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ABSENTEEISM ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

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					             ABSENTEEISM: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

Meaning of Absenteeism:
Absenteeism is in fact, merely the Symptoms of a “Disease” & not, disease by
themselves. Absenteeism has been defined under the factories act as: “the failure of
worker to report for work when they are scheduled to work.” Employees who are away
from work on recognized holidays, vacations, approved leaves of absence, or leaves of
absence allowed for under the collective agreement provisions is not included.
Absenteeism has been defined differently by various eminent authors…
“Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absence as a percentage of the total
number of man shifts scheduled to work.”
                                                             - LABOR BUREAU
“Absenteeism is the failure of a worker to report for work when he is scheduled to work.”
                                      - LABOR BUREAU (Govt. of India), Simla
Absenteeism could be further explained as-
“…unauthorized, unexplained, avoidable and willful absence from work”
“….the temporary cessation of work, for not less than one whole working day, on the
initiative of the worker, when his presence is expected”
Thus, Absenteeism is the temporary cessation of work, for not less than one whole
working day, on the initiative of the worker, when his presence is expected. At last, it can
be said that an employee is to be considered as scheduled to work when the employer
has work available for him and the employee is aware of it and the employer has no
reason to expect well in advance that the employee will not be available for work at the
specified time/day.
MEASURING CRITERIA


Measurement of Absenteeism is very important because it facilitates analysis,
forecast the trends, find out reasons & suggest remedial measures.
Absenteeism can be measured using following Formulae-
- By K.K. Vaid:


                    [Persons not working due to unauthorized leave + unauthorized
Absence rate=                          absence] * 100
                           Man shifts actually worked




- By Baldev R. Sharma:


                     Numder of days actually worked * 100
Absence ratio=
                    Man shifts actually worked




- By Us Employment Services:


                   Number of employees days lost through absence * 100
Absenteeism rate=
                  Average number of employees * Number of working days
                    ADVERSE EFFECT OF ABSENTEEISM




Adverse effects of absenteeism are too many on both the Industry & the Workers




ON INDUSTRY
Absenteeism in industry

    Stops machine,

    Disrupts processes,

    Creates production,

    Upsets production targets,

    Production losses,

    Increased direct overhead costs,

    Increased workload of inexperienced or substandard worker as substitutes,

    Problem of recruitment, training, job- adjustment, morale, attitude,

    Idle machine hours,
    Rise in production cost,

    Delay in supply,

    Deprives reputation of the company.

ON WORKERS
Ill-effects of absenteeism on those who cause it are equally baneful. Effect of
absenteeism on workers-

    Adverse effect on economy of the worker himself;

    Reduced earning;

    Adds to indebtedness;

    Decreased purchasing power;

    Problem of attitude & low morale;

    Loss of employment (in some cases);




                        CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM
What are the reasons for high rates of Absenteeism and the increasing man days lost? If
the worker is committed to his job, why does he stay away? Why is the labor force like a
nuclear dump waiting for a match to set it aflame?




Bhatia & Valecha in their study on Absenteeism in a large manufacturing plant conclude
that chronic absentees have greater indebtedness and are found more among those in
The higher age bracket having longer length of service, and in the unskilled and semi-
skilled work force.
Problem of Absenteeism may be accounted to three factors-

             ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS;

             ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS;

             PERSONAL FACTORS;



1) ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS:


Organizational climate or culture plays a vital role in the behavioral pattern of the
workers. Some of the aspects on industrial absence are…

      Nature of the industry related somehow with absenteeism. It is found that
      absenteeism rate is maximum in textile industries and minimum in oil industries.

      Leniency on the part of management also results in higher rates of absenteeism.

      Organization resorting to ‘BADLI’ system of employment by appointing
      temporary/causal workers is also a reason for higher rate of absenteeism.

      Militancy of trade unions in certain industries account for higher rate of
      absenteeism.

2) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:


The rate of absenteeism in Indian industry is estimated as 16.73% in one research study.
Out of this nearly 50% (viz. 7.85%) is accounted against environmental factors consist of-

      Socio-Economic Factors;

      Religion-Cultural Factors.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS:-


      Poverty- nearly 30% of Indian population lives below ‘Poverty Line’.
       Unhygienic Living Conditions- workers live in sub-standard conditions.

