America


Factors promoting big business in America

Abundant Natural Resources:

                coal

                oil

                iron ore

                water




New Technologies:

                factory system

                steam engine

                railroads and steamships

                new machines and tools

                interchangeable parts




Transportation

                canals, steamships, and especially railroads

                greatly improved the ability to transport both raw materials and finished products



Cheap Labor

                large families and the arrival of immigrants meant a huge population that needed work

                the high demand for jobs kept the cost of labor down for businesses
Economic Environment:

              Investment Capital Local and International investors saw a bright future for American
               Industry (many investors had made their money through the old Triangle Trade)

              Laissez-Faire: the government did not get involved in setting prices and wages – the
               market was allowed to control this through “supply and demand” forces

              Federal Government Support

                   o   High tariffs kept foreign goods out of U.S. markets
                   o   Gave away lands to railroad companies to promote railroad development
                   o   Sold lands to mining companies for less than real value
                   o   Stayed out of most of the affairs of business – allowed “free enterprise” to take
                       place

Social Attitudes

              Social Darwinism:
               - the ideas of “survival of the fittest” as applied to the business community
               - the strongest should survive and the weakest businesses will fail
               - Social Darwinism was used as justification for many actions
               - also applied against government thoughts to help the poor – was seen as “against the
               laws of nature”

              Horatio Alger Myth:
               - based on books by the author Horatio Alger
               - his characters often embodied the ‘Puritan Ethic” – hard work brings success
               - often featured the dream of a poor boy rising to become a wealthy businessman

Characteristics of big business

   New ways began at this time to organize business

              incorporation:
               - corporations are businesses that have many investors owning shares of the business
               - shareholders hope to receive a share of the profits at a future time
               - losses are spread out to only what a shareholder owns
               - this increased capital investment in American industry

              trusts:
               - a group of corporations in a related field, such as oil, or railroads
               - they were later made illegal

              department stores:
               - putting several small stores together under one roof – more efficient shopping

              mail order catalogs:
               - Sears and Montgomery Ward opened up department store shopping to rural areas

                                                                                                       70
               IV. Case Study – Important Business Leaders

                     Andrew Carnegie                       John D. Rockefeller

               - immigrant from Scotland               - born and raised in NY State
Early Life
               - worked in textile mill at age 12      - focused on accounting from an early
                                                       age


               - worked for Pennsylvania               - moved to Cleveland, got involved in
               Railroad                                oil business at its beginnings
Big Break
               - familiarized himself with             - merged oil businesses together
               Bessemer’s process of steel making      (horizontal integration)

                                                       - oil refining (controlled 90% worldwide)
               - steel
Industry




               - vertical integration – merging        - horizontal integration – merging
               steps of production to cut cost of      companies that produce the same
               production                              product
                       - acquired coal mines, iron
               ore fields, limestone quarries          - single minded, goal oriented focus
                       - his prices were lower than
Reasons for    any other competitor                    - able to adapt to changing
 Success                                               government policies
Methods used                                                   - formed trusts in response to
                                                       anti-monopoly legislation




               - sold his company for a quarter of a   - his son, John Jr., tried to change his
               billion dollars                         father’s image into a lovable
                                                       billionaire (handed out Rockefeller
               - believed the wealthy had an           dimes)
Later Life     obligation to society and gave away
               millions of dollars - philanthropy

               - underwrote many public libraries
               across the United States
                                                                                                   71
Other important business leaders:

      Cornelius Vanderbilt:
       - began as a ship captain and ended up owning large railroad companies

       - owned the New York Central and dominated railroad business between New York City and
       Chicago

      J.P. Morgan
       - began as a banker – made money making loans to growing businesses

       - took over many bankrupt railroads and merged them into larger profitable ones

       - later bought Carnegie Steel and merged it with others to form U.S. Steel

      Henry Ford
       - revolutionized auto making by using the assembly line to produce more affordable cars



V. Impact of Big Business
Urban Growth

      Why they came:
       - for jobs and better housing.

       - immigrants settled in ethnic neighbor hoods of cities they landed in

       - visions of improved opportunities and prosperity

      Where they went:
       - the urban industrial centers of the north mostly

       - immigrants tended to settle in the port city of where their boat landed

      Influx of foreign immigrants
       - “Old” Immigration: Early 1800’s – mostly from northern and western Europe

       - “New” Immigration: Late 1800’s – mostly from southern and eastern Europe and also from
       Asia

      Problems
       - crowded tenement apartment buildings were unsafe and unpleasing living conditions

       - crime was prevalent – especially in the poorer areas

       - corruption in political sectors was rampant and did not improve most peoples daily lives


                                                                                                    72
Work and the workers

      Factory working conditions
       - long hours (12-16 hour days)
       - low pay
       - unsafe conditions – machines, factories, mines
       - replaceable workers

      Child labor
       - kids were used when possible because business owners could pay them less

       - conditions were more dangerous to kids that often had difficulties operating machines and
         working the long hours

      Two wage earners
       - new opportunities for women to work came about at this time
       - women took jobs our of economic necessity – or to take a greater role in society
       - paid less than men were paid for similar jobs

      New job opportunities for women

          o Factories (textile factories):
            - factory work for women was usually limited to textiles


          o Domestic:
            - jobs as house cleaners, cooks, and nannies were prevalent
            - usually done in homes of the wealthy, and sometimes the new middle class homes

          o Clerical:
            - new inventions, such as the typewriter and telephone opened up new job opportunities
            for women
                                                                       Abuses of Railroad Industry

Abuses of Big Business
                                                                    Long and short haul abuses:
                                                                    charging higher rates for short
      Monopolies: attempts by companies to eliminate               hauls than long ones
       competition and “corner the market” for a certain
       business sector                                              Unfair storage fees: charged
                                                                    farmers higher rates (especially in
                                                                    grain industry)
      Influence on government: contributions to campaigns
       and candidates at a state and federal level in hopes to      Rebates: industrialists given
       gain favorable legislation                                   refunds as incentive to use specific
                                                                    railroads
      Anti-organized labor: government sided with
       management against unions at this time

      Unsafe products: companies often took advantage of lack of regulations on products


                                                                                                           73
VI. America Responds to Big Business

Populist Movement
        The populist movement originated with farmers that wanted changes in national politics that
would make their situation easier. It was a real threat to Democrats in the South, but eventually died
out as economic conditions changed.



      The Grange

          - originally organized as a social organization for farming families

          - eventually turned into a powerful lobbying organization for pro-farmer legislation

          - developed into a co-op for agricultural communities to help regulate farm product prices




      The Granger Movement

       - pressed Congress to pass laws to regulate the railroads and the prices they charged farmers

       - developed co-ops to store and distribute agricultural products in order to better control
       prices of farm products




      The Government Responds

          o Munn vs. Illinois (1877)
            - first of the famous “Granger Cases” – reactions against railroads charging unfair
            prices to farming industry
            - the issue was whether or not a state could regulate prices of railroad activities
            - Did the U.S. Constitution permit a state to regulate privately owned businesses?
            - 7-2 decision in favor of the state – gave states powers to regulate local businesses

          o Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
            - first federal government regulation of big business
            - marks and end to the established concept of unquestioned “laissez-faire”
            - created the Interstate Commerce Commission – monitor and regulate interstate
            businesses – especially railroads – and began to end the abuses in this industry




                                                                                                       74
The Growth of Labor Unions

      Early National Labor Unions

         o Knights of Labor
           - led for many general reforms: 8 hour days, end to child labor, equal pay for women

             - declined in power after a few unsuccessful strikes and competition from the A.F. of L.


         o A.F. of L.
           - American Federation of Labor – led first by Samuel Gompers

             - fought hard for basic rights and conditions for workers

             - became very popular – but did not welcome women, immigrants, or African-Americans


      Objectives of Labor unions

         - Better wages for workers


         - Better working conditions: less hours and safer conditions


         - better associated benefits like health care, sick days, vacation time


      Important Leaders of Labor

         o Gompers: early leader of the A.F. of L.


         o Debbs: leader of the American Railway Union – organizer of the Pullman Strike


      Conflict and Struggle

         o Tools of Management

                     Yellow-dog contracts: owners required workers to sign oaths to not join a union

                     Detectives were often hired to search our union organizers – then fire them

                     Lock-outs prevented workers from working – and getting paid!

                     Owners often hired replacement workers (scabs) during a strike

                     Black lists: owners often shared names of troublemakers – wouldn’t hire them
                                                                                                        75
         o Tools of Unions

                     Collective bargaining – third party representatives used to negotiate contracts

                     Strikes – organized action of not reporting for work by employees

                     Picket – standing near business with signs to call attention to unfair conditions

                     Boycott – organized action of not buying products of a business



         o Major Strikes

                     Homestead:
                      - workers at a Carnegie Steel Plant in Homestead, PA went on strike to protest a
                      large wage cut
                      - management brought in security to protect the plant and continue work
                      - violence erupted and some people were killed and many wounded
                      - workers gave in and only a few of them got their jobs back
                      - a major setback for unions – especially in the steel industry




                     Pullman:
                      - striking workers of railway-car makers clogged up the railways in much of the
                      country
                      - President Cleveland sent in federal troops to keep the trains moving because
                      they carried U.S. mail
                      - The Supreme Court case of U.S. v. Debs decided the federal government had a
                      right to support the “general welfare” of the American people




Other Labor Unions (Mid-1900’s)


      CIO: Congress of Industrial Organizations
             - organized skilled and unskilled laborers in various industries
             - American Railway Union, United Mine Workers



      AFL-CIO merger:
            - 1955 – two largest labor unions in America merged to form an
            even more powerful labor organization – became largest in the
            world


                                                                                                     76
VII. Essential Questions – The Industrial Movement

1. In what way can it be said that America was destined to have “Big Business”?

      Natural transportation systems
      Plenty of raw materials and resources
      Government policies that were favorable to business (laissez-faire)
      A base of capital investors (American and Foreign)
      A strong labor force was available
      The “rugged individualism” of the American character



2. How did industrial growth and the rise of business in America produce both positive and
negative results?

      Positive:
          o Dramatic increases in industrial production – becoming the world leader
          o Improvement in quality and availability of affordable goods for consumers
          o Set the stage for an increased role as a world power

      Negative:
          o Harsh working and living conditions prevailed during early stages of industrial and
              urban growth
          o Workers had little rights at first to improve wages or working conditions
          o Growth of monopolies limited economic competition in many sectors of business
          o Big business had too much influence over government



3. What were some of the actions that began to break away at the pure theory of laissez-faire in
America?

      Passage of government regulation of railroads (Interstate Commerce Act)
      “Trust busting” – passage of antitrust legislation
      Consumer protection legislation




4. What were the principle situations that led to the rise of labor unions?

      Low wages – child labor – unsafe working conditions – long hours
      Early labor unions were developing and gaining membership
      Events such as the Triangle factory fire and early strikes drew national attention




                                                                                                  77
Unit 8

Immigration




              78
                                               Timeline
       Map




                    Immigration

“Old” Immigration                         “New” Immigration



                        Different
                        Periods of
                       Immigration


 NOA Period                               Recent Immigration




                    Important Terms




                    Essential Questions




                                                               79
I.   Map – Immigration




                                  “Old”
                                  Immigrants
                                                     Recent
                                                     migration
                                        “New”        from Asia
                                        Immigrants


                Recent      Recent
                Mexican     Caribbean
                migration   migration
II.      Timeline – Immigration




         “old migration”

                                                              “new migration

                                                                                              NOA Period


  1700          1725       1750   1775   1800   1825   1850     1875            1900   1925         1950




                                                                       Immigration
                                                                          Center
                                                                         opens on
                                                                        Ellis Island
                                                                           1892




                                                                                                           81
III. Different Periods of Immigration in America

   Time           Who Came?                 Reasons why?               Reactions by U.S.

                 - dominated by the   - most came for religious or     - these people became the U.S.
                 English              political freedoms
                                                                       - they generally worked together and
                 - other “English”    - many came to improve           supported one another as newcomers
   “Old”
  Immigration    speaking people:     economic situation               in a new land
                 Scotch, Irish
   Colonial                           - opportunities of a new land    - they often had common enough
   Period        - Western and                                         cultural traditions to reduce significant
                 Northern                                              conflicts from occurring
  “The Great     Europeans: Dutch,
  Migration”     Scandinavians,
                 Germans

                 - Africans as
                 forced labor

                 - More from           - better economic               - a significant increase in anti-
                 Eastern and           opportunities in the            immigrant feelings or “Nativism”
                 Southern Europe       industrial centers of America
                                                                       - the first wave of immigrants
    “New”        - Asians: from        - religious freedom (Russian    considered themselves to be the true or
  Immigration
                 Japan and China       Jews)                           “native” Americans and resented the
   Late 1800’s
                                                                       new immigrants from other areas of
                                       - some for political freedoms   the world
  Early 1900’s
                                                                       - significant cultural differences often
                                                                       created prejudice and bigotry

                                                                       - many feared the erosion of their
                                                                       original “American” way of life


                                                                                                                   82
 Time          Who Came?                          Reasons why?              Reactions by U.S.

              - mostly Europeans                - World War II              - strict government regulation of
                  England                                                  immigration during this period
                  Italy
  NOA
                  Germany                                                  - maximum numbers were established to
 Period                                                                     be allowed into America each year
1925-1965
                                                                            - severally restricted “new” immigrants

                                                                            - favored northern and western Europeans
                                                                            over eastern and southern Europeans




              - Latin Americans                 - Economic opportunities     Government passed new immigration
                   Many Mexicans                                            laws:
                      crossing illegally over
                      southern U.S. border      - Political oppression       - Immigration Act-1965
                                                                                - Abolished quota system
              - Caribbean Islands               - Fleeing conflicts (war)       - Set maximum number allowed in U.S.
  Recent
Immigration        Cuba, Haiti,                                             each year
                     Dominican Republic                                        - Set a fair system to determine who
                                                                             would be allowed in
              - Asians
                   China, Philippines,                                      - Illegal Immigration Reform Act-1996
                     Vietnam, South Korea,                                      - more money for border patrols
                     India, Pakistan                                            - illegal immigrants ineligible for
                                                                             public assistance
                                                                                - punish employers that hire illegal
                                                                             immigrants



                                                                                                                       83
IV. Terms – Immigration

     old immigrants: the fist wave of Europeans coming to the Americas (1700’s). Usually came
      from Northern and Western parts of Europe. Usually came with money. Came for a more
      independent life.


     new immigrants: the second wave of Europeans coming to the United States (1800’s). Usually
      from Eastern or Southern Europe. Usually came poor – looking for opportunities.


     Nativists: Americans that rejected the new immigrants coming to America. They considered
      themselves the true Americans and did not like the new wave of “foreigners” and their different
      cultures.


     Know Nothing Party: also called the American Party, they opposed new immigrants in
      America. They feared the lose of jobs, and as mostly Protestants, they feared a Catholic
      influence and possible control of America by the Pope – and the loss of religious and political
      freedoms.


