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Management Lecture 18 Communication

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Management Lecture 18 Communication Powered By Docstoc
					Principles of Management

Management and Communication
 Fundamentals of Communication
• Communication
  – The exchange and comprehension of information.
  – The sharing of information between two or more individuals or
    groups to reach a common understanding.
• Non-Verbal Communication
  – The expression of information through gesture and behaviour.
• Verbal Communication
  – The expression of information through language using words
    and grammar.
  – May be oral or written
     • Oral Communication
         – The expression of ideas through the spoken word.
     • Written Communication
         – The expression of ideas through words that are meant to be read.
     Electronic Communication
• The transmission of information using advanced
  techniques such as computer modems, facsimile
  machines, voice mail, electronic mail, teleconferencing,
  videocassettes, and private television networks.
• A greater volume of information can be accumulated and
  transmitted.
• Information can be sent faster.
• Information can reach to more people
• People can be brought together without travel costs and
  time barriers e.g., tele- and video conferencing.
• Disadvantages include:
   – Sending unnecessary information
   – Managers and employees may become casual about quality of
     information
              Importance of Good
                Communication
• Increased efficiency in new technologies and skills
• Improved quality of products and services
• Increased responsiveness to customers
• More innovation through communication
• Managers and their subordinates can become effective
  communicators by:
   – Selecting an appropriate medium for each message—there is no
      one “best” medium.
   – Considering information richness
        • A medium with high richness can carry much more
          information to aid understanding.
• Information Richness
   – The amount of information that a communication medium can
      carry
   – The extent to which the medium enables the sender and receiver
      to reach a common understanding
The Process of Communication
• Message
   – The symbolic representation of an idea the sender wants to
     communicate
• Encoding
   – The process of putting an idea into a message form that the receiver will
     understand
• Channel
   – The means of sending message from the sender to the receiver
• Decoding
   – The process of interpreting a message to arrive at the sender’s meaning
• Feedback
   – A response from the receiver that cues the sender as to how the
     message is being interpreted and how the communication is being
     received in general
• Noise
   – Any interference in the communication process that distorts the
     meaning intended by the sender
           Role of Perception
• Perception
  – Process through which people select, organize, and
    interpret sensory input to
    give meaning and order to the world around them.
• Biases
  – Systematic tendencies to use information about
    others in ways that can result in inaccurate
    perceptions
• Stereotypes
  – Often inaccurate beliefs about the characteristics of
    particular groups of people
  – Can interfere with the encoding and decoding of
    messages
    Phases of Communication
1. Sender has an idea.
2. The idea becomes a message.
3. He message is transmitted to the
   receiver.
4. The receiver gets the message.
5. The receiver gives feedback to the
   sender.
The Process of Communication
Communication in the Organization
• Patterns of Communication
   – Interpersonal Communication
   – Group Communication
   – Communication Networks
• Internal Communication – amongst employees
   – Formal Channels – dictated by official structure
       • Vertical Communication – upward or downward
       • Horizontal Communication – across departmental boundaries
           – Laterally or Diagonally
   – Informal Channels
       • Grapevine – Single stranded, gossip, probability, cluster etc.
• External Communication
   – Formal Contacts
   – Informal Contacts
Communication in the Organization
Organization Chart
  – Summarizes the formal reporting channels in an
    organization.
     • Communication in an organization flows through formal and
       informal pathways
     • Vertical communications flow up and down the corporate
       hierarchy.
     • Horizontal communications flow between employees of the
       same level.
     • Informal communications can span levels and departments—
       the grapevine is an informal network carrying unofficial
       information throughout the firm.
        Communication Networks in
           Groups and Teams
Type of Network
Wheel Network     Information flows to and from one central
                  member.

Chain Network     Members communicate only with the people next
                  to them in the sequence.

        Wheel and chain networks provide little interaction.

Circle Network    Members communicate with others close to them
                  in terms of expertise, experience, and location.

All-Channel       Networks found in teams with high levels of
Network           communications between each member and all
                  others.
Communication Skills of Managers
        – as Senders
• Send clear and complete messages.
• Encode messages in symbols the receiver
  understands.
• Select a medium appropriate for the message and,
  importantly, one that is monitored by the receiver.
• Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion
  as the message passes through other workers.
• Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the
  message.
• Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
Communication Skills of Managers
        – as Receiver
• Pay attention to what is sent as a message.
• Be a good listener: don’t interrupt.
• Ask questions to clarify your understanding.
• Be empathetic: try to understand what the
  sender feels.
• Understand linguistic styles: different people
  speak differently.
• Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication.
    – This is particularly true across cultures and
      managers should expect and plan for this.
         Communication Media
• Face-to-Face
   – Has highest information richness.
   – Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals.
   – Provides for instant feedback.
      • Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with
        informal talks to workers.
      • Video conferences provide much of this richness and reduce travel
        costs and meeting times.
• Spoken Communication Electronically Transmitted
   – Has the second highest information richness.
      • Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice,
        sender’s emphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual
        nonverbal cues.
        Communication Media
• Personally Addressed Written Communication
  – Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of
    communication, but still is directed at a given person.
     • Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the
       message—personal letters and e-mail are common forms.
     • Does not provide instant feedback to the sender although
       sender may get feedback later.
     • Excellent media for complex messages requesting follow-up
       actions by receiver.
• Impersonal Written Communication
  – Has the lowest information richness.
     • Good for messages to many receivers where little or
       feedback is expected (e.g., newsletters, reports)
      E-Mail Dos and Don’ts
• E-mail allows telecommuting employees to
  work from home and keep in contact.
• The use of e-mail is growing rapidly and e-
  mail etiquette is expected:
  – Typing messages in all CAPITALS is seen as
    “screaming” at the receiver.
  – Punctuate your messages for easy reading
    and don’t ramble on.
  – Pay attention to spelling and treat the
    message like a written letter.
    Organizational Barriers of Effective
             Communication
•    Messages that are unclear, incomplete, difficult to understand
•    Messages sent over the an inappropriate medium
•    Messages with no provision for feedback
•    Messages that are received but ignored
•    Messages that are misunderstood
•    Messages delivered through automated systems that lack the
     human element
•    Information Overload
•    Message Competition
•    Differing status and task orientation
•    Lack of trust
•    Limitations of communication structure
•    Closed communication climate
•    Unethical communication
    Interpersonal Barriers of Effective
             Communication
•   Difference in perception
•   Incorrect filtering
•   Language problems
•   Poor listening
•   Differing emotional states
•   Cultural diversity
•   Inconsistent non-verbal cues

				
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