Derived Nouns and Adjectives by JR8NHd

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									         Derived Nouns and
             Adjectives
          Prerequisite for ALL GCL Intermediate and
                  Advanced Arabic Courses




Prepared by CTI2 Doris Espelien
Why do I need to know this?

  Many words in Arabic are descended
   from verbal roots.
  Understanding the patterns can expand
   your vocabulary without having to resort
   to those pesky little vocab drill cards.
What will I learn in this lesson?

    Nouns of Place and Time
    Nouns of Instance
    Nouns of Intensity and Profession
    Nouns of Instruments, Vehicles or Vessels
    Relative Adjectives (Nisba)
    Nouns of Concepts (Feminine Nisba)
First, a few ground rules…
  Arabic does not have as many classifications for
   grammar as English does. Thus, most words can be
   broken into three categories: Verbs, Nouns and
   Particles.
  These items can be easily identified by their Arabic
   names: ‫افعال اسماء حروف‬
  Just because something is labeled “noun” does not
   mean it will always behave as a noun. It can also
   behave verbally or adjectively.

 Just keep these ideas in the back of your head as you progress through the presentation.
Nouns of Place and Time ‫اسماء المكان والزمان‬

   These nouns indicate the place or time of the action of their root verb:

                                          ‫مقعد‬                          ‫قعد‬
  To sit                   A place of sitting (chair)
                                       ‫مستشفى‬                      ‫استشفى‬
  To seek a cure            A place of seeking a cure (hospital)
                                          ‫مطلع‬                         ‫طلع‬
  To rise                   A time of rising, start
                                          ‫ب‬
                                         ‫مس ّق‬                          ‫ب‬
                                                                       ‫س ّق‬
  To precede                Preceding, previous
Forming the Noun of Place and Time:
  Measure I has three common patterns for this noun:
                                           ‫َ عد‬
                                           ٌ َ ْ‫مق‬             ٌ َ ْ‫ مف‬
                                                               ‫َ عل‬
                                        ٌ ِ‫مج‬
                                        ‫َ ْلس‬                  ٌ ِ ْ‫ مف‬
                                                               ‫َ عل‬
                                       ٌ َ َ‫َدْر‬
                                       ‫م سة‬                    ٌ َ‫ مفْع‬
                                                               ‫َ َلة‬
  Measures II – X follow the same pattern as the passive participle
   (covered in class), which means you will have to use common
   sense in your translation: “Does this word mean ‘a place to seek
   treatment’ or ‘treatment was sought’?”
  The pattern is as simple as starting with a “Moo”, adding the verb
   in its current measure (less any alifs at the beginning), and putting
   a fatha over Radical 2 (the 2nd letter of the root).

                                              ُ
                                     ‫مسْتَشْفَى‬             ‫ استشفى‬
Application!
Convert the verb root to a common noun of place and time!



                                                       ‫ صنع‬
                     ‫م ْنع‬
             factory ٌ َ ‫َص‬
                                                       ‫ ركب‬
                   ‫م ْ َب‬
            vessel ٌ ‫َرك‬
                                                        ‫ ركز‬
                    ‫ْ َز‬
             center ٌ ‫مَرك‬
                                                      ‫ استقبل‬
                   ‫م ْ َ ْبل‬
            future ٌ َ ‫ُستق‬
‫!‪More Application‬‬
                              ‫ُ ْ َعل‬
                             ‫‪ ‬اختبر (مفت َ ٌ)‬
             ‫ُ َبر‬
  ‫مخْت َ ٌ ‪laboratory‬‬
                      ‫م ِف‬
            ‫َصْر ٌ ‪bank‬‬       ‫َ ْعل‬
                             ‫‪ ‬صرف (مف ِ ٌ)‬

                               ‫َ ْ ََة‬
                              ‫‪ ‬دخن (مفعل ٌ)‬
         ‫مْ َ ة‬
 ‫َدخنَ ٌ ‪chimney‬‬
              ‫َ َج‬
         ‫مخْر ٌ ‪exit‬‬          ‫َ َج‬
                             ‫‪ ‬خرج (مخْر ٌ)‬
Nouns of Instance ‫اسماء المرة‬
  These nouns indicate one instance of the action being done.
                                   ‫ضربة‬                ‫ ضرب‬
                                        A hit                 to hit

    These nouns are very simple to form: Take the verb as it is
           found in Measure I and add a ‫ ة‬on the end.


              a hit/punch     ٌ ‫لَكْم‬
                              ‫َة‬            to hit/punch         ‫لكم‬
               a session     ٌ َ‫جلْس‬
                             ‫َ ة‬                     to sit     ‫جلس‬
Nouns of Intensity and Profession
                        ‫اسماء المبالغة‬
 These nouns, which also sometimes function as
  adjectives, indicate that something is done very well or
  is done as a profession.
 Verb        Active participle        Noun of Intensity
 To do       Doer                     Effective (done very well)
 َ‫فَعَل‬      ٌ ِ ‫فَا‬
              ‫عل‬                       ٌ ‫ف َّا‬
                                       ‫َع ل‬
     ‫ب‬
 َ‫طَ َخ‬      ‫ط بخ‬
              ٌ ِ ‫َا‬                   ٌ ‫ط َّا‬
                                       ‫َب خ‬
 To cook     cook/cooking             chef         For other, less
                                                    common patterns,
 The other most common pattern is   ‫عل‬
                                     ٌ ‫:فَ ِي‬       see A Student
                                                    Grammar of Modern

  ‫َب‬
 َّ ‫ط‬        ‫بب‬
              ٌ ‫طَ ِي‬
                                                    Standard Arabic by
                                                    Eckehard Schulz,
                                                    pg. 74.
Application:     carry these verbs through the
progression of meaning from verb to active
participle to noun of intensity.