     The Yellow Peril: a term used to describe the influx of Asian, especially Chinese, immigrants
      to the US. Also called the “Yellow Terror”


     Ellis Island: Island in New York Harbor where immigrants first arrived to be registered


     assimilation: the process of blending in to the dominant society – in this case the process of
      becoming “Americanized”. Immigrants chose, or were sometimes forced, to learn English,
      accept new foods, and adapt to other cultural differences.


     naturalization: the formal process to become an American citizen


     The Melting Pot: a metaphor to describe the old belief that immigrants blended easily into the
      American culture – that the various cultures mixed to make a new cultural identity.


     The Salad Bowl: a more accepted metaphor that describes how various cultural groups coexist
      in America, living together but retaining their original cultural identity.


     cultural pluralism: a term that is in line with the “Salad Bowl” metaphor above. The idea that
      various cultural groups can exist within one larger cultural identity.


     refugee: a person who flees one nation for another in search of a more peaceful situation
V.       Essential Questions – Immigration


1. What are the significant differences between the periods of “Old Migration” and “New
Migration” in America?


        The Old Migration period was earlier in time (colonial period) – where generally of northern
         European descent (British, Scottish, etc.) and felt welcomed as much as anyone else that was
         starting a new life in America

        The New Migration was during the later 1800’s – where people from eastern and southern
         Europe – and were often discriminated against by the “Nativists” that had come earlier




2. What is the main difference in the geographic origin of earlier immigrants and the more
recent immigrants to the U.S.?

        earlier immigrants generally came from Europe

        more recent immigrants are coming from Latin America and Asia




3. Why might the term “Salad Bowl” be a more accurate metaphor than “Melting Pot” to
describe the relationship between various ethnic groups in America today?

        the term “melting pot” assumes that immigrants are coming to America and blending in easily
         to become a new culture – American

        the term “salad bowl” depicts immigrants coming and living amongst other Americans, but
         keeping their distinct ethnic identity




                                                                                                    85
       Unit 9

The Progressive Movement




                           86
                         Timeline




      The Progressive
        Movement
                Roots of the Progressive
                      Movement




Economic                                       Social

                     Aspects of the
                      Progressive
                      Movement
                                              Political




                      Progressive
                      Presidents

    Theodore                               Woodrow
    Roosevelt                               Wilson




                       Essential
                       Questions




                                                          87
II. Timeline – Progressive Movement




                                                                                                         19th
                                                               NAACP is                             Amendment
 Congress                                                       founded                            grants right to
  passes                                                          1909                             vote to women
 Sherman
                                                                                                        1920
 Antitrust
    Act
   1890




 1890        1893   1896   1899       1902   1905             1908        1911   1914   1917            1920




                                                                                               18th Amendment
                                               The Jungle                                      outlaws alcohol
                                               is published                                          1919
                                                   1906
IV. Roots of the Progressive Movement
   Progressive Movement: actually a collection of many movements, but generally a term that
   described the years from 1890-1920, when many Americans tried to improve many of America’s
   social problems. They were generally urban and middle class citizens, and they felt that the
   government should do more to help fix America’s problems.



Muckrakers
  Muckraker: a journalist that investigated social conditions and exposed government corruption
       - their articles often brought attention to social problems and put pressure on government
          officials to make reforms


      Magazines:

       - magazines became popular at this time and some, like McClure’s, often supported the articles
       of muckrakers

       - some popular articles became a series of articles and eventually were turned into books


      Authors:

       - Ida Tarbell’s History of the Standard Oil Company exposed how John D. Rockefeller
       amassed his wealth

       - Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle exposed the unsanitary conditions in the nation’s meat packing
       industry

       - Jacob Riis wrote How the Other Half Lives, revealing the terrible living conditions of the
       urban poor

       - Lincoln Steffens wrote The Shame of the Cities, telling about political corruption in cities


Populist Connection

       - many of the ideas of the Progressive Movement were born in the old Populist Movement
       - both were “grass routes” (from the people) organizations
       - each optimistically believed that they could cause great changes to society through their
       actions
V.   Aspects of the Progressive Movement

                            The Progressive Movement – Economic Issues

        Monopoly and Trusts:

         - Sherman Antitrust Act: 1890 – made trusts illegal.

         - also addressed price fixing and restraint of trade practices

         - not well enforced at first – but is important because of the indication of government
         regulation of businesses



        Child Labor:

         - at first reduced – then eliminated

         - marked the beginning of the creation of mandatory public schooling for children



        Consumer Protection:

         - Meat Inspection Act: set standards for meat packing cleanliness and federal inspections


         - Pure Food and Drug Act: prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure or
         falsely labeled food and drugs



        Working Conditions:

         - Progressives had mixed results in attempts to limit working hours at first:

                - Lochner v. New York: ruled against limiting hours in bakeries because it violated
                 the original contract between the employer and the employees

                - Muller v. Oregon: allowed women’s hours to be limited in order to protect the
                  health of the women. This often kept women out of higher paying jobs.

                - In general though, the labor union movement did grow in importance during this
                   time




                                                                                                     90
                            The Progressive Movement – Social Issues

   The Urban poor:

    The gap between the Rich and Poor grew wider during this time, especially in the cities

        - water and sewage systems began to be improved – to stop the spreading of diseases
        - building codes were written to create better housing conditions
        - Settlement Houses: located in working class areas, offered child care, education, job search
          help, and social activities – often for new immigrants
             - Hull House was famous in Chicago (started by Jane Addams)
             - Henry Street Settlement in New York City

   Women’s Rights

    Suffrage (the right to vote) was the leading issue concerning women at this time, but others
included:

            - Education: More colleges and universities were accepting women
            - Birth Control: led by Margaret Sanger, this controversial issue was intended to help
              inform women about family planning options


   Suffrage: the right to vote

            - this was the big issue for women’s rights
            - begun in the mid-1800’s in Seneca Falls, NY
                     - led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
            - Fueled again in the early 1900’s by the Progressive Movement, women leaders changed
            their attempt to win suffrage state-by-state – and pushed for an amendment to the U.S.
            Constitution
            - The role of women in World War I helped change many people’s minds
            - The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote in 1920

   African Americans:

    - Booker T. Washington: promoted vocational training for African-Americans to support them
    economically
    - W.E.B.Du Bois: founded the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored
    People) He advocated for better educational opportunities for African-Americans
    - Ida B. Wells: journalist that wrote against lynching of African-Americans
    - Marcus Garvey: a separatist and nationalist, wanted African-Americans to go back to Africa



   Temperance

    - Many social problems were seen as the result of alcohol consumption
    - Reformers first tried to reduce the amount of alcohol consumed
    - later, a push for alcohol prohibition was begun




                                                                                                         91
                           The Progressive Movement – Political Issues

   Imperfect Democracy:

    - a variety of reforms came about the make American more democratic that it had become in
    reality – as compared with the ideal vision of a democratic institution




   Solutions: policies were enacted to more participation of citizens – in order to have more say in
    their government’s activities


        o   Initiative: citizens can initiate legislation at the grass roots level



        o   Referendum: statewide public vote on a proposed legislation that originated through the
            initiative of the public


        o   Recall: state voters can “recall” an elected official based on a collective feeling of “no
            confidence”


        o   Direct Primaries: major political parties allow party members to actively participate in
            the process by which candidates are selected to run for offices




                                                                                                         92
VI. Progressive Presidents

Theodore Roosevelt

   Trust Buster:
       - President Roosevelt worked to end any kind of monopolies in business:
               - felt there were “good” trusts – which needed to be regulated
               - and “bad” trusts – which needed to be dissolved
               - Northern Securities Case: Roosevelt sued the Northern Securities
                  railroad company because it controlled too much of the railroads in the Northwest
                 and won a Supreme Court Case against the company


   Conservation:
       - Newlands Reclamation Act: money from sale of public lands was used to pay for irrigation,
         dams, and land development projects
       - Tripled the amount of land set aside for public use as national forests, national parks, wildlife
          refuges, and national monuments
       - Pushed for the U.S. Forest Service to manage millions of acres of public lands




Woodrow Wilson

   New Freedom: the name given to President Wilson’s progressive domestic policies



      Armed with a mandate from the American people (Wilson won a huge Electoral College
       majority), and a Democratically controlled Congress, with bi-partisan support for change,
       Wilson was in a great position to make changes

      Reduced the tariff on imported goods

      Led reform of the inept national banking system

      Strengthened the Sherman Act to combat trusts

      Some changes were made, but much of what he wanted to change was not changed how he
       would have wanted it to in the end




                                                                                                       93
VII. Essential Questions – The Progressive Movement


1. Why was it necessary for the private sector to take the actions that ultimately began the
Progressive Movement?

      The tradition of laissez-faire concerning government regulation of business had kept the
       government from intervening in the actions of business that had led to abuses

      The theory of “Social Darwinism” had allowed businesses to flourish free from governmental
       restrictions




2. In what ways did the Presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson define the
office for future Presidents?


      They began the precedents of having the government intervene on in business affairs on behalf
       of citizen protection

      They enacted social policies for the protection of society at large




3. Give examples of the governments increased resistance to “laissez-faire” economics:

      Railroad regulations were the first important moves to regulate private businesses “effected
       with the public interests”

      The “trust busting” acts: Clayton Antitrust and Sherman Antitrust

      Child labor laws and consumer protection laws were passed




4. What was the legacy of the Progressive Movement?

      Defining the role of the Federal government as a protector of the people and society at large




                                                                                                       94
     Unit 10

The U.S. As a World Power




                            95
             Map                                       Timeline




The U.S. as a World Power

            Reasons for Imperialism
                                                   Early Events



Spanish-American War
                                                        Overseas Territories
                                U.S. Imperialism


         Latin America




                                                        Before the War



During the War                  World War I


                                                         After the War




                                Essential
                                Questions



                                                                               96
I.   Map – U.S. Imperialism

       Alaska
       purchased
       from Russia




                                                                WWI       Open Door
                                                      WWI       Eastern   Policy and
                                                      Western   Front     Boxer
                                                      Front
                                                                          Rebellion in
                                                                          China


                                   Spanish-American                                      Matthew Perry
                                   War                                                   opens up
                                                                                         Japan to trade
        Hawaii
        annexed
        by U.S.      Panama
                     Canal built
II.      Timeline – U.S. as a World Power



                                                                                                             US
                                                                                                            enters
                                                                                                            WWI
                                                                                                            1917

                                                          US defeats Spain in
                                                          Spanish-American                        WWI
                                                                 War                            begins in
          Matthew
                                                                1898                             Europe
         Perry opens
                                                                                                  1914
          Japan to
            trade
            1854




  1865              1870   1875   1880   1885   1890   1895           1900        1905   1910       1915




       U.S. buys
      Alaska from                                               Open Door
        Russia                                                 Policy keeps
                                                                                                Panama
         1867                                                   China open
                                                                                                 Canal
                                                               to trade with
                                                                                                 opens
                                                                all nations
                                                                                                 1914
                                                                    1899


                                                                     Boxer
                                                                   Rebellion in
                                                                     China
                                                                      1900

                                                                                                                     98
III. Imperialism

   Imperialism: Powerful nations taking over weaker regions in order to create conditions that
   benefit the powerful nations in some way – usually economically.

Reasons for U.S. Imperialism

      Economic

          o To get raw materials for industry


          o To create new markets for new industrial products



      National/Political

          o Naval bases were needed for an expanding navy – sent to protect U.S. trade interests


          o Expansion of Manifest Destiny – many felt it was in America’s interest to continue
            expanding past the western frontier – to include expansion across oceans as well




      Social

          o Social Darwinism – many felt that Americans were obligated to bring the benefits of
            American society to other people and that American society was superior to others, and
            therefore had the right to dominate other societies.



          o Missionary Spirit – the urge to spread Christianity to others, as well as a more
            “civilized” society, especially in China, went along with the ideas of Manifest Destiny
            and Social Darwinism.



      Opposition to U.S. Imperialism

               Many Americans, including prominent reformers, opposed U.S. imperialism

               They felt it went against the American ideals of human equality and self-government
Early Events of U.S. Imperialism

      Opening of Japan:

       - Commodore Matthew Perry negotiated a treaty to with Japan to open two ports to U.S. ships
       - Japan used this connection to expand industrially and militarily over the next decades

      Open Door Policy /Boxer Rebellion:

       - U.S. urged European nations to allow for an “open door” when considering outsiders trading
       with China
       - The influx of foreigners angered many Chinese
       - Chinese citizens known as “Boxers” attacked foreigners in China
       - Foreign armies, including American, came to the defense of their citizens and defeated the
       Boxers

      Hawaii:

       - American missionaries first arrived – later others came to dominate the economy there
       - the sugar boom really attracted more Americans in the 1880’s
       - U.S. built a naval base at Pearl Harbor
       - U.S. annexed Hawaii in 1898

      Samoa:

       - U.S. established a naval base there – which it split with Germany and Great Britain
       - later, Germany and the U.S. divided the island



The Spanish American War (this took place in Cuba!)

      Causes The U.S. became involved in Cuba for many reasons:
          o Underlying Causes: Many Americans saw the Cuban situation as an opportunity to
             continue expansion and also save Cubans from a Spanish control that seemed to deny
             them appropriate economic and political advantages
          o Immediate Causes:
             - Yellow Journalism – newspapers at this time often wrote sensational articles, not
             necessarily accurate, in order to sell more papers. The Cuban situation was at the
             center of all of this
             - Sinking of the Maine: the U.S. warship exploded and sank in Havana, Cuba. The
             public blamed Spain, though this accusation was never proven.

      The War
       - U.S. won in just four months

      Results
       - Cuban independence
       - U.S. gained control of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
       - U.S. became recognized as more of a world power
                                                                                                 100
Government Overseas Territory Policies


   Territories: gaining new lands was a controversial idea. Many Americans thought it was
   America’s destiny – others wanted to focus attention on issues at home


      Cuba – Platt Amendment:
       - Gave the U.S. the right to approve Cuban treaties, have naval bases in Cuba, and to intervene
       in Cuba in order to keep peace there


      Philippines:
       - Taken after the Spanish-American War, first had to stop a rebellion by Filipino people
       - U.S. granted independence to the Philippines in 1946

      Puerto Rico:
       - acquired from Spain after the Spanish-American War
       - the Foraker Act mad it a U.S. territory
       - governs itself independently still today

Latin America

      The Monroe Doctrine:

       - Policy since 1823 that warned outside nations from getting involved in the Western
       Hemisphere
       - It was seldom an issue until the 20th Century

          o The Roosevelt Corollary:

                - an interpretation by President Theodore Roosevelt of the Monroe Doctrine
                - he said the Monroe Doctrine required the U.S. to act as an “international police
                power” in Latin America
                - this was over issues in Venezuela and the Dominican Republic

          o “Big Stick” Policy:
            - From Roosevelt’s famous quotation that the U.S. would “Speak softly and carry a big
            stick” when considering issues in Latin America
            - this meant they would use diplomacy, but would consider military means to solve
            issues if necessary

                      Great White Fleet: to demonstrate US naval capabilities to the nation and the
                       world
                       - Roosevelt sent 16 battleships and their escorts on a round the world trip

                      Panama Canal:
                       - U.S. negotiated the right to build a canal to shorten the sea route to the Pacific
                       - signed a 99 year lease with the nation of Panama to operate the canal
                       - the canal was turned over to Panama in 1999
                                                                                                       101
IV. World War I


Europe’s War

      Increased industrialization and militarism, raised feelings of nationalism and created a state of
       tension between European nations


      Military alliances between nations set up opposing sides for a face-
       down over the continent’s balance of power


      The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was the spark
       that set in motion events that would lead to war


      The “Central Powers”, led by Germany and Austria-Hungary vs. The “Allies”, led by Great
       Britain and France.