       Number of Dependents- each worker has to look after or support a large number
       of dependents.

       Sickness- above conditions cause frequent sickness either to the workers or his
       dependents where his personal attention is needed & it results in absenteeism.

       Maternity- it has been found in a research study that 25% (a major portion) of
       absence accounted against maternity & sickness.


   RELIGION-CULTURAL FACTORS:


       Indian population consists of multi-linguistic, multi-religious groups each following
       their own traditions, festivals & customs.

       Large number of public holidays & religious holidays.

       India is basically an agrarian society. Industrial labor follows the harvest festivals
       religiously.

       Due to these reasons, the rate of absence is not the same throughout the year. It
   is high during April-May & again in October-November.


3) PERSONAL FACTORS:


Personal factors are another set of reasons accounting for industrial absence. These may
be sub-divided into-

      Biographical Aspects;

      Psychological Aspects;

   BIOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS:

          Age- absenteeism is found high in young workers (<25 yrs) and old workers
          (>50 yrs).
         Sex- female workers have shown more absenteeism than their male
         counterpart.

         Skill- absenteeism is found more among unskilled & semi-skilled workers
         compared to skilled workers, supervisors or better-educated workers.

         Educational level

         Marital status

PHYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS:
These aspects include mental illness leading to symptoms like

         Alcoholism, drug addiction and accidents.

         Chronicle absenteeism

         Indebtedness- the low level wages & unplanned expenditure of the

         Workers force them to borrow heavily. Then they try to escape from the place
         in order to avoid the moneylenders. This leads to absenteeism.

         Accident proneness

So, the causes of absenteeism are many and include:

      serious accidents and illness

      low morale

      poor working conditions

      boredom on the job

      lack of job satisfaction

      inadequate leadership and poor supervision

      Personal problems (financial, marital, substance abuse, child care etc.)

      poor physical fitness

      inadequate nutrition
       transportation problems

       the existence of income protection plans (collective agreement

       Provisions which continue income during periods of illness or accident.)

       stress

       workload

       employee discontent with a collective bargaining process and/or its results


THE COST OF ABSENTEEISM

The cost of absenteeism is greater than the direct payment of wages and benefits paid
durance the absence. Organizations must also consider the indirect cost of staffing,
scheduling, re-training, lost productivity, diminished moral, turnover, opportunity cost. The
indirect costs often exceed the direct cost of absenteeism.

Employers pay a high price for absenteeism, often more than they realize, in terms of
both financial and production losses and employee morale. Managers may view the tasks
of finding a substitute employee as a short-term inconvenience; however, absenteeism
frequently has more serious long-term effects.

Decrease in Productivity

       employees may be carrying an extra workload or supporting new or replacement
       staff

       employees may be required to train and orientate new or replacement workers

       staff morale and employee service may suffer




Financial Costs
       payment of overtime may result
       cost of self-insured income protection plans must be borne plus the wage costs of
       replacement employees

       premium costs may rise for insured plans

Administrative Costs
       staff time is required to secure replacement employees or to re-assign the
       remaining employees

       staff time is required to maintain and control absenteeism


TRENDS IN ABSENTEEISM

Recent surveys indicate the following trends in absenteeism.

       The higher the rate of pay and the greater the length of service of the employee,
       the fewer the absences

       As an organization grows, there is a tendency towards higher rates of
       absenteeism

       Women are absent more frequently than men

       Single employees are absent more frequently than married employees

       Younger employees are absent more frequently than older employees but the
       latter are absent for longer periods of time

       Unionized   organizations have      higher absenteeism       rates than non-union
       organizations

The incidence of absenteeism is usually higher in the night shift than in the day shifts.
Managing absenteeism and turnover. Most organizations approach to absenteeism (point
systems, no-fault systems, reward systems) result in spotty, temporary improvements at
best and are harmful at worst. Many of these policies teach some employees how to play
the system so they are always just on this side of termination. Others, who were
otherwise excellent employees, have been terminated because policy dictated it.
Productivity continues to suffer because there aren't enough people to cover the work
assignments.