  ‫بز‬
 َ َ َ‫خ‬         ‫بز‬
                 ٌ ِ ‫خَا‬                    ٌ ‫خ َّا‬
                                            ‫َب ز‬
 To bake        s.o. who bakes             baker
  ‫ص‬
 َ َ‫قَن‬         ‫نص‬
                 ٌ ِ ‫قَا‬                    ٌ ‫ق َّا‬
                                            ‫َن ص‬
 To shoot       Shooter                    sniper
  ‫جمل‬
 َ ََ           ‫مل‬
                 ٌ ‫جَ ِي‬
 To be pretty   Pretty
  ‫بر‬
 َ َ َ‫خ‬         ‫ر‬
                 ٌ ‫خَبِي‬
 To know well   Expert (s.o. who knows a lot)
Nouns of Instruments, Vehicles and Vessels (Device)
                           ‫اسماء اآللة والوعاء‬
   The feminine form of the ‫ اسم مبالغة‬often denotes the
    device used for performing that action:
   To dive = professional diver = submarine
                  ‫َو‬        ‫َو‬
   )‫غ َّاصة = غ َّاص = غاص (غوص‬
   To wash = launderer (profession) = washing machine
      ‫س‬        ‫َس‬        ‫َس‬
   َ‫غ َّالة = غ َّال = غَ َل‬

     There are several other common patterns, available in the Schulz book, pg. 77-79.
      However, using the above pattern usually indicates that the device being used is
      the largest and most powerful: Look up ‫ جرف‬and notice the difference between
         ‫ر‬
      ‫ ,ج ّافة‬which comes from the noun of intensity, and ‫ ,مجرفة‬which does not.

* Some common patterns include the active participle,   ‫ف ل معة م عل م ل‬
                                                        ٌ َ‫ِعَا ٌ, ِفْ َلَ ٌ, ِفْ َا ٌ , ِفْع‬
Application!
                             ‫م ح‬
  If ‫ فتح‬means to open, the ٌ ‫ ِفتا‬most likely
   means:
                  key

  If ‫ قدح‬means to strike fire (with a flint), ‫ قداحة‬most
                                                  ّ
   likely means:
                     lighter

  If ‫ كنس‬means to sweep, ‫ مكنسة‬most likely means:

                        broom
The Relative Adjective                                  ‫النسبة‬
  One of the easiest and most common ways to form an
   adjective is to add a ّ‫ ي‬or ‫ يّة‬to the end of a noun. (Make
   sure the adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in gender!)
                                              ‫بغداديّ \ بغداديّة‬    ‫بغداد‬   
  If a noun ends in ‫ ,ة‬drop the ‫ ة‬and add the appropriate ending:
                                              ‫جامعيّ \ جامعيّة‬    ‫جامعة‬     
  If a noun ends in ‫ ,ا‬drop the ‫ ا‬and add the appropriate ending:
                                              ‫امريكيّ \ امريكيّة‬  ‫امريكا‬    
  If a noun takes ‫ ,ال‬but the noun it modifies does not, drop the ‫ال‬
   and add the appropriate ending:
                             ‫اللهجة القاهريّة‬       ّ‫رجل قاهري‬   ‫القاهرة‬    
Nouns of Concept                        ّ
                                      ‫النسبة المؤنثة‬
  The noun of concept looks EXACTLY like the feminine
   form of the relative adjective, which is why it is known
   as the feminine nisba.
  You must be careful when you look at a word to
   determine if you are looking at a noun or an adjective,
   and this will aid your translation.
  A noun of concept is an abstract noun, which in English
   usually ends in –ism, -ence, -ance, -ness, -ty and –cy
                                     Capitalism      ‫ الرأسمالية‬
                                    Importance            ‫ أهميّة‬
Determine whether the following are
nouns of concept or relative adjectives:

                               .‫ االشتراكيّة نظريّة سياسيّة‬
                                   R.A.   N.O.C.      N.O.C.

  Socialism is a political theory.

  .‫ العبوديّة كانت سائدة في روما أيام اإلمبراطوريّة الرومانيّة‬
    R.A.        N.O.C.                               N.O.C.
  Slavery was prevalent in Rome during
   the days of the Roman Empire.
Bibliography

  All the Arabic You Never Learned the First Time Around
   by Jim Price
  A Student Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic
   by Eckehard Schulz
    Please proceed to the assessment.

     Don’t forget to print your certificate! 



* All students will be expected to demonstrate applied
knowledge on the first day of all MSA and Arabic
dialect courses.

                                    Last updated: Dec. 2007

								
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