America Stays Out

      President Wilson:
       - publicly presented the U.S. as a “neutral” nation

       - privately supported the “Allies” – and also believed the U.S. needed to be involved in order
       be able to participate as a significant player in post-war events



      Anti-war movement:
       - Many Americans supported “isolationism” – wanting the U.S. to stay out or the affairs of
       Europe

       - others, simply were against U.S. involvement in a war of any kind



      Pressure from European-Americans:
       - German-Americans wanted the U.S. to support the Central Powers

       - The Anglo-Americans wanted the U.S. to support the Allies




                                                                                                    102
America Joins The War

      Reasons
          o Submarines/Lusitania:
             - Germany’s “unrestricted” submarine warfare angered many Americans
             - the sinking of the British ship the Lusitanian, with American citizens on board, really
             angered Americans
             - this was the main reason that the U.S. decided to go to war against Germany

          o British (French) Tradition:
            - the ties Americans had to the culture of Great Britain and the previous role of the
            French in America’s history, had a strong influence on which side the U.S. would join

          o Russian Revolution:
            - the overthrow of the Czar in Russia looked like a democratic movement – making
            Americans think they were joining an alliance of democratic nations

          o Zimmerman Telegram
            - the German foreign minister sent a telegram to Mexico, urging them to join Germany
            against the U.S. in return for lands they had lost to the U.S.
            - the telegram was intercepted by the U.S. and made public – this turned many
            Americans against Germany because of the sneaky approach


      America’s Role in the War
       o Selective Service:
         - The Selective Service Act provided for a military draft of men into the military
         - all men between the ages of 18 and 45 had to register
         - challenged – but upheld – by the Supreme Court

       o Doughboys:
         - nickname given to American soldiers in WWI

       o Modernization of war:
         - the industrial revolution had created military weapons that had outgrown the military
         strategies of the time
         - machine guns, U-Boats, artillery, poison gas, airplanes, and tanks

       o Turning Point:
         - Russia’s surrender seemed to help the Central Powers
         - but America’s involvement helped the Allies
         - the battle of the Argonne Forest marked the beginning of the end for Germany’s side

Wartime Constitutional Issues
 Schenck v. United States (1914) - concerned freedom of speech
       - Supreme Court ruled that freedom of speech could be restricted in times of war – if words
         presented a danger to the society



                                                                                                     103
V.       Post World War I
Wilson’s Fourteen Points Peace Plan

         - the name of President Wilson’s peace plan for after WWI
         - His ideas included:
                  - Open diplomacy between nations, no more secret alliances
                  - Self-determination – let national groups make their own political decisions
                  - a control of the arms race
                  - Freedom of the seas and the removal of trade barriers
         - his ideas were mostly ignored at the Treaty of Versailles




Treaty of Versailles

        Reparations:
         - against Wilson’s plan, other Allied nations wanted the losers of the war to pay for Allied
         losses – nearly $56 Billion


        League of Nations:
         - though many of Wilson’s ideas were not implemented, he was happy that an organization of
         nations was created to try to prevent another world war from ever taking place


        Rejection:
         - the Republican controlled Senate repeatedly defeated accepting the Treaty of Versailles,
         including having the U.S. join the League of Nations




Return to Isolationism

        Rejection of the League of Nations
         - the rejection of the League of Nations by Congress was a sign that Americans wanted to
         return to the policy of isolationism – to stay out of Europe’s affairs


        Washington Naval Disarmament Conference
         - The U.S., Great Britain, and Japan agreed to reduce their navies and stop construction of
         more battleships


        Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928):
         - U.S. and France agreed to renounce aggression and outlawed war
                                                                                                        104
VI. Essential Questions

1. Why could this phase of US imperialism be labeled a 2nd stage of Manifest Destiny in
America?


      Because the US expanded past the established borders of the nation
          o Alaska, Hawaii acquisitions
          o Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam – Spanish American War,




2. What ideals made Americans feel they had the right to take over and dominate other lands?


      Social Darwinism and Missionary Spirit – Americans felt they needed to spread the ideals of
       capitalism and Christian values

      Manifest Destiny – the American tradition of expansion and adventure




3. How can it be argued that America’s involvement in WWI - had more of an impact on each
citizen’s home life in America - than on the fighting aspect of a war abroad?


      America came into the war at a late point
      The fighting experience was a minimal influence on American society
      The sacrifices and commitments of citizens at home affected society even after the war
      Citizenship issues came to the surface and were dealt with




                                                                                                 105
      Unit 11

Boom and Bust in America




                           106
                    Timeline




Boom and Bust in America

                                    Social Issues


The Republican                        Political Issues
                     1920’s
  Presidents

                                  Economic Issues




         Causes

                                Characteristics of the
                                 Great Depression
                   The Great
                   Depression
   Hoover’s
   Response




Election of 1932                The 3 “R’s”


                      The
                    New Deal
   Controversies
                                 Impact


                                                         107
I.       Timeline – Boom and Bust in America

                                                                                           Franklin
         th                                                                              Roosevelt wins
     18                                                                                                                                             WWII
                                                                                           landslide
 Amendment                                                                                                                                          begins
                                                                                            election
   begins                                                                                                                                             in
                                                                                             1932
 Prohibition                                                                                                                                        Europe
    1920                                                                                                                                             1939
                                                                    Wall Street
         th                                                         Stock Crash
    19
                                                                       1929                              FDR
 Amendment
                                                                                                       launches                                                      US
   gives
                                                                                                      “New Deal”                                                    enters
 women the
                                                                                                         1933                                                       WWII
   vote
                                                                                                                                                                    1941
   1920


 1920              1922          1924            1926           1928           1930            1932           1934           1936            1938            1940




                                                                                                       21st
                                                                                                   Amendment
      Sacco
                                                                                                     repeals
       and
                                                                                                   Prohibition
     Vanzetti                           Scopes                                                        1933
      Trial                              Trial
      1920                               1925




              --Harding--   ------------Calvin Coolidge----------------- ------ Herbert Hoover-------- ---------------------Franklin Roosevelt------------------------------
II.   1920’s

                                              The Republican Presidents
            - an inexperienced politician, Harding’s Presidency is most noted for scandal

            - the Teapot Dome Scandal is the most famous: government owned petroleum reserves were leased out to
 Harding      private oil companies

            - other officials of his administration committed illegal acts to make profits

            - died in office

            - he wanted a “return to normalcy” and set out to strengthen businesses in America
            - appointed officials that would have the government assist businesses if possible
 Coolidge   - high tariffs were created so that foreign products would not compete with American made products
            - income taxes and corporate taxes were reduced – especially for the wealthiest Americans
            - businesses boomed – the GNP rose 40% in the U.S.
            - these times were known as “Coolidge Prosperity”
            - but the prosperity was not for everyone – factory workers, farmers, and minorities didn’t enjoy the benefits
               of the “Coolidge Prosperity”

            - inherited the worsening economy and the beginnings of the Great Depression

            - tried to instill positive thinking and beliefs that the economy would turn around very soon
 Hoover
            - he reluctantly tried to increase government sponsored help – public works projects, bank protections, but
              most if it came too late to do much good

            - when WWI veterans protested for bonus payments, his use of troops to break them up angered many
              Americans
Social and Political Issues

      Entertainment:
       - the 1920’s marked the rise of a trend toward a national identity with popular
       entertainment
       - the development of an urban society, and the growing idea of leisure time helped
          generate new ways to entertain the public – movies, organized sporting events, and music
         were popular

      Scopes Trial:
       - a battle of Christian values was waged over the teaching of the Theory of Evolution in schools

       - the modern media made this case a national event – Science vs. Religion


      Prohibition:
       - continuing the battle over moral values, the 18th Amendment banned the sale and
       consumption of alcoholic beverages

       - the law became unenforceable – organized crime, smuggling and bootlegging grew

       - the 21st Amendment repealed the failed experiment


      Red Scare:
       - a reaction to the Communist victory in the Russian Revolution of 1917

       - various conflicts, including labor strikes, urban riots, and unsolved bombings led to a
       national hysteria against foreign born persons, and a mistrust of communism in general


      Sacco and Vanzetti:
       - tied to the Red Scare – these men were convicted of a murder from a bank robbery

       - many believe they were unfairly convicted because of their personal beliefs and Italian
       heritage – the evidence against them was weak in the case – they were executed


      KKK:
       - a reaction to the rise in anti-foreign attitudes – the Klan reorganized in the 1920’s

       - originally against African-Americans, became anti Catholic, Jew and Immigrants

       - supported only white, Protestant, and American-born


      Changing moral values:
       - Urban vs. Rural      Religion vs. Science
       - New wealth, obtaining possessions, having fun, sexual freedoms Lawbreaking          Just some
       of the conflicting and new social values
      Literature:
       - many of the new cultural values became expressed in the popular literature of the age
       - some authors protested the growth of business, the conformity of the times, Americans
       preoccupation with material possessions, and the devastation of war

      The Great Migration:
       - begun during WWI, African Americans moved from the south to the north in search of
       industrial jobs – which paid more than sharecropping
       - the trend continued after the war as African Americans populated the industrial centers of the
       Midwest and Northeast

      Harlem Renaissance:
       - A growth in popularity of African American writers, musicians, and artists
        - centered in the Harlem district of New York City
       - W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston were just some of the influential
       writers

      Jazz music:
       - A blend of African, European, and American sounds
       - began in New Orleans – then up to Chicago – the over to New York
       - born in the African-American experience, it soon became popular with white audiences
       - the 1920’s became know as the “Jazz Age”



Economic Issues

      Mass consumption:
       - large quantities of manufactured goods were available in the 1920’s
       - many people had more buying power at this time
       - assembly line production made goods cheaper and more available

      Real Estate boom:
       - suburban areas grew most


      Installment buying:
       - once embarrassing, going in debt to purchase consumer goods became acceptable as wages
       and buying power increased

      Bull Market:
       - rising business optimism led to a rise in investment activity in the stock market as well
       - many investors were so confident in a continues bull market that they even invested on
       speculation – often at dangerous levels

      Farmer’s plight:
       - small farmers did not prosper like the rest of the American workers – earned 1/3 less than
       others
       - new machinery could produce more – but cost more as well – and earnings did not rise
       - changing markets – in the U.S. and abroad – did not support the farm community
                                                                                                      111
IV. The Depression
Causes

        An overall weak American economy
            o Overproduction in farm and industry led to low prices and poor profits
            o An unequal distribution of wealth led to little money available to be spent
            o Americans had built huge debt with easily available credit

        Weak corporate and Banking structures
           o Corporate holding companies were fundamentally weak
           o Banks were closing in mass numbers in the 1920’s

        Poor Government Policies
            o Government did not regulate the stock market in any way
            o Corporate mergers were not regulated or challenged
            o Poor decisions by the Federal Reserve on the discount rate


        Weak world economy
           o Especially in Europe – still troubled by debt from WWI
           o Other nations were buying few American goods

Characteristics of the Depression

        Low production:
         - the cycle of overproduction and low purchasing power led to shut downs of production
         - which in turn led to…

        High unemployment:
         - layoffs were overwhelming – huge numbers of Americans lost their jobs
         - African-Americans were hit hardest first
         - men in manufacturing were hit very hard
         - many were underemployed – paid for less hours instead of being totally laid off

        Low prices:
                                                                             Symbols of the Great
         - a surplus supply – and low demand – equals low prices and
                                                                                Depression
           profits – further complicating the economy
                                                                            - soup lines
        Bank failures:
         - banks had made credit easy – and too many loans went unpaid
                                                                            - shantytowns
        Morale:                                                            - dust bowl
         - many men – Fathers and Husbands – felt shamed that they
           could not fulfill their duty as bread winners                    - panhandling
        Family issues:                                                     - hobos
         - there were many changes, families often had to move in with
         relatives – or had to move to new areas to seek work

                                                                                                    112
Hoover’s Response

        Rugged Individualism/Charity: Much of Hoover’s personal beliefs influenced how he handled
         the problems of the depression.
             o He believed that individuals should work hard and pull themselves up and not depend
                on government relief – and the Puritan work-ethic: hard work brought its own rewards
             o He believed volunteer agencies should help those in need instead of the government
             o He had great faith that the economy would correct itself and issued statements such as
                “prosperity is just around the corner”.

