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-ING AND �ED CLAUSES Powered By Docstoc
    ( ‘the girl talking to Tom’,
‘the man injured in the accident’)
A clause is a part of a sentence.
 Some clauses begin with : –ing
             or : –ed.
• - Do you know the girl talking to Tom?
     ( -ing clause ).
- The man injured in the accident was
  taken to hospital. ( -ed clause ).
 We use –ing clause to say what
someone ( or something) is doing
or was doing at a particular time.
• E.g : - Do you know the girl talking to
  Tom? ( The girl is talking to Tom).
• - The policemen investigating the
  robbery are looking for three men. (
  The policemen are investigating the
• - I was woken up by a bell ringing. ( The
           bell was ringing ).
• - Who  was that man standing
  outside? ( The man was
  standing outside ).
• - Can you hear someone singing
  ? ( Someone is singing ?
• -When we are talking about things (
  and sometimes people), you can use an –
  ing clause for permanent
  characteristics ( what something does
  all the time, not just at a particular
  time ):
• -E.g: The road joining the two villages
  is very narrow. ( The road joins the two
  villages ).
• - I live in a pleasant room overlooking
  the garden. (The room overlooks the
            garden ).
     -ed clauses have a
      passive meaning:
• E.g:
• -The man injured in the accident was
  taken to hospital. ( The man was
  injured in the accident ).
• - None of the people invited to the
  party can come. ( The people have
  been invited to the party ).
• - injured and invited are past
  participle ( Verb III ). Many verbs
  have irregular past-participle which do
  not end in –ed. For example: stolen
  /made/bought/ written etc:
• - The money stolen in the robbery was
  never found. ( the money was stolen in
  the robbery).
• - Most of the goods made in the
  factory are exported. ( the goods are
  made in this factory ).
 We often use –ing and –ed
clauses after there is/there
          was etc:
• - Is there anybody waiting to see me?
• - There were some children swimming
  in the river.
• - When I arrived, there was a big red
  car parked outside the house.
Adjectives ending in –ing and –
   ed ( boring / bored etc)
• - There are many pairs of adjectives ending in
  –ing and –ed. For example: boring and bored.
• -Study this example:
• Jane has been doing the same job for a very
  long time. Every day she does exactly the same
  thing again and again. She doesn’t enjoy it any
  more and would like to do something different.
• -Jane’s job is boring.
• - Jane is bored ( with her job ).
Someone is –ed if something ( or
   someone ) is – ing. Or, if
something is –ing, it makes you –
• - Jane is bored because her
  job is boring.
• - Jane’s job is boring, so Jane
  is bored. (Not Jane is boring)
      Now study these
• Someone is interested because something
  (or someone) is interesting:
• - Tom is interested in politics. (not
  *interesting in politics*)
• - Tom finds politics interesting
• - Are you interested in buying a car?
• - Did you meet anyone interesting at the
     Now study these
     examples:( Cont.)
• Someone is surprised because
  something is surprising.
• - Everyone was surprised that he
  passed the examination.
• - It was quite surprising that he
  passed the examination.
      Now study these
      examples: (Cont.)
• Someone is disappointed because
  something is disappointing:
• - I was disappointed with the film. I
  expected it to be much better.
• - The film was disappointing. I
  excepted it to be much better.
     Now study these
     examples: ( Cont.)
• Someone is tired because something
  is tiring:
• - He is always very tired when he
  gets home from work.
• - he has a very tiring job.
b. Other pairs of adjectives
 ending in – ing and –ed are:
 •   Fascinating fascinated
 •   Exciting      excited
 •   Amusing       amused
 •   Amazing       amazed
 •   Astonishing astonished
 •   Shocking       shocked
 •   Disgusting     disgusted
 •   Embarrassing embarrassed
 •   Confusing    confused
b. Other pairs of adjectives
 ending in – ing and –ed are:
•   Horrifying     horrified
•   Terrifying     terrified
•   Frightening   frightened
•   Depressing    depressed
•   Worrying        worried
•   Annoying          annoyed
•   Exhausting      exhausted
•   Satisfying      satisfied

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