There's no argument that high rates of absenteeism and turnover are the biggest
problems that American business faces today, worsened by lower unemployment rates.
To make things even more complicated, most companies greatly underestimate the
cost of both their absenteeism and turnover. Not only are the direct costs monumental
but the indirect and hidden costs can be the difference between profit and loss or being
able to maintain the operating budget.

The solution to this problem is simple but revolutionary. It requires a dramatic paradigm
shift. Effective absenteeism results in a cultural change by requiring companies to reject
old paradigms and explore a new philosophy that says the way employees are managed
may be a more significant factor in controlling absenteeism and turnover rates than any
policy that rewards or punishes it.

Crystal Clear Concepts' Absenteeism Management Program results in a culture change
by requiring companies to reject old paradigms and explore a new paradigm that will
solve the problem of absenteeism.


Work Is an Element of Self-Esteem

The very core of the new absenteeism philosophy is the concept that working is a crucial
element of self-esteem. Most employees don't miss work because they are lazy and don't
want to come to work. They find satisfaction in working. In reality, most absenteeism is a
symptom of other problem(s).

Contrary to most policies, which concentrate on just absenteeism, it, with tougher
penalties for poor attendance or rewards for good attendance, this philosophy treats
absenteeism as an indicator of underlying problems that create absenteeism. These
problems must be solved to improve attendance which automatically improves quality,
productivity and profit.
Program Benefits

It is extraordinarily difficult for managers to comprehend that their management style,
working conditions, employees' relationships with one another or personal problems
could impact negatively or positively on attendance. Yet, without a doubt, such factors
play a major part in the causes of absenteeism. Our figures show that up to 75% of all
absenteeism is relationship-based.

Most managers are startled with the discoveries that come out of our program. They are
surprised, embarrassed and stunned at their discoveries of the real causes of
absenteeism and how easy absenteeism and turnover is to solve.

Absenteeism is a universal problem in Industry and is not peculiar to Indian industry. But
the rate of Absenteeism has been relatively higher in India. What are the reasons for high
rates of Absenteeism and the increasing man days lost? If the worker is committed to his
job, why does he stay away? Why is the labor force like a nuclear dump waiting for a
match to set it aflame?


Absenteeism has always been a major problem in the Indian industry. An official of
Bharat Cooking Coal Ltd’s planning department points out that often as much as 40% of
the labor force stays away from work. Myers is of view that Absenteeism is encouraged
owing to the lenient policies of the management. Sickness & Social reasons are the usual
excuses given for being absent. BADLI system also contributes to the high rate of
Absenteeism. Bhatia & Valecha in their study on Absenteeism in a large manufacturing
plant conclude that chronic absentees have greater indebtedness and are found more
among those in the higher age bracket having longer length of service, and in the
unskilled and semi-skilled work force.


Research studies conducted by Shri Ram Centre for Industrial Relation, Employers
Federation of India and the National Council reveal the following peculiarities of
Absenteeism in India:
          1) The rate of Absenteeism in India is more than 10%


          2) A small percentage of employee (15%) account for a large percentage
          (70%) of the total Absenteeism. These chronic absentees have negative
          perceptions and attitude. For e.g. - the company is neither fair nor just;
          supervisors are production centered; workgroup is unhelpful and grievance
          handling, suggestions schemes & joint committees are more formalities.


          3) There has been a seasonal bias in the causes making for Absenteeism. For
             e.g. - absenteeism due to sickness are high in July, September and lowest
             in April and June.
                a. Absenteeism has been greater in night shift then in days shift.
                b. Absenteeism is higher in departments where supervisors are work
                     oriented and careless for employee welfare.
                c.   The rate of Absenteeism is likely to be higher in days before and
                     after a holiday.
                d. Women tends to be absent more then men.
                e. Workers tend to be absent more frequently then supervisors and
                     managers.
                f. Absenteeism is generally higher in large organization then in small
                     organizations
                g. Absenteeism is lowest on pay day and highest after payday.
                h. There is tremendous scope for reducing Absenteeism through union
                     leadership within an organization.




