Diesel Particulate Matter Philadelphia Health and Economic Assessment

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					     Diesel Particulate Matter
           Philadelphia
     Health and Economic Assessment


Perry R. Pandya
Environmental Protection Agency
May 10, 2005
                 Overview
1.   Air Pollution Concentrations

2.   Health Impacts and Costs

3.   What can be done about it?
     Diesel Particulate Matter
Total Concentration             Marine Contribution

                      (µg/m3)
 American Cancer Society Study
 1.2 Million participants
 1982 - 1998
 Controlled for: Age, gender, weight, smoking
  history, alcohol use, occupation, diet, education
 Each 10 µg/m3 Particulate Matter
    – 4% increase in all cause mortality
    – 6% increase in lung cancer
    – 8% increase in fatal heart attacks
                  Pre-Mature Deaths
200
180
160
140
120
100
 80
 60
 40
 20
  0

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      Pope A.C., et al. 2002. Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine
      particulate air pollution. JAMA, vol. 287, no. 9, 1132-1141.
Non-Fatal Heart Attacks Caused
  by Diesel Particulate Matter
140
120
100
 80
 60
 40
 20
 0
      25-34        35-44        45-54        55-64        65-74         75-84            >85
                                              Age

      Ostro, B.D. 1987. Air pollution and morbidity revisited: A speciation test. J of
      Environ Economics Management. 14:87-98.
              Asthma Attacks
                                               Bucks 330
                                                         Chester 190

                                                             Delaware 510



                                                           Montgomery 410
Philadelphia 2300



Vedal, S. et al. 1998. Acute effects of ambient inhalable particles in asthmatic and non-
asthmatic children. Am. J of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 157(4):1034-1043.
 Ostro, B. et al. 2001. Air pollution and exacerbation of asthma in African-American
children in Los Angeles. Epidemiology. 12(2):200-208.
          Work Loss Days

                                        Bucks 2,800

                                                    Chester 1,600

                                                         Delaware 4,000


    Philadelphia 20,000
                                                       Montgomery 3,700




Ostro, B.D. 1987. Air pollution and morbidity revisited: A speciation test. J of
Environ Economics Management. 14:87-98.
            Particulate Matter
                      Costs
   260 Premature deaths      Valued at $1.4 billion

 450 Non-fatal heart         Cost $37 million
  attacks
 32,000 Missed days of     $4.4 million in lost
  work                       wages
 3,700 Asthma attacks      Valued at $160,000
        How to use the data?
   Uncertainties
    – Air Concentrations
    – Health Impact Studies
    – Costs
   Confidence in Results
    – High: Five County Philadelphia Metro Area
    – Medium: County
    – Low: Census Tract

				
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posted:4/21/2012
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