Whey � A by-product of the Dairy Industry

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Whey � A by-product of the Dairy Industry Powered By Docstoc
					Whey – A By-product of the
     Dairy Industry

      Presented by
     Mark Naughton
      Aidan Doyle
     Hugh Holland
What is Whey
Whey is the watery portion of milk
remaining after milk coagulation and
removal of the curd. Whey can be obtained
by acid, heat, and rennet coagulation of
milk. There are two types of whey.
     Sour Whey Ph3.8 - 4.6
     Sweet Whey Ph5.2 - 6.7
Sour\Acid Whey
 Acid Whey: Acid whey is obtained
  during making of acid type of cheese
  such as cottage cheese.
 Ph3.8 - 4.6
Sweet Whey
Sweet Whey: Sweet whey is
 manufactured during making of
 rennet type hard cheese like cheddar
 or Swiss cheese.
Ph5.2 - 6.7
Individual Proteins of Whey
    b -lactoglobulin 50%
    a -lactalbumin 20%
    Immunoglobulins 20%
    Serum Albumin 5%
    Minor Proteins 5%
b-Lactoglobulin is the most
 abundant protein in whey (about 6
 g/l) and is responsible for
 functional properties such as the
 ability of whey protein to form a
 gel on heating.
• Alpha-lactalbumin is a whey protein high
  in the amino acid tryptophan, which the
  body uses to make the neurotransmitter
• Purified alpha-lactalbumin is most readily
  used in infant formula manufacturing, as it
  has the most structurally similar protein
  profile compared to breast milk.
• An immunoglobulin (Ig) is an antibody
• whey fraction of milk appears to contain a
  significant amount of immunoglobulins,
  approximately 10-15 percent of total whey
Choice Of Whey Processes.

Depends on the type of whey
Depends on market & location
Membrane filtration of Whey
Whey divided by use of membrane filter
Resulting in
     Whey protein concentrate
     Whey portein isolate
     Lactose Permeate
Membrene Filtration
Membrane processing is the:
 Separation without the use of heat.
 Particles are separated on the basis of their
  molecular size and shape with the use of
  pressure and specially designed semi-
  permeable membranes.
 There two main forms of membrane filtration
  involved in the whey processing industry
  Micro Filteration & Ultrafilteration.
Filteration Process
 Micro Filteration
Microfiltration is characterized as having a
 molecular weight cut-off range (MWCO) from
 about 50,000 to 500,000.
Microfiltration of Whey involves Retention of fat
 and large molecular weight whey proteins from
 small whey proteins, Non-Protein Nitrogen
 (NPN), lactose and minerals of a lower molecular
 weight.particles in the range of 0.05-10 microns.
 Microfiltration is used for fermentation, broth
 clarification and biomass clarification and
Fat removal for WPI production: the limitation
of fat removal from whey by mechanical
separation results in high fat WPC. This high fat
level limits the maximum protein content in the
final WPC powder, usually 80-84% depending
on the feed quality. Whey protein isolates (WPI)
require reduction of fat content in the final
product to < 0.5%.
Ultrafiltration of Whey
 Fractioning and retention of fat and
 whey proteins of high molecular
 weight from Non-Protein Nitrogen
 (NPN), lactose and minerals of a
 lower molecular weight.
• 35% - 65% Whey Protein Concentrate
  Production: Total solids for 10-28%
  depending on incoming feed
• WPC 70-85% Whey Protein
  Concentrate Production: Fat removal
  with Microfiltration is required
  depending on feed characteristics.
  Diafiltration is required.
    Nanofiltration can perform
    separation applications such as
    demineralization, color removal,
    and desalination. In concentration
    of organic solutes, suspended
    solids, and polyvalent ions, the
    permeate contains monovalent
    ions and low-molecular-weight
    organic solutions like alcohol.
Whey Protein Concentrate
Whey protein concentrate has
anywhere between 29% and 89%
protein depending upon the product. As
the protein level in whey protein
concentrate decreases the amounts of
fat and/or lactose usually increase.
Whey Protein Isolate
  Whey protein isolate is the most pure
  and concentrated form of whey
  protein available. It contains 90% or
  more protein and very little (if any)
  fat and lactose.
Drying of whey
   Preheating
   Concentration
   Flash cooling
   Precrystallization
   Spray drying
   Cooling in a vibrated fluid bed
   Spray Drying without Crystallization Treatment
        Whey Protein Coating
For whey coating for improving packaging
Whey Protein Coating for Formulations &
 application methods for dry foods
       • Coating Formulations
       • Coating process conditions
       • Quality & Shelf life improvements
Further Research
Oxygen Coatings on food
Gloss Coatings on Sweets
Oxygen Barriers on plastics
Moisture Coatings on Plastics
Moisture Barriers on food
Anti-microbial coatings on cheese
Edible/biodegradeable films and
Medical Research
Whey Protein Concentrates-
 stimulate Cell-mediated & humoral
 immunity for neck and head
 cancer patients.
Several whey proteins display
 anti-microbial & antiviral activity
Production of Ethanol
Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages
 & fuel, is produced by fermentation
 of the Lactose Permeate from whey.
when certain species of yeast
 metabolize suger in the absence of
 oxygen, they produce ethanol and
 carbon dioxide.
        Ethanol Manufacture-
         Carbery Group Ltd.
 Whey permeate containing 4 percent lactose
  provides the sugar which is broken down into
  alcohol by lactose specific yeasts
  Kluyveromyces fragilis. using a continuous
  fermentation process

 A Lactose stream produced during whey
  ultrafiltration is pumped into one of the eight
  fermentation vessels in the fermentation room
Yeast is added to each fermentation
vessel at the beginning of vessel filling
Conditions in each fermentation vessel
are set to enable the fast and efficient
conversion of lactose to ethanol.
Conditions in each fermentation vessel
are set to enable the fast and efficient
conversion of lactose to ethanol.
The yeast is recovered at the end of the
At the end of fermentation the ethanol
level is between 3.5% v/v and 4.2% v/v.
Beer liquor is pumped to the beer wash
column and the ethanol level is
concentrated at 96% v/v
 Alcohol Rectification
 3 stage distillation process which removes the
  smallest levels of impurities.
 The 96% v/v ethanol feints is diluted with water
  and pumped into the extractive distillation
 Congeneric compounds miscible in ethanol, but
  immiscible in water are removed
 The main ethanol stream is pumped to the final
  rectification column to reconcentrate the
  ethanol and remove the remaining impurities in
  the spirit
This milestone marked the culmination of 3 years
research to develop a yeast to efficiently convert
lactose to ethanol.
After a painstaking selection procedure a strain of
yeast from the Kluyveromyces fragili s family was
successfully introduced to the Carbery Lactose
fermentation process.
Production of ethanol has grown from over
2,500,000 litres alcohol in 1980 to over 8,000,000
litres currently.
Technology and Pollution
 decomposition requires all the oxygen available in
  the water
 dairies have disposed of large quantities of whey
  by spray-irrigating it over the fields 7 m3/ha/day.
 Membrane technology is widely used in pollution
     Process/Operation
     Water Purification
     Waste Treatment
 PM10
  The Irish EPA defines PM10 as particulate
  matter with a diameter of 10 micrometers
  collected with 50% efficiency by a PM10
  sampling collection device. However, for
  convenience in this reference material, the
  term PM10 includes all particles having an
  aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal
  to 10 micrometers.

 Fabric Filter A filtration device using one
  or more filter bags, sheets, or panels to
  remove particles from a gas stream.

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