        Reconstruction Finance:
            o Hoover believed in the “trickle down” theory of economics
            o He asked Congress to set up the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to make loans to
               banks, railroads, and farming institutions.
            o Hoover hoped the spread of new money would trickle down to the people through jobs
            o It didn’t work well enough

        Bonus Army: name given to the veterans of WWI that needed, and demanded their bonus pay
         from service in WWI
            o After Congress did not pass the payment, many of the protesters stayed and camped on
                the Mall in Washington, DC
            o Hoover sent in the army and the camps were destroyed. The publicity was very
                negative for Hoover

         Hoovervilles: name given to the make-shift shanty communities built by homeless people in city
         parks – they became a symbol of the depression



V.       The New Deal

Election of 1932:
        In response to the poor response of the Hoover administration to the nation’s problems,
           American voters elected the Democratic Party’s candidate Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a
           Governor from New York, as President

            Roosevelt brought new energy, ideas and a confidence that made Americans feel more
             hopeful



The New Deal: Name given to the new ideas Roosevelt had to help end the problems of the Depression

        During the Roosevelt administration’s first weeks, known as the “Hundred Days”, Congress
         passed 15 major acts of legislation – together, they began Roosevelt’s “New Deal”
        The focus of these acts were on three important areas:
            o Relief for people that were suffering
            o Recovery for the economy
            o Reform to avoid future depressions
                                                                                                 113
The 3 R’s of the New Deal:
               Description                                 Examples

              - Congress       Emergency Banking Act: Roosevelt’s first act, closed nation’s banks in order
              passed           allow for examinations and only opened financially sound ones – restored
              legislation to   confidence in banks
              help people      Federal Emergency Relief Act: money given to states and cities for direct
                               relief and work for homeless and unemployed
              suffering
                               Public Works Administration: (PWA) provided jobs in construction projects
              because of the   such as new schools, bridges, housing, etc. Meant to revive economy and
              depression.      relief
 Relief                        Civilian Conservation Corp: (CCC) work for younger people (mostly men)
              - Most of the    in the field of conserving the nation’s natural resources
              acts were        Works Progress Administration: (WPA) Similar to the PWA, this program
              passed to        gave temporary jobs to nearly 25% of Americans. More money spent on this
              create jobs      program than any of the others. It replaced direct relief money to poor.
              for the          Tennessee Valley Administration: (TVA) meant to provide jobs, cheap
              unemployed       electricity, and flood control to 7 southern states. Praised as a bold
                               experiment by some, criticized as “creeping socialism” by others




              - in order to    National Industrial Recovery Act: The National Recovery Administration
              help the         (NRA) was authorized to help businesses recover from the depression. It
              economy of       was supposed to set “codes of fair competition:. Public was encouraged to
              the nation       buy from companies that followed NRA Codes. Eventually declared
                               unconstitutional.
              improve,
              Congress         Home Owners Loan Corporation: (HOLC) Created to help homeowners
              passed acts      keep their homes – provided new loans a lower interest rates
 Recovery
              that focused
              on industry,     Federal Housing Administration: (FHA) created to insure bank mortgages
              home             First Agricultural Adjustment Act: (AAA) Created to help raise farm prices
              ownership,       by helping farmers to NOT grow certain crops or raise certain animals. Did
              and              raise prices for a while.
              agriculture
                               Second Agricultural Adjustment Act: Helped farmers store crops until
                               prices rose again




              Congress also    Glass-Steagall Act: Created the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance
              passed           Corporation) guaranteed bank deposits up to $5000
              legislation to
              help make        Securities Exchange Act: Created the SEC (Securities and Exchange
                               Commission) Regulates the Stock Exchange and investment advisors.
              sure another
 Reform       depression       Social Security Act: Provided 3 main things”
              never            - old-age insurance – funded by employees and employers
              happened         - unemployment insurance, funded by employers
              again!           - assistance to dependent children, elderly, ill, and handicapped
              Mostly aimed
              at banks, the    National Labor Relations Act: (Wagner Act) guaranteed workers the right
              Stock            to form unions and to practice collective bargaining.
              Exchange,
              and labor.       Fair Labor Standards Act: set a minimum wage and maximum work week
                               for employees and banned child labor in interstate commerce

                                                                                                              114
Controversies of the New Deal:

Constitutional Issues:
        Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (1935) The Supreme Court struck down the NRA,
           saying it was unconstitutional for the Congress to regulate intrastate commerce and by
           giving legislative powers to the Executive branch

                  -   Court packing: much of the New Deal legislation was struck down by the
                      Supreme Court. Roosevelt tried to change the balance of the court by adding
                      more judges (ones he would choose) in order to get more laws past the court. It
                      never happened and faced sharp criticism as a threat to separation of powers.

          Third Term: In the election of 1940, Roosevelt ran for a 3rd term of office. He felt that a
           change in leadership would not be in the nation’s best interest. He won easily.

           - 22nd Amendment After Roosevelt’s
           presidency, including a 4th term,                    Franklin Delano Roosevelt
           Congress passed the 22nd Amendment,
           limiting a President to two terms in          Communicator: a gifted speaker, he held
           office.                                       “fireside chats” with the American
                                                         people on the radio and was friendly with
                                                         the press corps
“creeping” socialism: much of the criticism
directed at the New Deal was over the concern of         Eleanor Roosevelt: His wife was his
the growing involvement of the federal government        “eyes and ears” as she traveled the
in business, and in the private sector. To many,         country on his behalf. She came to have
these activities were too similar to socialism           great influence over much of his political
                                                         decisions and became an important
                                                         national figure herself
New Deal opposition:                                     Provided hope: his easy style and
      Huey Long: a candidate for the poor, the          personality helped Americans feel more
         Governor of Louisiana was a popular             confident and hopeful
         opponent of the rich. He could take
         votes away from Roosevelt in an election        Women in Government: Roosevelt’s
                                                         appointment of Francis Perkins as
                                                         Secretary of Labor put the first female in
                                                         the Cabinet of a President
          Father Coughlin: a Priest from Detroit,
           had a popular radio show, called for          4 Terms: Roosevelt ran, and won, 4
           heavy taxes for the rich, another threat      consecutive terms of office – a feat never
           to Roosevelt’s votes in an election           repeated



          Dr. Townsend: proposed paying the elderly a monthly amount of money, which they would
           be required to spend. He hoped to free up jobs for unemployed and increase spending in
           the economy.



                                                                                                      115
Impact of the New Deal

      Power of the President expanded:

       - Roosevelt demonstrated what a strong Executive could do in the nation’s Federal System

       - the Executive branch became the leading power in the Federal government


      System reform to prevent further economic break downs

       - the government put many measures in place to help prevent future economic problems again

       - the New Deal is credited with helping to save the “Free Enterprise” system from collapse


      Strengthened the FED

   FED: the Federal Reserve System – the central bank of the United States

       - while many argue the FED helped make the Depression worse at first, the New Deal gave the
        FED increased ability to prevent another depression from occurring


      Securities and banking regulated

       - the New Deal made the system of banking more regulated and safer

       - most important, it eventually made Americans feel more safe about putting their money
         in U.S. banks again


      Size of the Federal Government grew

       - Roosevelt expanded the system of agencies to protect groups of citizens and bring recovery
         and reform – these represented a huge increase in the scope and authority of the Federal
        government

       - Welfare State: the idea that the government was responsible for well-being of citizens


      Democrats in power

       - Roosevelt’s administration made many Americans, many who had previously been inactive
        in the voting process, become active and become supporters of the Democratic Party

       - “New Deal” Democrats would later influence social issues of the next generation, such as the
         “Great Society”


                                                                                                    116
      Support of African-Americans

       - African-Americans did not benefit much from direct Roosevelt Administrative actions,
        Roosevelt did not want to anger Southern Democrats that he needed to pass his New Deal

       - but, African-Americans did benefit within New Deal activities often

       - much of their support came from the influence of Eleanor Roosevelt

       - many African-Americans switched their alliance from “Lincoln Republicans” to the
        Democratic Party, especially in northern cities


VI. Essential Questions

1. The 1920’s in America are often portrayed as a time of better life and booming economy. But
it was not that way for everyone. What segments of the economy boomed, and what segments
suffered?


      Boomed: Consumer goods – manufacturing – entertainment industry – real estate – financial
       institutions (stock market) – expansion of Middle Class
      Suffered: farmers – urban poor


2. List some ways the economic policies of the 1920’s helped lead to the economic depression of
the next decade:

      Calvin Coolidge’s return to laissez-faire government approach to businesses
      Increase purchasing on credit
      Increased stock market speculation and buying on margin
      No significant governmental regulation of stock market and banking


3. In what ways could President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal programs be considered the first
steps towards socialism?

      The providing of benefits to society at large
      Increased governmental control over the economy



4. In what ways did President Roosevelt redefine the office of the President?

      Defied the tradition of the “Two Term Presidency”
      Actively and openly involved the government in the daily lives of citizens
      Increased the power of the Executive Branch


                                                                                                 117
Unit 12

World War II




               118
European Theater

                                                                   Timeline
                      Maps
 Pacific
 Theater




                   World War II

                                                               Isolation and
                                                                 Neutrality
                        Before American
                          Involvement




                               International Acts
                                 of Aggression
                                                               War in Europe


                                              U.S. Responses
                      Pearl Harbor



                                                                  The Home front

                                 America at War



     War Strategies                                                  The Atomic
                                                                       Bomb




                                                                                   119
I. Map – WWII – European Theater


      Axis Powers


      Allied Nations



                                                       Leningrad


                       Battle of
                       Britain
                              Battle of
                              the Bulge
                                              Berlin


                                                                   Stalingrad
          D-Day




                                          Anzio
II. Map – WWII – Pacific Theater




                                                  Tokyo
                                                                                               Midway

                                              Hiroshima

                                                     Iwo Jima
                                                                                                          Pearl
                                                                                                          Harbor
                                    Okinawa


                                                      Guam
                                   Leyte                                                 This line marks the
                                   Gulf                                                  furthest extent of
                                                                                         Japanese control in Asia

                                                                  Tarawa




                                                                           Guadalcanal
                                                          Coral
                                                          Sea




                                                                                                                    121
III. Timeline – WWII

                                                                                                 Roosevelt dies in office.
                                                                                                Truman becomes President
                                                                                                          1945


                                                                                                              Germany
   Congress                                                  Japan attacks US                                surrenders
  passes first                                                at Pearl Harbor                                   1945
 Neutrality Act                                              US declares War
     1935                                                          1941

                                                                                                         US uses Atomic
                                                                                                              Bomb
                                                                                                         Japan surrenders
                                                                                                              1945

 1935             1936   1937      1938    1939       1940        1941          1942   1943     1944           1945




                                          Germany
                                          invades                                               D-Day
                                           Poland                                             Allies begin
                          Japan
                                           starting                                           push to win
                         invades
                                          WWII in                                                war in
                          China
                                           Europe                                               Europe
                          1937                                                                    1944
                                            1939




                                                                                                                             122
IV. Before American Involvement
Isolation and Neutrality

Why the US wanted to stay out of the war:
      Tradition: since the days of Washington’s administration, America had usually tried to remain
       out or alliances and out of the military affairs of other nations

      World War I: Americans still remembered the involvement in World War I as a hugely negative
       experience overall – and wanted no part of a World War II

      Nye Committee Hearings: the Nye Committee revealed how arms manufacturers made huge
       profits during WWI, and had even pressured the government to get involved – this infuriated
       Americans

Neutrality Acts of 1935 (1935-1937)

       Designed to prevent American arms manufacturers, banks, and merchants from making profits
from a foreign war – or from helping to stir-up interest in joining a war.


International Acts of Aggression

      Germany: Invaded the Rhineland, against the Treaty of Versailles, and then invaded Austria,
       the Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia) and eventually Poland

      Japan: began by invading Manchuria, and then went into China

      Italy: First invaded Ethiopia in Africa and then Albania

War begins in Europe

       The German invasion of Poland in September, 1939 forced Great Britain and France to
declare war, beginning the European part of WWII



U.S. Responses
    Neutrality Act of 1939: “cash and carry” The U.S. decided it would sell supplies to Britain
       and France, provided that they paid cash and transported the supplies themselves
       This would keep American ships out of action, and eliminate loans from US banks

      Lend-Lease: as the Allied ran out of cash, the Congress gave the president the right to “lend”
       US war equipment to them as needed


      Atlantic Charter: an agreement between the US and Great Britain, on a free and self-
       determining post war world
V.       America at War
Pearl Harbor

         December 7th, 1941 Japanese Naval forces led a surprise attack on the US naval base at Pearly
         Harbor, Hawaii
         - outraged, Congress declares war on Japan the next day
         - because of Alliances, Germany and Italy declare war on the US, bringing American into
           World War II in both Asia and Europe


The Home front

        “Arsenal of Democracy”
         - the power of American industrial output was put on display with the start of WWII
         - military production boomed until America made as many supplies as the Axis powers did
         combined
         - farm output doubled, despite a shortage of workers because of the war



        Role of women
         - During WWII, women provided vital service to American in two ways:
         - At home: The number of women working doubled, many of them working in factories and
         doing jobs previously only held my men
         - In the Service: many women served, and risked their lives in the armed forces
         - these duties greatly increased the visibility and justification for increased women’s rights
         after the war


        The draft
         - In 1940, before the war had even stated, Congress had passed a “conscription” - a draft
         - there were 1.5 million soldiers in the army when the war began



        Financing
         - in addition to funding the American effort, the US also helped supply our allies as much as it
         could
         - eventually, the nation was spending over $250 million a day
         - taxes were raised, but that covered less than half the cost of the war
         - War Bonds were sold – the government “borrowed” from the American people


        Rationing
         - supplies, including food, were low at home, as items were needed for the war
         - families had books of ration stamps, allowing them to only buy limited amounts of certain
         items each month


                                                                                                          124
War Strategies

       Help the Soviet Union
        - after France surrendered, and while Britain rested, the Soviet Union fought Germany alone
        - the US needed to enter the war in western Europe to relieve pressure on the USSR

       Europe first
        - it was decided that the Allies would try to defeat Germany first
        - the Allies began in North Africa, then Italy, and then D-Day: the invasion of western Europe

       2 fronts
        - for the Allies, there were two “Theaters” of the war
                - in Europe – against Germany and Italy
                - In the Pacific – against the Japanese

The Atomic Bomb

       The Manhattan Project
        - In the late 1930’s, scientists developed theories to use nuclear energy to make a super bomb
        - the US decided that it was important to develop the bomb before the Germans did
        - the Manhattan Project was the code name for the development of an Atomic Bomb
        - one of the largest secret government projects in history, it was successful in developing the
        world’s first Atomic Bombs


       President Truman’s decision

        - After a successful test of an Atomic Bomb, President Truman had a tough decision to make
        - Not use it – and prolong the war for months or years, and sacrifice many more lives,
        including many more American lives
        - Use it on a Japanese city of military importance, but kill thousands of innocent Japanese
        - August 6th, 1945, the first Atomic Bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan
        - August 9th, another was used on the city of Nagasaki
        - August 14th, the Empire of Japan surrendered – World War II was over


       U.S. Occupation of Japan
        - the U.S. army occupied Japan for 7 years following the war – Gen. McArthur was in charge
        - the U.S. helped rebuild Japan – America wanted Japan on its side in the coming Cold War



      Korematsu v. United States 1944

 - One of the darker aspects of the war on the home front was the US government’s decision to
 place Japanese-Americans in concentration camps – as a security measure
 - a challenge to the decision as unconstitutional was the case of Korematsu v. U.S. 1944
 - at stake was the important constitutional issue of the security of the nation against the civil
 rights of an individual citizen
 - the court ruled 6-3 to uphold the decision
                                                                                                     125
VI. Essential Questions

1. In what sense was the US “involved” in WWII before the attack on Pearl Harbor and
Congress’s declaration of war in 1941?