Managing Absenteeism: Some Techniques


Over he past few decade it is seen ha “Workers' responsibilities are multiplying at home
and at work. Studies have consistently found that implementing workplace policies that
help workers balance work and family responsibilities improve employee morale, reduces
turnover, and increases productivity.” Absenteeism is a major barometer of employee
morale, absenteeism above 5% per week is very serious (3% is the standard goal of
industry). Left unchecked, high absenteeism usually develops into very serious business
problems including morale issues and high turnover. To reduce absenteeism, first check
the percentage of employee absenteeism by supervisor. Next you need to look at
absenteeism a little more closely, in terms of the principal reason given for it. Sometimes
employees call in sick when they really do not want to go to work. The answer to
eliminate those types of absentees is to develop an effective program that strikes at the
core of the issues.

Empirical studies on work performance were carried out by various researchers. The
work performance of 286 individuals with a diagnosis of major depression and/or
dysthymia, 193 healthy control subjects, and 93 individuals with a diagnosis of
rheumatoid arthritis were compared. Individuals were recruited through primary-care
physicians and evaluated for symptoms of depression. If such symptoms were detected,
the physicians were notified.

Forty-four percent of the depressive cohort were already on antidepressant medications
at baseline, but still met criteria for suffering from a clinical depression as measured by
the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Job performance was measured via the Work
Limitations Questionnaire, which looked at work output and job-performance deficits.
Subjects were followed up every 6 months for 18 months. At baseline and at each follow-
up period, the depression group had significantly more deficits in managing:

      Interpersonal interactions;

      Time; and

      Output tasks.
As patients' depressive symptoms improved, their work performance improved -- but not
to the level of the control groups. Managing physical job demands was significantly more
difficult for patients in the rheumatoid arthritis cohort.

More and more, functional improvement, as opposed to just symptom improvement, is
emphasized in the management of psychiatric disorders. This study highlights how the
ability of depressed patients to hold onto jobs and perform well in their employment is
affected. Other studies have evaluated functional improvement, such as job performance,
as a secondary measure. This study measured job performance as the primary outcome.
The results reveal the importance of not only inquiring about patients' depressive
symptoms but also about their work performance, including:

      Interpersonal interactions with employers and coworkers;

      Work output; and

      Ability to manage time

A crucial feature of the study design was the comparison to both a "well" control group
and a physically challenged cohort with rheumatoid arthritis. Beyond absenteeism, it can
be difficult to ascertain exactly how depressive symptoms impact a patient's work. This
study helps clarify this association and, therefore, is an important contribution.

On a separate yet disturbing note, 44% of the depressive cohort entered the study on
pharmacologic treatment but with at least residual depressive symptoms, indicating
suboptimal treatment of their condition. On he basis o he study some o he suggestion
were incorporated o manage he absenteeism at work. His includes:

       1. Find the causes of worker discontent and eliminate them.
       If workers find their supervisor or job unpleasant - really unpleasant - the
       worker looks for legitimate excuses to stay home and finds them with upset
       stomachs, splitting headaches, aching wrists, etc. Any effective absentee
       control program has to locate the causes of worker discontent and modify
       them or eliminate them entirely. In other words, if we deal with the real
      reasons workers stay home it becomes unnecessary for them to look for
      those sickness excuses they actually use.


      2. Change the worker’s way of reacting and responding to
      discontent.
      Well, what are the real causes for worker discontent? Management must try
      to change the worker’s ways of reacting & responding to discontent as there
      is some fascinating correlations between types of worker discontent and
      rates of absenteeism. Is the employee who thinks they are underpaid more
      likely to miss a day here and there than the employee who can’t stand their
      supervisor? Or is it the other way around?
So, to bring the problem to the lowest, it is required to have a two way communication, as
both the needs of the employees & management must be met if good attendance is to be
achieved…

There can be more than meets the eye when it comes to absenteeism. Team members
may stay away due to uncaring supervisors or unsatisfactory working conditions. There
are a number of ways to address the problem to improve morale and the efficiency of the
workplace. An absence from the workplace refers to time a team member is not on the
job during scheduled working hours, except for a granted leave of absence or holiday
time. Normally, the rate of absenteeism is calculated by dividing the number of working
days lost through absence in any given period by the total number of available working
days in that same period, as follows:

Absenteeism Rate = Number of lost working days due to absence /(Number of team
members) x (Number of Workdays) x 100.