      The Neutrality Acts – especially the “Cash and Carry” act of 1939
      Lend-Lease: America as the “Arsenal of Democracy”
      Trade Embargoes against Japan



2. How were the domestic policies during WWII similar or different from those of WWI?

      Rationing was similar – just to a much greater extent during WWII
      The role of women in the workplace was greatly increased as more men went to war in WWII
       was so much greater
      Discriminations against German culture in WWI existed – but the discriminations against
       Japanese Americans during WWII resulted in the interment of private citizens (War Relocation
       Act )


3. How could it be argued that WWII created a huge opportunity for the advancement of the
status of women in America?

      Increase roles in the workplace
      Educational opportunities became more available
      Women played more of an important role in the decision making process in the home



4. How could it be argued that President Truman’s decision to use the Atomic Bomb saved
lives?

      it is generally believed that had the bomb not been used, the war would have continued for
       many more months, if not years, killing many more people – including many more Japanese
       civilians



5. In what way did WWII change the role of the US in world affairs?

      the US became the most powerful nation in the world
      possession of atomic weapons was an obvious reason – but other reasons existed:
           o the role of the US in winning the war was very important
           o the new industrial capacity drove a powerful economy
           o the US was not terribly damaged by war, as other world nations were



                                                                                                    126
Unit 13

The Cold War




               127
                            Timeline
        Map




             The Cold War

Background
   of the                             Early
 Cold War                          Containment




         Cold War    Cold War
          Crisis     At Home




                                                 128
I. Map – Cold War




                                                    Warsaw Pact
                           NATO                     Nations
                           Nations



                                                                            Korea


                    Cuba

                                     Iron Curtain                  Chinese Revolution


                                                                  Vietnam
II.       Timeline – Cold War



                                                                                                          Sputnik
                                                                                                        launched by
       Allied leaders
                                                                                                        Soviet Union
       meet at Yalta
                                                                                                           1957
      and Potsdam to
      settle post war
           world                           Communists
                                           win control                                       Warsaw
                                                                                               Pact                                Berlin Wall
       WWII ends                            of China
                                                                                             formed                                  erected
        1945                                  1949
                                                                                              1955                                    1961


                                                              Korean War


 1944              1946             1948               1950         1952              1954            1956        1958         1960              1962        1964




                        Truman                                 McCarthy Hearings
                        Doctrine
                                                                                                                                                 Cuban
                         1947
                                                                                                                                                 Missile
                                                                                                                                                 Crisis
                                   Marshall                            Spy trial of                                                               1962
                                    Plan                               Rosenbergs
                                    1948                                 1953

                                                                                                                         Vietnam War evolves to include the US
                                              NATO
                                              formed
                                               1949




                                                                                                                                                                    130
III. Background of the Cold War
End of WWII

- the end of the war turned one time allies into two different sides of a new conflict – the Cold War
- the USSR and the United States turned against each other in a political battle of trust


Two Different Ideologies

      Soviet: the featured goal of the USSR was the spread of communism around the world
       - the term given to this goal was “Marxist-Leninism”: the spreading of communism around the
       world through revolution and imperial takeover


      U.S.: to counter this, the U.S. enacted a policy known as “Containment”: the attempt to stop
       the spread of communism in the world


Allied Conferences

      Yalta: Early in the last year of WWII – the Allied leaders (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) met to
       discuss the end of the war and what post-war Europe would look like
       - The Soviet Union agreed to hold free elections in parts of Eastern Europe (they never did)


      Potsdam in the final days of the war (Truman instead of Roosevelt)
       - Divided up Germany - giving each of the 4 major allies a zone to run (Berlin too)



Soviet Expansion

      Eastern Europe After liberating Eastern European nations from German control, the Soviets
       were supposed to give them their freedom back
       - however, the USSR established communist governments in the region
       - this was against everything the other Allies wanted, setting up mistrust of the USSR


      “Spheres of Influence” as the USSR began to dominate the eastern part of Europe, the U.S.
       and Great Britain attempted to influence much of the rest of Europe
       - eventually, these “spheres of influence” became identified



      “Iron Curtain” during a speech in the U.S., British Prime Minister Winston Churchill noted
       that an imaginary “Iron Curtain” had descended over the center of Europe, dividing the
       communist East from the free West
       - the term became a leading image to describe the Cold War boundary in central Europe
American reactions to Soviets

       Truman Doctrine: both Turkey and Greece soon face an increased communist threat
        - in order to help these nations, Truman asked Congress for funds to help them defend
        themselves against communism
        - In a speech to Congress, Truman announced the US plan to stop the spread of communism
        around the world (containment) – this became know as the Truman Doctrine


       Marshall Plan: an economic plan proposed by US Secretary of State George Marshall
        - The plan was to offer American economic aid to war torn European nations, to help them
        rebuild their economy, and keep the threat of communism there at bay


       NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
        - 12 member nations, led by the US, agreed to support one another in a military alliance
        - all nations would support another member if attacked by another nation



IV. Containment elsewhere in the world
   Domino Theory: the belief, held by many US leaders, that if communism was not stopped
   someplace, neighboring nations would fall to communism, and continue to fall, much like a line of
   dominoes will fall if the first one is tipped over.
   - used to defend the decision to get involved in conflicts against communism (Vietnam especially)



U.S. Occupation of Japan
       - following WWII, the US Army “occupied” Japan and ran it for nearly 7 years
       - the US helped Japan rebuild physically, and economically
       - the US, needing allies in Asia, wanted a strong Japan on its side in the coming Cold War



China

       Rise of Mao
        - before WWII, a growing communist party in China challenged the Nationalist Party for
        control there
        - Following the war, the Communists under Mao Zedong took over China and made it a
        communist nation (People’s Republic of China)


       The Nationalists
        - the political party that ran the Chinese Republic (1911)
        - defeated by the Communists, they ran away to the Island of Formosa and began the nation of
        Taiwan
                                                                                                    132
V. Cold War Crisis

Berlin Airlift
    Communists tried to force the allies out of Berlin, East Germany
    They cut off all supply routes into Berlin
    The allies flew in supplies for almost a year
    The Communists finally ended the blockade




Korean War
    The Partition: after WW II – Korea was split up by the allies: North – communist,
                   South – democratic
    The war (1950’s)
       North invaded the South
       In order to make one communist Korea
       United Nations stopped the invasion



Arms Race a race between 2 “super powers” (U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.) to gather bigger, better and more weapons



U-2 Spy plane
    1958 A US spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union – its pilot was captured
    A huge embarrassment for the US that escalated tensions and mistrust between the two
      superpowers



Eisenhower Doctrine
     President Eisenhower announced the US would use the military if needed to support nations in
       the Middle East that were threatened by communist aggression


Space Race

      It began when the Soviets put the “Sputnik” satellite into orbit
      A race for national pride mostly. Who had the better technology?

          Sputnik: Soviet satellite sent into space in 1957 – caused an uproar in the US – the
           government spent millions of dollars to increase education in sciences and math


                                                                                                      133
VI. The Cold War at Home
Loyalty Issues

House on Un-American Activities (HUAC)

         Established in the late 1930’s to investigate communist subversion in America
         Often aided by the FBI, the committee sometimes violated individual’s rights and often ruined
          people’s reputations un-necessarily

Alger Hiss
    A State department official that was accused of passing classified documents on to a communist
    Was convicted of perjury (lying under oath)
    A very sensational case, it set the scene for later trials of similar issue

Rosenbergs
    A sensational and controversial trial, accusing Julius and Ethel Rosenberg of transferring
          secrets about the atomic bomb program to communists
    They were convicted – sentenced to die – and executed



                                        Case Study – McCarthyism

McCarthyism: a word used to describe a controversial “witch hunt” based on little evidence,
rumors, lies, bullying, and many other unprofessional actions. Based on the McCarthy hearings of
the 1950’s – the civil rights of many Americans were denied in many cases

         Joseph McCarthy was a Senator that made a name for himself by starting a sensational
          series of hearings to search out and identify possible communists in the government

         His tactics eventually proved to be the most controversial aspect of the investigations, as he
          systematically bullied defendants and prayed on fears in the public to destroy reputations
          and make individuals look guilty, even if they might not have been

         Eventually, he was censured and discredited and the hearings finally ended




       Watkins v. United States 1957

         Issue: civil liberties – the rights of an individual against government security
         The case: labor official John Watkins would not list names of possible communists to HUAC
         Ruling: the Supreme Court said an individual’s civil rights were to be upheld even when
          speaking to Congress



                                                                                                           134
VII. Essential Questions


1. What role did the United States play in defining the post WWII world?

      As new leader of the western world and NATO, the US became the leading defender of the
       democratic way of living
      It chose a policy of containment, to stop the spread of communism throughout the world
      As a nuclear power, the US has had great influence in how the modern world would in a safe
       and responsible manner




2. In what way was it inevitable that Soviet and American philosophies towards communism,
would lead to international incidents?

      The Soviet foreign policy was to spread communism throughout the world through revolution

      The US foreign policy was to stop the spread of communism in the world




3. How might the investigations into communism in America possibly lead to challenges to
fundamental constitutional issues?

      Government involvement in the private lives of citizens
      The basic First Amendment Rights of citizens were often at risk
           o Freedoms of Speech, Press, Petition, and assembly
      14th Amendment – Equal Protection Clause




                                                                                                135
   Unit 14
       1950’s
America’s Golden Age




                       136
                                  Timeline




                  1950’s: America’s
                     Golden Age

         Demobilization
          after the war                      Production of Goods




                                                               Growth




                                              Economic
                                              Changes
 Interstate
 Highways



                                                          Problems

               New Suburban
                 America



Baby
Boom

                    Consumerism

                                                                        137
I. Timeline – 1950’s
                                                                suburbanization

                                                “Baby Boom”

                                                                  Cold War



 G.I. Bill of
   Rights
                                                                       Federal
 passed by
                                                                       Highway
 Congress
                                                                      Act passed
    1944
                                                                        1956




 1944           1946              1948   1950   1952     1954           1956       1958   1960   1962   1964




                   Taft-Hartley
                   Act passed.
                      1947
II.           Demobilization

 demobilization: switching the nation’s focus from a military status to a civilian one.
               Switching from military production in factories to production of consumer goods
               But still had to balance the needs of a coming Cold War
               Had to make sure the economy didn’t slip back into a depression also



After World War II, America faced several post war issues.
Economic Issues

             inflation: kind of expected to occur after the war – sudden increase in prices of goods
                  o prices had been held in control during the war, and needed to rise a bit after
                  o people had money to spend, they had earned and saved during the war
                  o the availability of new consumer goods made people want to spend

             new work force: returning soldiers needed jobs




             G.I. Bill: the “G.I. Bill of Rights” or “The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act”
                  o Congress authorized billions of dollars to pay for benefits for veterans
                  o Used for college education, medical treatment, unemployment insurance and home and
                      business loans
                  o Helped the economy and changed the make-up of America
                           More college degrees
                           More homes built


             strikes: workers wages did not keep up with the rise in prices from inflation
                  o many workers went on strike for higher wages

                     Taft/Hartley: passed by Congress over President Truman’s veto – set back for unions
                            - President could delay a strike that threatened the public or nation’s interests
                            - banned union contributions to political campaigns
                            - made it easier to be hired without belonging to a union


         Truman’s Fair Deal:
             o Truman believed all Americans should expect a “fair deal” from the government
             o Congressed passed increases in the hourly wage, spending on housing projects, and the
                number of people eligible for social security
             o Did not pass Truman’s plans for Civil Rights, national health insurance, aid to schools,
                farmer subsidies
 Truman’s partisan problems with congress:
     Having a Republican controlled Congress certainly didn’t help Truman’s ability to pass
       his legislative agenda
     But he was also apposed by various Democrat groups over certain issues


 1948 Dewey vs. Truman:
     Truman almost didn’t even win his party’s nomination – he did – but the Democrats were
       split by two other candidates in the national election
     The prediction was for a huge landslide win for Republican candidate Thomas Dewey
     Truman campaigned against the “Do-Nothing” Republicans
     Truman won – and got a Democratic controlled Congress also




III. Economic Changes of the 1950’s

The 1950’s brought new approaches, new ideas, and new problems as well – much of these influenced
to some degree by American’s varied experiences in WWII

Changes to Production

     energy source:
         o the development of nuclear science, and its use to develop nuclear energy, was an
             entirely new way of thinking
         o away from limited natural energy sources (wood, coal, oil) and towards a future of
             cheaper, longer lasting energy sources
         o The problem was the dangers that existed in its development.


     materials:
         o the science of chemistry allowed the production of materials that were man made,
             instead of natural
         o the two big ones: plastics and nylon
         o the introduction of lighter metals was also important: aluminum, titanium, magnesium


     technology:
          o the advent of computer science began slowly, then exploded
          o originally used in universities – and then in government and military fields


     corporate structure
         o the rise on a vast scale of multinational corporations ( businesses with branches in more
             than one nation) became the trend following WWII

                                                                                                 140
Growth of Output

      consumer products:
          o much of the industrial output of the 1950’s became directed toward products designed
             to be used by consumers in their home: washing machines, T.V.’s, refrigerators, etc.


      military:
           o because of the Cold War, keeping up with the Soviets caused a huge budget devoted to
               military spending
           o Before he left office, President Eisenhower warned of the growing power and influence
               of the “military industrial complex”


      production on an international level:
          o American soldiers introduced American culture to many people around the world
          o With the soldiers came American made products – beginning new markets for these
              products



Problems

      waste disposal:
          o growing population, and growing manufacturing, created growing problems with what
              to do with the waste products and garbage of the society
          o early attempts at providing space to dump garbage often was done in ways that later
              became harmful to the environment


      air and water pollution:
           o unregulated industrial facilities began a legacy of unrestricted discharge of waste
               materials into local air and water spaces
           o these actions would have a devastating effect and would not be looked into until the
               1970’s


      growing energy dependence:
          o More and more manufacturing, and more and more people, and especially
             more and more automobiles, meant an ever increasing demand on
             energy sources
          o Coal and oil especially


      depleting resources:
          o the unrestricted development of the industrial sector often paid little attention to the
               amount of natural resources being used
          o many thought the world would always be able to provide what was needed


                                                                                                       141
IV. The New Suburban America

Interstate Highway Act

      This plan, developed in 1956, was meant to ensure roadways that would allow for quick
       movement and easy access between most major cities of the US
      The original purpose was to make sure the military could move about the nation quickly and
       easily
      The growth of these highways changed the way Americans lived
           o They allowed movement of homes away from inner cities ant to the suburban areas
           o They allowed families to take extended vacations farther away from home, helping an
              expanding tourism industry develop


Levittowns

      Name given to the first “suburb” communities, after the developer of the first housing
       developments outside and within commuting distance of the city workplace
      City populations left inner cities in droves in the 1950’s for single family homes that were now
       being made on a more affordable budget for more and more Americans
      The shift in population caused many changes to American culture, influencing education,
       shopping, and transportation sectors




Baby Boom

      The post-war return of service men and women, away from family life for months or years, and
       now having jobs and positive income, encouraged many couples to have children
      Beginning in the late 1940’s, a significant increase in the birth rate led some to name this the
       “Baby Boom”
      It continued through the 1950’s, only to subside a bit in the early 1960’s
      Wherever this generation of children went – especially schools – the earliest of them were
       always crowded – the latter ones enjoyed new facilities often



Consumerism

      The increase in job opportunities, college educations, and salaries, led to more and more
       Americans having enough income to feel comfortable spending on consumer goods
      Items that previously might have been considered “luxury” items, now were almost considered
       necessary items by families
      Appliances to make life easier, two cars in many driveways, convenience foods, and family
       vacations became a part of the everyday life of many Americans


                                                                                                    142
V. Essential Questions


1. How did post-war economic growth bring both positive and negative effects on American
culture?


      Positive: economic growth on an international scale – increased consumer products made life
       easier – Americans had disposable income – leisure time led to increased family activities –
       increased college opportunities and enrollment

      Negative: increased demands and pressures on the environment would ultimately lead to
       increased pollution and dangerous conditions in America




2. In what ways had World War II, and the post-war years, brought geographic demographic
changes in America?


      The “urban flight” caused suburbs to grow drastically as people moved away from
       industrialized urban centers
      A general migration to the western “sunbelt” states (American Southwest)




3. What new cultural values came about in America during this post-war time?


      The advent of television brought an influence over family values and behaviors – particularly
       the identity of the “nuclear family” – and the establishment of the “normal” life
      The introduction of Rock & Roll energized the youth of America to establish their own identity
      The concerns of the Cold War led to fears and anxieties of communist influence in society
      Consumer spending and the growth of highways led to a mobile culture




                                                                                                  143
   Unit 15
The African American
Civil Rights Movement




                        144
                   Timeline




  African American
Civil Rights Movement

Evolution of the African American Civil Rights Movement




              Emancipation Proclamation


       Review of early Constitutional Amendments



                    Roots of the Movement


                 Presidential Initiatives



            Milestone Events of the Movement



                    Civil Rights Organizations




                                                          145
II. Timeline – African American Civil Rights Movement


      Lincoln signs
 Emancipation Proclamation
                                                                                       Brown v.Board of Education                     Assassination of
           1862
                                                                                          Supreme Court Case                           Martin Luther
                                                                                                 1954                                    King Jr.
        13th Amendment ends slavery                                                                                                        1968
                  1865

                                                                                                                  Montgomery
               14th Amendment gives                                                                               bus boycott
         citizenship to African Americans                                                                            1955
                        1868


               15th Amendment gives right to vote
                     to African Americans
                             1870

 1865            1875           1885          1895          1905         1915   1925    1935          1945             1955              1965




                                                                                                             Integration of schools
                                                                                                              in Little Rock, Ark.
                        ------------- Jim Crow Laws-------------------                                                1957


                                                                                                                    Civil Rights Act passes
                                                                                                                             1964


                                                                                                                              Voting Rights Act
                                                                                                                                    1967
III. Evolution of the African American Civil Rights Movement
Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation:
       January 1st, 1863 In the middle of the Civil War
       Declared all enslaved persons in states that were rebelling against the Union to be free
       Not so for border states of pro-Union states
       Very few slaves actually became free
       The significance of the precedent of the role of government in securing equality for citizens
          can not be ignored


The Post Civil War Amendments     (Quick Review) (See page 58 of guide)


      13th
           o abolished slavery in the United States

      14th
           o defined a U.S. citizen and said states could not deny any citizen of its rights

      15th
           o states could not deny the right to vote to any male US citizen over the age of 21



Roots of the African American Civil Rights Movement

      Booker T. Washington:
          o Born into slavery
          o Began the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, a trade school for African-Americans
          o Promoted education for African-Americans as the way to progress


      W.E.B. Dubois/NAACP:
         o Disagreed with Booker T. Washington’s approach – more in favor of pushing for civil
             rights progress
         o Formed the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to
             push for legal methods to end racial discrimination


      Ida B. Wells:
           o Wrote articles denouncing mob violence and lynching against African-Americans
           o Early supporter of the Women’s Rights Movement


      Marcus Garvey:
          o Tried to support racial pride for African-Americans
          o Promoted the idea of African-Americans moving back to Africa to start a new society
          o Many supporters, but few to him up on the idea
Presidential Initiatives

       FDR: Fair Employment Practices Commission:
          o Required that all companies that contracted with the government not discriminate on
              the basis of race or religion
          o Worked to some degree in the North, was rarely enforced in the South


       Truman:
           o Created the President’s Committee on Civil Rights to investigate the status of civil
              rights in America
           o Used the findings to submit a 10 Point civil rights agenda to congress. Opposed by
              southerners


Milestones of the African American Civil Rights Movement

       Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas 1954

        Background: A class action suit of 13 parents in Topeka, Kansas. Their argument was that the
        separate educational facilities, were not in fact equal facilities

        Constitutional Issue: that separate facilities were not offering “equal protection of the law” as
        provided by earlier Supreme Court rulings

        Decision: a unanimous (9-0) ruling in favor of the plaintiffs that separate educational facilities
        were in fact not equal facilities – and therefore unconstitutional

        Effect:
            o the ruling reversed the landmark Plessy v. Ferguson case
            o many southern states passively resisted for weeks and months
            o the case however did set in motion the modern African American civil rights movement



       Montgomery Bus Boycott

        Rosa Parks: African-American woman arrested in Montgomery, Alabama,
        for violations a local ordinance by sitting in the front section of a public bus


        Martin Luther King Jr.:
            Local minister in a Montgomery Baptist Church when Rosa Parks was arrested
            Urged local African Americans to use non-violent methods to fight segregation
            Organized a boycott against the bus system in Montgomery that lasted for over a year

        Result:
            The boycott worked, the bus company ended its policy of segregation
            More important, it gained national attention to an African American victory
                                                                                                      148
   Crisis at Little Rock

    What happened: Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus ordered National Guard troops to prevent
    the admittance of African American students into Little Rock High School

    Result: President Eisenhower ordered Federal Troops to escort the students into the schools


   Civil Rights Act of 1957:
       o Passed by Congress – intended to protect the right of African-Americans to vote
       o Brought the Federal Government into the Civil Rights event
       o After its passage, the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) began a
           campaign to register 2 million African American voters


   Greensboro Sit-ins:
       o An extension of the Rosa Parks incident, were sit-ins, purposeful sitting of African
          Americans at places of segregation: lunch counters, restaurants, and other segregated
          places
       o Though threatened and often physically abused, participants remained peaceful and
          gained national attention to their cause


   Freedom Rides:
       o African-American and white Americans joined together to ride on public buses into the
          south – promoted as “Freedom Rides”
       o Buses were attacked in many southern cities
       o After a particularly vicious attack in Birmingham, with the involvement of the KKK,
          President Kennedy declared that he had to get involved

   James Meredith:
       o An African American – was denied entrance to the University of Mississippi by the
          Governor
       o President Kennedy sent federal marshals to escort him to class, for the rest of the year

   Letter From A Birmingham Jail:
        o After repeated violence in Birmingham, Alabama – Martin Luther King Jr. led protests
            that led to more violence and was arrested
        o From jail, her wrote an essay that’s now know as the “Letter From A Birmingham Jail”
        o King eloquently reasoned why non-violent resistance to civil laws was justified and that
            they need only obey a higher standard of moral laws
        o Credited with helping to push President Kennedy to develop more civil rights action


   March on Washington:
       o A rally to support President Kennedy’s Civil Rights Bill
       o Over 200.000 people marched on the Mall in Washington DC
       o MLK gave his “I Have a Dream” speech


                                                                                               149
       Civil Rights Act of 1964:
           o Submitted by President Kennedy in 1963 – signed by President Johnson in 1964
           o Strongest Civil Rights law ever passed by Congress
                    Segregation outlawed by Congress in most public places
                    Equal access to all public places for all citizens
                    Set up EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) to oversee the ban
                      on job discrimination


        - Heart of Atlanta Hotel, Inc v. United States 1964
         Hotel owner refused to give rooms to African Americans
         Owner claimed Congress did not have right to regulate an individual’s business
         Supreme Court overruled
                o Equal protection clause
                o Commerce clause – impeding Interstate travel

                                                                Civil Rights Organizations
       Freedom Summer:
           o Campaign to register African American         NAACP: National Association for the
              voters in Mississippi in summer of 1964      Advancement of Colored People
           o Noted for violence against the campaign,      - early focus was on court cases to
              especially the 3 volunteers killed in        end discrimination and segregation
              Philadelphia, Mississippi


                                                           SNCC: Student Nonviolent
       Voting Rights Act of 1965:                         Coordinating Committee
           o Ordered Federal officials to register         - a student version of both African
               qualified voters                            American and white students
           o Eliminated literacy tests, etc.


   24th Amendment prohibited Congress or states from      SCLC: Southern Christian
implementing conditions to vote – such as a pole tax       Leadership Conference
                                                           - southern ministers – to reduce
                                                           segregation and register voters
       Black Power: frustrated with the non-violent
        movement, some looked for increased black pride
        and black nationalism through violence
                                                           CORE: Congress of Racial Equality
                                                           - focused on nonviolent activities such
           o Malcolm X/Black Muslims: advocated            as sit-ins, freedom rides, boycotts
             black nationalism – self-government for a
             black society
                 Later proposed an integrated
                    Muslim society




                                                                                                 150
       o Race Riots: eventually, built-up tensions exploded – usually in urban areas
             Over 100 race riots took place in American cities in the 1960’s

                  Watts: symbolic of the urban riots – Watts was a section of urban Los Angeles
                      Weeklong riots in the “long hot summer” of 1965
                      34 deaths and 100’s injured

                  Kerner Commission: President Johnson appointed the National Advisory
                   Commission on Civil Disorders – headed by Illinois Governor Otto Kerner
                       The commission investigated the race riots in America
                       Placed the blame on white society and white racism
                       Recommended better urban housing and improved anti-segregation
                          attempts by the federal government


   Fair Housing Act of 1968:
        o Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of housing to African Americans


   Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.: Memphis, Tennessee – 1968
       o An emotional event on many levels
       o Touched off riots in many American cities
       o Ended the era of mostly unified civil rights actions and accomplishments



   Affirmative Action: President Johnson signed an Executive Order requiring employers with
    federal contracts to take “affirmative action” to hire more women, African Americans,
    Hispanics, Native Americans and Asian Americans.
        o Meant to correct past injustices by giving preferences to these groups in employment
            opportunities, as well as college admissions
        o White males saw this as “reverse discrimination”


       - Bakke v. California Board of Regents:
            Allan Bakke, a white American, was denied admission to the University of
              California at Davis medical school
            Because of the school quota to admit disadvantaged minorities, less qualified
              candidates were admitted over Bakke
            US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in favor of Bakke, saying the school acted
              unconstitutionally, by denying admission to the more qualified student




                                                                                              151
IV. Essential Questions

1. How might the victory over integration in schools from Brown v. Board of Education of
Topeka have led to an increase in segregation on broader terms in America for awhile?

   o as with the actions such as Jim Crow laws in the South following the Civil War, the reaction of
     white Americans – whether through retaliation, resentment, or fear – was often more direct and
     intrusive toward the everyday lives of many African Americans




2. How were the actions of a few brave individuals able to energize an entire movement towards
increased civil rights for all African Americans in the America?

      Individuals like Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr. and those that sat at lunch counters and
       rode freedom buses were able to inspire Americans through the media of television
           o African Americans were inspired to continue the fight locally
           o white Americans often became empathetic to the cause from watching




3. How did the Civil Rights Movement in America change in the late 1960’s?

      as with other social segments of America, a younger generation was becoming influential
      the younger activist often felt that change was not coming fast enough
      they often urged the use of violent actions to bring social change




4. Which did more to advance the push for civil rights for African Americans – the power of
television – or federal and state legislation?

      it can be argued that the power of television made the civil rights issue an American issue,
       which helped gain support from segments of American society that might not have supported it
       had they not witness events on television
      but real change comes from legislation – until laws were passed to regulate action, behaviors
       would not have changed as quickly




                                                                                                  152
        Unit 16
Idealism of the New Frontier and
        the Great Society




                               153
                           Timeline




       The New Frontier
       And Great Society

   The New Frontier                       The Great Society

      Kennedy’s                              Johnson’s
      Presidency                             Presidency




                      Early Involvement



Johnson’s War                                 Domestic Turmoil
                         Case Study

                        The Vietnam
Nixon’s War                                    Impact on America
                            War




        Case Study                           Case Study

         Minority                            The Warren
          Issues                               Court




                                                                   154
II. Timeline - New Frontier and Great Society

                                                                         Johnson wins
                      Kennedy launches                                     election
                       “New Frontier”                                                                                    Numerous
                                                                             1964
                         programs                                                                                      race riots and
                           1961                                                                                           protests
                                                                        Johnson launches                                against the
                                                                         “Great Society”                               Vietnam War
                                                                           programs                                      take place
                      1st US Astronaut
                                                                                                                            1968
                           in space
                                                           Kennedy
                                                         assassinated                                                    Johnson
                                                                                                                       decides not to
                           Bay of Pigs                    Johnson                                                      run again for
                           disaster in                    becomes                                                        President
                              Cuba                        President
                                                                                                                       Richard Nixon
                                                            1963                                                          elected
                                                                                                                           1968


 1959         1960           1961           1962            1963             1964            1965        1966   1967        1968        1969




        Kennedy/Johnson                  Cuban Missile
        win Presidential                    Crisis                                              US
           Election                          1962                                          involvement
             1960                                                                           in Vietnam
                                                                                             escalates
                                                                                               1965
III. The New Frontier – Kennedy’s Presidency

Kennedy’s Foreign Policy Issues

      Bay of Pigs Invasion
          o One of the United States’ greatest blunders – a CIA led invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro
              rebels
          o 1400 rebels were defeated by 14,000 Cuban soldiers
          o Kennedy accepted responsibility – admitted it was a costly mistake for the US

      Vienna Summit/Berlin Wall                               Case Study – Cuban Missile Crisis
          o A summit meeting with Soviet Premier
             Khrushchev about Berlin, Germany                  Background: after turning
          o Khrushchev made threats                            Communist – Cuba looked to the
          o Later, he built the Berlin Wall                    Soviet Union for economic and
                                                               military assistance
      Laos and Vietnam
          o Begun in the 1950’s, Kennedy supported
              continuation of the support for South            Soviet Actions: seeing an
              Vietnam against communist rebels                 opportunity, USSR put nuclear
          o Believing in the “domino theory” he                missiles in Cuba – they said to
              increased levels of US troops in the region      defend Cuba from US invasion

      Latin America
           o Kennedy attempted to make countries in Lat.       U.S. Reactions: too close to US.
              America more prosperous                          Kennedy told USSR to get them out
                                                               or else!
          o Alliance for Progress: proposed the US
            spend $20 billion to help countries improve
            their economy for its citizens
                 the program was viewed skeptically           Significance: This crisis became
                    by the Latin American nations              the closest that mankind has ever
                 it failed because of no local support        come to destroying the planet. A
                                                               nuclear war was close

      Peace Corps
          o Volunteers were sent to developing nations
              go help with day-to-day activities in villages   Results: the Soviets backed down.
          o Helped change the impression in other
              nations of the “ugly American”                   - they removed the missiles

                                                               - US agreed to remove some
      Race to the moon                                        missiles in Turkey
          o Begun with Kennedy’s inaugural address
          o He declared US desire to get to the moon by        - USSR was embarrassed over the
              the end of the decade (1960’s)                   incident.
          o Money and support poured into NASA
      Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
          o Agreement between US, Great Britain, and USSR at first
          o Agree not to test nuclear bombs above ground, in outer space, or under water
          o Later signed by more than 100 countries


The Kennedy Assassination
    Dallas, Texas – November 1963.
    Traveling in a convertible, Kennedy was shot twice
    Died within the hour
    Lee Harvey Oswald arrested, shot that week by Jack Ruby
    An extremely emotional event in American History – seemed to shake the nation to its core



IV. The Great Society – Johnson’s Presidency

Expanding Kennedy’s Social Programs

      War on Poverty/VISTA
         o President Johnson began a war on poverty in America with the creation of the Office of
             Economic Opportunity
         o One program was VISTA: Volunteers in Service to America. Similar to the Peace
             Corps, but working to help needy people in America
         o Other programs included:
                 Job Corps: helping school dropouts
                 Operation Head Start: helping preschool children
         o     Department of Housing and Urban Development was started


      Medicare/Medicaid
         o Required states to provide financially aided health care programs for needy people
         o Medicare was for the elderly
         o Medicaid was for needy of all ages


      Federal Aid to Education
          o The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
          o Federal aid directly to schools
          o In order to receive funds, schools had to be able to prove they were desegregated


      Environmental Issues and Concerns
          o By the end of the 1960’s, the idea that humans could dispose of waste material in any
              ways they saw fit, was catching up with them
          o The land, air, and waters of America were becoming very polluted
          o The use of pesticides and nuclear energy were becoming a deadly threat
          o The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1970 to set and enforce
              pollution standards
                                                                                                 157
      End of the Great Society – Politics in 1968
          o The end of the 1960’s were not as socially optimistic as the start of the decade
          o Younger people were disillusioned with the established norms of society
          o Pollution was taking its toll on the environment
          o The Vietnam war was lingering on and becoming a social issue as well as political one
          o The Democrats were divided over and lost to a united Republican Party


                             Case Study: The Vietnam War
Early U.S. involvement:

      Containment: the U.S. Cold War policy of trying to stop the spread of Communism in the
       world
          o The U.S. made a commitment to stop the spread of Communism from North Vietnam
              into South Vietnam

      Domino theory: the belief that if South Vietnam fell to Communism – then neighboring nations
       would also, and so on, and so on.