For Example: a. Average number of employees in work force = 100 b. Number of
available workdays during period = 20 c. Total number of available workdays (a x b) =
2,000 d. Total number lost days due to absences in the period= 93 e. Absenteeism
percent:(d [divided by] c) x 100 = 4.65 percent
Since absenteeism is a major barometer of employee morale, absenteeism above 5
percent has to be considered as very serious (across most industries 3 percent is
considered standard). Left unchecked, high absenteeism can rapidly develop into serious
business problems including morale issues and high turnover. Maybe even worse than
absenteeism, it is obvious that people such as malingerers and those unwilling to play
their part in the workplace can also have a decidedly negative impact. Such team
members need individual attention from frontline supervisors and management.

Indeed, as prevention is better than cure, where such a problem occurs, it is always
important to review recruitment procedures to identify how such individuals came to be
employed in the first place. For any business owner or manager, to cure excessive
absenteeism, it is essential to find and then eliminate the causes of discontent among
team members. If they find their supervisor or job unpleasant - really unpleasant - they
look for legitimate excuses to stay home and find them with things such as upset
stomachs or splitting headaches. Any effective absentee control program has to locate
the causes of discontent and modify those causes or eliminate them entirely. In other
words, if we deal with the real reasons team members stay home it can become
unnecessary for them to stay away. Any investigation into absenteeism needs to look at
the real reasons for it. Sometimes team members call in sick when they really do not
want to go to work. They would not call you up and say, “I’m not coming in today because
my supervisor abuses me.” Or, “I’m not coming in today because my chair is
uncomfortable.” Or, “I’m not coming in today because the bathrooms are so filthy, it
makes me sick to walk into them.” There are a few essential questions to consider at the
outset if you want to make a measurable improvement to your absenteeism figures.

      Why is your present absenteeism policy ineffective?
      Where and when is excessive absenteeism occurring? In many cases, under-
       trained supervisors could be a contributing factor.
      What are the real causes for absences?

It is commonly expected that low pay, poor benefits and high workloads will be the major
causes.
However, in numerous employee surveys absenteeism generally has been identified as a
symptom of low job satisfaction, sub-standard working conditions and consistent negative
and unfair treatment received by first-line supervisors. How much formal training have
your supervisors received on absenteeism containment and reduction? If your answer is
none or very little, maybe you have found the solution. As with every other element within
your organization, you cannot ask a person to do a job he or she has never been trained
to do.

Many human resources specialists have found that repetitive, boring jobs coupled with
uncaring supervisors and/or physically unpleasant workplaces are likely to lead workers
to make up excuses for not coming to work. If your team members perceive that your
company is indifferent to their needs, they are less likely to be motivated, or even to clock
on at all. One way to determine the causes of absenteeism is to question your
supervisors about excessive absenteeism, including what causes it and how to reduce it.
Of course, if your supervisors have made no efforts to get to know the team members in
their respective departments, they may not be able to provide reasons.

However, just the act of questioning may get the ball rolling and signal to your
supervisors that their involvement is important. Once a manager finds the real reasons
for absenteeism there is another important step. Through open communication, you need
to change the team member’s way of reacting and responding to discontent.