Johnson’s war:

      Gulf of Tonkin
          o The incident: US naval ships were reportedly fired on by North Vietnamese patrol boats
                  President Johnson called the incidents “unprovoked attacks”


          o Resolution: Johnson asked Congress for more authority to fight in Vietnam
                Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
                Authorized the President to take any necessary action to prevent aggression

       escalation:
        The US began to bomb North Vietnam and sent more and more troops
        US soldiers were no longer just “advisors” to the South, they were fighting the war


      Americanization of the war:
         o By the late 60’s, the US had taken over more and more responsibilities of fighting
         o To the Communist supporters, the enemy was more the US than South Vietnam


      The Tet Offensive:
          o January 1968 – during the Vietnamese New Year Holiday known as Tet”
          o Massive attack by N. Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops against US forces
          o Even with great casualties, it showed the willingness of the enemy to keep fighting
          o Turned many Americans against the war and changed the political scene in the US for
              the upcoming 196 Presidential Election



                                                                                                158
Domestic Turmoil:                                                      Case Study: Vietnam (cont.)

      Draft protests:
          o Demonstrations against the war increased heavily toward the end of the 1960’s
          o Often led by the younger generation – many of these took place on college campuses
          o The shock of what happened at Kent State and Jackson State, when student
              demonstrators were killed by law enforcement officials, brought even more attention


          o SDS: Students for a Democratic Society
               Concerned about social and political problems and injustices
               Called on citizens to stop letting the corporations and big government determine
                  political agendas


      The Counter-Culture:
          o Many young Americans made a choice to stop participating in the established society
          o Turned off by what was considered “normal” rules of behavior, many turned to
             alternative ways of life
          o Drug use, rock music, psychedelic art, and communal life were
             associated with the movement



Nixon’s War:

      Vietnamization:
          o After being elected President, Nixon announced his plan to switch the responsibility of
             fighting the war to South Vietnam
          o The US would honor its treaty commitments to aid them militarily when asked
          o Slowly, US troops were being pulled out of Vietnam



      Expansion of the war:
          o As peace talks failed, Nixon ordered increased bombing raids
          o His order to bomb parts of neighboring Cambodia caused a huge outcry, especially on
             American college campuses, as many saw it as an expansion of the war


          o Kent State:
                Student demonstrators were shot at by
                   National Guardsmen
                4 students were killed
                this event was a turning point for many
                   Americans – outraged at the incident




                                                                                                    159
      Pentagon Papers:
          o Late in the war, the government ordered a study of the history of US involvement
          o The report was top secret, but one of its writers, Daniel Ellsberg, leaked it to the press
          o The report was very critical of US decision making and motivations


                     NY Times v. United States: the government tried to stop the printing of the
                      “Pentagon Papers” – as the secret report became known
                          By a 6-3 vote, the Supreme Court ruled against the government – citing
                            the freedom of the press



      Paris Peace Talks:
           o The first negotiation talks began under President Johnson in 196
           o Finally, a cease-fire agreement was reached in 1973
           o US agreed to recognize the nation of Vietnam and withdraw all troops
           o Vietnam agreed to release all POW’s (prisoners of war) and account for MIA’s
              (missing in action)


      Withdrawal:
          o Though the US continued to recognize the government of South Vietnam, taking US
             troops from the war meant the eventual end for that government
          o By April of 1975, communist forces took over all of South Vietnam and the war was
             over
          o Today, there is one Vietnam




Impact on America:

      The war in Vietnam is considered a turning point in modern American History
          o American society is often described as being hopeful, optimistic, and booming before
              the war and more disillusioned, pessimistic, and struggling after it.
      Dividing opinions over the war mirrored many of the dividing opinions of social issues that
       confronted Americans in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s
      Much of American’s ideas of mistrust of government leadership and corporate America comes
       from decisions made and actions taken because of the war
      Returning American soldiers faced many types of challenges as they tried to live in a new
       American society. Many still face health issues today.
      The Vietnam Memorial contains the names of 58,156 Americans that died in activities
       associated with the war and serves as a reminder of their service to America during a
       challenging time in American history.




                                                                                                    160
                                 Case Study: Focus on Issues of Minorities

              Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)               Shifting roles and images                        Roe v. Wade

               Meant to force states and cities to   Stereotypes of the roles of woman        The constitutional right for a woman
  Women       change laws and end practices that       changed dramatically – from           to have an abortion was recognized by
                discriminated against women.          homemaker to income producer.          the Supreme Court. Though a divisive
                 Passed by Congress, it never          Issues over child raising have           issue, it acknowledged a woman’s
                  received state ratification.                 changed too.                               power of choice.


                         Immigration                          Labor Movement                                 Identity

  Hispanic     Hispanic Americans are now the         Led by Cesar Chavez, the United             Though often labeled “Hispanic
 Americans     largest racial minority in the US,         Farm Workers of America                 Americans”, individuals seek to
              passing African Americans. Issues      strengthened the cause of exploited         separate themselves more. Terms
              over border security and labor are        Mexican workers in America.             like Chicano, Latino, Hispanic are
                  becoming more important.                                                     accepted by some and not by others.


                            Poverty                                 AIM                          Indian Self-Determination and
                                                                                                   Educational Assistance Act
  Native      Extreme levels of unemployment, a         American Indian Movement: a
 Americans    low standard of living, and low life     militant group trying to get more        Increased funds for education and
               expectancy have become a legacy         rights. Occupied buildings and              increased the role of Native
               of social life for Native Americans   communities demanding that treaties           Americans in administrating
                                                                  be honored.                           Federal Programs


                      “Normalization”                   Individuals With Disabilities            Rehabilitation Act of 1973
                                                           Education Act (IDEA)              (Section 504) and Americans With
Handicapped     The movement to bring persons                                                       Disabilities Act, 1990
 Americans          with disabilities into the        Established the right to a “free,
              mainstream of society. Especially      appropriate public education” for            prohibited discrimination in
              in the workplace and in education.     those with disabilities. States that   employment and required accessibility
                                                     failed to would not receive federal    to all public buildings and mass transit
                                                             funds for education.                  for people with disabilities
                             Case Study: Chief Justice Warren

About him:
    As Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, he presided over a period of time in the court’s
      history that saw dramatic changes in judicial power and philosophy – a time known now
      as the “Warren Court” (1953-1969)
    His leadership of the court came at a time in American history of great social challenges
      and changes
    In addition to the famous Brown v. Board of Education case, here are some of the other
      important cases of the Warren Court:


Major Cases:

      Mapp v. Ohio:
         o A case involving the searching of a home without a warrant
         o At question was whether or not evidence found could be used in court
         o The Warren Court ruled that the evidence could not be used in court, as the
            defendants 4th Amendment(Search and Seizure) and 14th Amendment(due process
            and equal protection) rights were violated



      Gideon v. Wainwright:
          o Concerns the right of a defendant to have legal council
          o The Supreme Court ruled that any defendant had a right to legal council, even if
             they could not afford one.
          o This created a huge need for Public Defenders – lawyers that would be
             appointed to represent defendants on trial



      Miranda v. Arizona:
          o Involved a case in which a defendant did not know his legal rights before he was
             questioned by authorities
          o The court ruled that any person arrested must be informed by the police that they
             have the right to remain silent and that they can have an attorney present during
             questioning
          o The warning statement is known as “Miranda Rights”



      Baker v. Carr:
          o The issue: the ability to redraw voting districts
          o The argument: that the ability to redraw voting districts was a “political” issue,
             and not one that could be decided by courts
          o The ruling: Supreme Court ruled that the courts could review suck issues




                                                                                                 162
V. Essential Questions

1. In the ongoing battle of the Cold War Superpowers, what victories could President Kennedy
claim – and what might be considered his defeats?

      Victories: Berlin Airlift – Cuban Missile Crisis – Race to the moon

      Defeats: Vietnam decision – Bay of Pigs Invasion



2. In what ways was President Johnson’s “Great Society” an extension of President Kennedy’s
“New Frontier”?

      Johnson tried to continue Kennedy’s domestic programs such as
          o The war on Poverty and the role of VISTA
          o Improving health care for all Americans with Medicaid/Medicare
          o Improving public schools
          o Looking into protecting the environment


3. How might it be argued, that the 1960’s in America, was the wrong time to choose to take a
stand against the spread of communism in a place such as Vietnam?

      The generation that would fight there had differing values than their parents of the WWII
       generation – there was a feeling that questioning the motives of government was not
       necessarily un-American
      The African American Civil Rights movement had shown how organized protesting could draw
       attention to a cause – and that standing up for what you believed was right, was important
      Television brought the cold realities of war into the homes of Americans every evening. Color
       television showed solders with red blood – this was a powerful image to many Americans.


4. How was America different after the Vietnam War than before?

      Before: An image of an all powerful, patriotic, and righteous nation

      After: Many questioned the motivations of the government. Some felt that the US wasn’t
       necessarily on the “right” side of the moral issue. And of course – the US lost the war.


5. How might the African American Civil Rights movement have been a predecessor to the
gaining of civil rights for other minorities in America?

      Other racial minorities, as well as handicapped people, became determined and motivated to
       seek out justice in order to make themselves have the same rights as other Americans.


                                                                                                  163
      Unit 17
Trend Towards Conservatism




                         164
                    Timeline




           Trend Towards
            Conservatism
                                   Case Study
  Domestic Issues
                                   Watergate
                       The
                    Nixon Era

   Foreign Issues
                                  The Ford Years




 Domestic Issues    The Carter    Foreign Issues
                    Presidency




Domestic Issues                    Domestic Issues

                        The
                    Reagan/Bush
    Reagan                              Bush
                       Years

Foreign Issues
                                    Foreign Issues




                                                     165
  I.       Timeline – Trend Towards Conservatism

       Nixon travels to Soviet
         Union and China
                1972


                  SALT I                                                                                                               Operation Desert
               treaty signed                                                                                                               Storm
                                                        Camp David
                   1972                                                                                                                     1991
                                                         Accords
                                                           1978
                                  Nixon
 US puts 1st                   becomes 1st
 man on the                    US President                             US boycotts                          Iran-Contra
   Moon                         to resign.                               Summer                                Scandal
   1969
                                                                         Olympics                               1986
                                V.P. Ford                                  1980
                                becomes
                                President
                                  1974


1970              1972            1974          1976       1978            1980       1982          1984       1986        1988           1990




                       Investigation                                                                                                  Communism
                      into Watergate                                                                                                   in Europe
                     break-in reveals                             Iran Hostage                                                        begins to fall
                       White House                                  Situation                                                             apart
                       involvement                                    1979
                           1973




       Richard Nixon                    Gerald Ford    Jimmy Carter                          Ronald Reagan                        George HW Bush



                                                                                                                                                       166
II. The Nixon Era

Nixon’s Domestic Issues

      OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Administration
         o Prevention of work related illnesses and injuries



      DEA: Drug Enforcement Agency
         o Worked to eliminate the sale and trafficking of illegal drugs



      EPA: created to set and enforce pollution standards
         o Clean Air Act (1970) and Clean Water Act (1972) established standards for discharge
             of waste into the nation’s air and waterways

          o Endangered Species Act (1973) attempted to save threatened animal species



Nixon’s Foreign Policy Issues

      Nixon Doctrine: Nixon wanted Asian allies to provide more for their own defense – especially
       manpower for fighting



      Détente: a relaxation of tension with communist nations

          o China: Nixon overturned nearly 20 years of US policy by recognizing the People’s
            Republic of China as the true China, and not Taiwan. His visit to China was a huge
            news story


          o USSR: Nixon became the first US President to visit the USSR. They agreed to increase
            trade, share scientific discoveries, and talk about reducing nuclear weapons


              S.A.L.T.: Strategic Arms Limitation Talks – agreements between the US and USSR to
              limit, and even reduce the number of nuclear missiles in their arsenals
                              Case Study: Watergate
   Nixon’s second term in office was dominated by negative news for the administration

      Resignation of Vice President Agnew:
          o was discovered he had taken bribes as Governor of Maryland
          o he resigned as VP
          o Gerald Ford was named VP by Nixon

      Background:

           o The break-in: five Nixon supporters broke into the Democratic National
             Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel complex to steal files – they got
             caught

           o The cover-up: members of Nixon’s staff began to try to hide any
             involvement by the President’s office – which was illegal. People began to
             question the President’s involvement

      U.S. v. Nixon, 1974:
          o special prosecutors ordered Nixon to turn over tape recordings of his
               office conversations
          o he refused citing “executive privilege”
          o Supreme Court ruled the President was not above the law


      Impeachment Process: evidence from the tapes proved Nixon tried to stop the
       investigation. The House of Representatives was on the verge of impeaching
       Nixon.


      Nixon’s resignation: Instead of waiting to be impeached, Nixon resigned the
       Presidency.
          o Vice President Gerald Ford became President




The Ford Years

      The Pardon of Nixon: President Ford granted former President Nixon a full pardon of offenses
          o the pardon was meant to “end the nightmare” of the Watergate scandal
          o many Americans were upset at Nixon receiving a pardon

      The Oil Crisis: part of a overall economic crisis in America in the mid-70’s
          o OPEC began an embargo (halt of shipping) to nations that supported Israel
          o OPEC also raised the price of oil dramatically – the oil shortage and price increase
              had a dramatic effect on the overall economy of the US in the 1970’s



                                                                                                   168
III. The Carter Presidency

Carter’s Domestic Issues:

      Oil Crisis Continued: President Carter waged a “war” against energy consumption, urging
       Americans to reduce energy use – it was largely ignored
       - he created the Department of Energy to try to solve Americans dependence on foreign oil

      Environmental Concerns:

           o Three Mile Island: a malfunction at a nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania nearly
             turned into a disaster. The incident scared Americans and changed the governments
             use of nuclear power.

           o Acid Rain: levels of acidic pollution reached alarming numbers – forests and the
             species of animals living in them were dying off in areas downwind of major industrial
             areas.

           o Toxic Waste: information about the illegal and irresponsible dumping of waste
             materials, some of it poisonous, came to light often in the late 1970’s

                     Love Canal: famous case involving the Hooker Chemical Co. in Niagara Falls,
                      NY.
                           Dangerous chemicals were dumped in an old drained canal for years –
                            then buried.
                           Homes were then built on the land. People began to get diseases and
                            die.
                           The Federal government was called in – national attention was brought
                            to the issue

Carter’s Foreign Policy Issues:

      Camp David Accords:
          o Carter invited the leaders of Israel and Egypt to his private retreat in Maryland, know
             as Camp David – for high level peace talks
          o Israel agreed to give back lands to Egypt – Egypt agreed to recognize Israel’s right to
             exist
          o Egypt became first Arab nation to recognize Israel – other Arab nations were not happy

      Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan:
          o Carter protested the invasion by boycotting the Summer Olympics in 1980 and putting
               an embargo on grain to the Soviet Union

      Iran Hostage Crisis:
           o For years, the US had supported a leader in Iran know as the Shah of Iran
           o When he was forced to leave, the new government distrusted the US
           o The new religious government, encouraged students to take over the US Embassy there
           o They held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days – they were released the day Carter left
              office

                                                                                                 169
IV. Reagan/Bush Years


Reagan Domestic Issues:

      “Supply Side” economics: the belief that the cutting of taxes would lead to
       more investment in the economy
          o the hope was that there would be a “trickle down” effect – money spent by the wealthy
              would lead to more jobs and lower prices for the rest of the public
          o Tax policy and deficit: in order to attempt to reduce national debt, and provide for a
              balanced budget – huge cuts were made in Federal programs – but not in the Defense
              budget
          o The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act was designed to require a balanced budget by 1991


      Environmental Issues: budget cuts for environmental enforcement agencies reduced their
       ability to protect the environment
           o Laws and regulations were not enforced very much
           o Public lands in the west were often sold to private or corporate buyers
           o Depletion of the ozone, increased waste disposal, and the Greenhouse Effect all grew in
                significance during this time


      Civil Rights Issues: the conservative approach of Reagan was more concerned with the rights
       of society, than with the rights of an individual
           o Issues such as abortion, property searches in schools, and drug testing gained attention


      Supreme Court: During Reagan’s two terms in office, he appointed 3 new Supreme Court
       Judges, including the position of Chief Justice, setting a Conservative tone over the court
          o One of his appointments, Sandra Day O’Connor, was the first female on the court
          o Reagan also appointed 50% of the Federal Judges across the country




Reagan Foreign Policy Issues:

      Renewed image of power: A main agenda of Reagan was to re-strengthen America’s image as
       a world power
          o In the wake of trying to balance a budget, he more than doubled the Defense budget


      Iran/Contra Connection: in order to support anti-communist groups in Nicaragua and El
       Salvador, the Reagan Administration did two things considered to be illegal
           o It sold weapons to the nation of Iran in violation of federal law
           o It took the profits and gave them to anti-communists in those Central American nations


                                                                                                     170
      Trade: Imbalance with Japan: the 1980’s saw America’s trade relationship switch to an
       imbalance with Japan – the US was buying more from Japan than Japan was buying from the
       US


      South Africa – Apartheid: the US led international economic pressure on the nation of South
       Africa
           o Trade embargoes and restrictions on investing in companies there
           o In retaliation for South Africa’s policy of Apartheid


      Soviet Union: Reagan truly distrusted the USSR and denounced previously created Arms
       limitation treaties created by the Carter Administration

          SDI: Strategic Defense Initiative – Reagan supported a weapons system that could possibly
           defend the US against a Soviet nuclear attack
               o “Star Wars”: nickname of the SDI system – missiles could be shot down or
                  intercepted from weapons in outer space

          Gorbachev: new, younger leader of the USSR – realized the Soviet Union had to change in
           order to survive. Knew he could not get into an arms race with the United States


       - Fall of Soviet Union: economic pressures, and political changes, led to a popular, though
                        mostly peaceful, revolt against Communism in the USSR. It was successful.



Domestic Issues of George Bush (Sr.)

      Immigration: the 1990 census indicated dramatic shifts in minority population statistics
          o The “white majority” was soon to become less than 50% for the first time
          o The old immigration identity of “European” immigrants was being replaced with a
             newer face of Hispanic and Asian immigration
          o The Hispanic minority was growing at a very rapid rate – becoming equal with the
             “black” minority’s numbers



      Savings and Loan Scandal The Reagan Administration changed decades of policy by allowing
       Savings and Loan banks to raise interest rates and take part in commercial lending
          o Many S&L’s took risky positions in the real estate market
          o Following the recession in the late 80’s, many S&L’s got into financial trouble
          o The Bush Administration was left to clean up the mess, eventually costing the taxpayers
              billions of dollars




                                                                                                     171
      Social concerns:

          o Cruzan v. Director; Missouri Dep. Of Health, 1990
                Parents of a woman on life support said their daughter would not want to be left
                  alive on machines – the hospital would not end the treatment
                Supreme Court ruled an individual had the right to refuse treatment – but that
                  there must be “clear and convincing evidence” of the person’s desires


          o Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania;et al. v. Casey, 1992
                Pennsylvania enacted new regulations regarding abortions
                Supreme Court reaffirmed a woman’s basic right to an abortion, but upheld
                   most of the new regulations because they were not a “substantial obstacle” in
                   the abortion process.



Foreign Issues of George Bush (Sr.)

New World Order: Following the fall of the Cold War – Bush declared there was a “new world
order” - an unpredictable environment of changing balance of power

      Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe popular challenges to communist control over “Eastern
       Bloc” nations grew and were weakly defended by the USSR
           o Once one nation (Poland) held free elections – the chain of events spun quickly to end
               the decades old communist domination of Eastern Europe

          o Berlin Wall: the symbolic representation of the Cold War came crashing down, as
            private citizens took hammers and bulldozers to it – allowing the mixing of East with
            West

          o Soviet Union: under pressures of a failing economy and political freedoms in fellow
            communist nations, the Soviet government buckled and fell – allowing for free elections
            and the creation of a new Republic.


      Crisis in Bosnia: unrest after the fall of communism in Yugoslavia led to a civil war between
       religious minority groups
           o The Christian Serbs, attempted a policy of “ethnic cleansing” by moving, or sometimes
               killing, Bosnian Muslims
           o The US led NATO allies in attacking Serbs, then defending Bosnians

      Persian Gulf Crisis: begun when Iraq invaded and took over neighboring Kuwait
          o US led a coalition of international nations to demand Iraq leave Kuwait
          o Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, refused
          o The coalition attacked in a massive air and ground assault
          o Within days, Kuwait was liberated
          o When all was over, Saddam Hussein remained in power


                                                                                                 172
   V. Essential Questions

1. In what way might some historians be able to label President Nixon a “Progressive
President”, in the mold of Teddy Roosevelt?

      Nixon took initiatives to improve the safety of Americans – often from the forces of big business
       – by creating governmental agencies to oversee certain issues:
           o OSHA – improved safety conditions in the work place
           o DEA – cut down on illegal drugs coming into America
           o EPA – stop the abuses of businesses in polluting the nation



2. Nixon became famous as a Congressman that was very anti-communist. In what ways did he
differ from his staunch views about Communist nations during his Presidency?

      He asked Asian nations to do the fighting themselves in the ongoing battle of containment
      He became the first US President to visit both the USSR and the People’s Republic of China
      He took initiatives with détente and weapons limitations talks




3. How might the Watergate scandal transformed many American’s image of leadership in
government for America?

      Many Americans felt betrayed by the office of the Presidency
      A general distrust of both government, and political officials began
      Many of the ideals of what Americans thought America was supposed to be all about, became
       tarnished in many ways




4. What were the defining actions of the new conservatism that arose during the Reagan/Bush
years?

      A renewed image of American power – especially abroad
      A pattern of having Americans fed for themselves – less dependence on government assistance
      A relaxing of government restrictions on business – less regulations
           o Less protection of the environment
           o Less protection of minority rights
      In general – more support for growth of business and national security - than individual rights
       and security




                                                                                                    173
      Unit 18
                 st
Approaching the 21 Century




                             174
     Map                             Timeline




                  st
           21 Century



                       The Clinton
                       Presidency




Domestic Issues                        Foreign Policy Issues




                                                               175
I. Map - The World




                      Balkan Mtn. Region
                      (old “Yugoslavia”)




              Haiti




                                           Somalia
II. Timeline



                                                                              Sept. 11, 2001

                                                                              Terrorists attack
                                Welfare                                      the United States
                               Reform Act
                                 passed                                      A new era begins.
                                  1996               Clinton
                                                   impeached
                                                      1998




 1992     1993   1994   1995      1996      1997     1998      1999   2000           2001         2002




                                                                                                         177
III. The Clinton Presidency

Clinton’s Domestic Issues

      Family Leave Bill
          o gave workers up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave from a job in order to take care of family
              need – such as child birth of parent illness
          o The worker would not lose any seniority


      Brady Bill
          o required background checks and imposed a waiting period in order to buy an handgun

      Crime Bill
          o provided funds for states to build more modern prisons
          o to put more police officers on the streets

      Health Care
          o tried to pass laws to provide for universal health care for all Americans
          o it was opposed by private companies and Republicans and failed to become a reality

      Welfare Reform Act
         o Limited people to two consecutive years on welfare
         o Required them to work to receive benefits


      Balanced Budget
          o Clinton and Republicans battled over how to establish a balanced budget requirement
          o At one point, Clinton shut down the government when they could not decide

      Campaign finance reform
          o Clinton and Congress agreed on measures to improve the way political campaigns were
             paid for
          o “soft money” contributions were eliminated
          o money for “issue” advertisements were eliminated also


      Impeachment Issue:
          o Clinton faced a number of scandals, tarnishing his image
          o His association when he was governor of Arkansas with a real estate firm cause an
             investigation into his role of arranging illegal loans – no evidence of wrongdoing was
             found
          o A sexual harassment lawsuit was filed against him by Paula Jones – the case was
             settled with a payment to her
          o Investigations charged that he had an inappropriate relationship with a White House
             intern. Part of the issue surrounded his testimony in the case – and his honesty
          o Though impeachment proceedings were brought against him, the necessary votes to
             remove him from office were not reached.
Clinton’s Foreign Issues:

      The Middle East

           o Israel/PLO Agreement:
             - various meetings between representatives of these two groups led to some long
             awaited compromises – beginning a process of coexistence that continues today
             - PLO leader Yasir Arafat recognized Israel’s right to exist
             - Israeli leader Rabin recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian
             people
             - after the agreements were signed with the help of President Clinton, Rabin was
             assassinated in his own country



      U.S. intervention in conflict areas:

           o Somalia:
             - in support of the United Nations, the US had a strong presence to help maintain relief
             shipments to the famine stricken nation
             - in one incident, 24 US soldiers were killed by an ambush of rebel soldiers



           o Haiti:
             - after a democratically elected President was forced from office by the military, chaos
             prevailed and many Haitians tried to flee the nation
             - with many Americans living in Haiti, President Clinton threatened military action if
             the military government did not step down
             - Father Jean-Bertrand Aristide was put back in power
             - US troops went to Haiti to watch over the transition of power



           o Yugoslavia:
             - After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, the nation of Yugoslavia broke up
             - in Bosnia, a huge civil war erupted between ethnic groups
             - Serbian Christians began a policy of “Ethnic cleansing” against other minority
             groups, most Bosnian Muslims
             - The US lead NATO forces in attacking Serb armies to stop the violence and then to
             stay and maintain peace
             - the same story happened again in 1998 between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo




                                                                                                   179
   U.S. - Russian Relations:
       o After the fall of communist Soviet Union – two main concerns have arisen in “Russia”
                The economy suffers greatly – the US has attempted from time to time to help
                   Russians gain a foothold on developing a new “capitalist” economy
                It’s nuclear weapons arsenal – the US has helped to make sure that the old
                   weapons do not fall into the wrong hands


   U.S. - European Relations:
       o The US continues to work closely with its old NATO allies
       o NATO is expanding, now accepting one time cold war enemies from Eastern Europe
       o The development of the European Union is a big issue
       o One time “hot spots” such as Northern Ireland and Bosnia are still monitored



   Global Economy:

       o NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement
            Meant to spur trade and opportunities for business development between
              Canada, the US, and Mexico


       o GATT: General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs
            Created the World Trade Organization (WTO)
            Watches over trade agreements and settles disputes between member nations
            There are over 140 member nations


       o Economic Aid to Russia:
             Provided to Russia to help reduce its nuclear stockpile of weapons
             And to secure active weapons and nuclear materials


       o Trade with:

              China: the fastest growing economy in the world today
                  o American companies seek sales in China’s huge market
                  o American consumers buy many products made in China

              Japan: a long time trading partner with the US
                  o The US has been seeking a more favorable balance of trade with Japan than
                      it had in the 1980’s and ‘90’s


              Latin America: previous economic plans with this area have had mixed results
                   o Many are watching Mexico to see if NAFTA will have a meaningful effect on
                      the Mexican economy


                                                                                           180
IV. Essential Questions


1. How was President Clinton a reaction against the political philosophy of his predecessors,
Reagan and Bush Sr.?


   o His domestic agenda seemed more directed to assist individual citizens and families




2. Was Clinton’s foreign policy actions a reflection of his fundamental goals or a reaction to an
ever-changing international arena?


   o The end of the 20th century saw a change of international threats to peace – from the broad
     Cold War conflicts to smaller scaled localized tensions – and terrorism.

          o Much of the events required US cooperation with international allies through NATO
            and the United Nations
                Somalia
                Rwanda
                Bosnia
                Haiti




                                                                                                   181

				
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