Other problems will no doubt arise in the future. If the way of responding has not been
reviewed, then the same cycle is likely to start all over again. So often absenteeism
problems can be sheeted back to the supervisor level and to unsatisfactory working
conditions. Without improvement in these areas, you can expect your high rate of
absenteeism to continue

            The causes of absenteeism may include:
            serious accidents and illness
            low morale
            poor working conditions
         boredom on the job
         lack of job satisfaction
         inadequate leadership and poor supervision
         Personal problems (financial, marital, substance abuse, child care etc.)
         poor physical fitness
         transportation problems
         the existence of income protection plans (collective agreement )
         Benefits which continue income during periods of illness or accident.)
         stress
         workload
         Employee discontent with the work environment


          most if not all of these causes can be prevented by taking a positive approach
          to things. By showing the employees that you care, you can help lower
          absenteeism in the work place.

Dealing with Employee Absenteeism
Dealing with employees absenteeism have become a challenging ask or he management
as well as or the employers. This can be divided in two categories. one or supervisors
and managers and other or he employees who frequently remains absent from heir job.



For Supervisors/Managers:

It is frequently asked by a manager that how he should deal with the fact that on any
given day 10% of his employees are absent from work. On the basis of personal opinion
and various related studies I can be concluded that the problem of employee
absenteeism is a problem best resolved by taking the following four positive interventions
versus taking a      negative        or   punitive     approach.



Change Management Style:
We are all aware of the fact that when employees call in ill, it does not mean they are
truly too physically ill to work. One reason, outside of illness, that employees are absent
is stress, and the number one reason employees are stressed has to do with their
relationship with their manager/supervisor.

Management styles that are too authoritarian tend to promote high levels of absenteeism
among employees. Authoritarian managers are managers who have poor listening skills,
set unreachable goals, have poor communication skills, and are inflexible. In other words,
they yell too much, blame others for problems, and make others feel that it must be their
way or the "highway." Authoritarian managers tend to produce high absenteeism rates.
By identifying managers who use an authoritarian style, and providing them with
management training, you will be taking a positive step not only toward reducing
absenteeism, but also reducing turnover, job burnout, and employee health problems
such as backaches and headaches.

Change Working Conditions:

The employees in your company probably work in a well-lighted climate controlled
building. The working conditions I am referring to relate to coworker relationships. Not
only does relationship stress occur between the employee and manager, but it also exists
between employees. Frequently I hear employees say they did not go to work because
they are fearful of or angry with another employee. These employees usually report they
just could not deal with "so and so" today, so they called in ill. Companies that adopted
policies and values that promote employee respect and professionalism, and promote an
internal conflict resolution procedure, are companies that reduce employee stress. A
reduction in employee stress reduces employee absenteeism.




Provide Incentives:
Giving employees incentives for reduced absenteeism is not the same as rewarding or
giving employees bonuses for reduced absenteeism. An incentive provides an employee
with a boost to their motivation to avoid unnecessary absenteeism. It simply helps the
employee decide to go to work versus staying home and watching Jerry Springer.


The types of incentive programs used by companies are numerous. Some companies
allow employees to cash-in unused sick days at the end of every quarter, others give an
employee two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance; and still others
provide employees with a buffet lunch, a certificate of achievement, or even a scratch-off
card concealing prizes. The type of incentive program that your company uses should be
one created especially for your company. You can create an incentive program tailored to
your unique company by allowing employees to help you develop the incentive program.
For example, your employees may not care about receiving a $25.00 U.S. saving bond
for perfect attendance, but they might respond very well to being able to leave one hour
early    on     Friday    if    they     have     perfect    attendance      all    week.


The duration of the incentive program is also very important. Once again allow your
employees to help guide you to determine the length of time between incentives. Some
companies find that they can simply reward employees with perfect attendance once a
year, while others decide once a month is best, and still others decide once a week works
best. The general rule of thumb is to reward workers more frequently the younger they
are and the more difficult the work is to perform. Also, it is best to start with small
incentives     and       work      up      to     larger     ones       if     necessary.


Develop an Attendance Policy:

Every company should have an attendance policy. An attendance policy allows a
manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Besides stress as a
primary reason for employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic
violence, and family problems. If you confront an employee about his or her frequent
absenteeism, and they inform you it is due to personal problems, consider referring the
employee to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
If the employee's absenteeism relates to a medical problem or a family member with a
medical problem, you may have to consider allowing the employee to use the benefits
allowed to them under the American's with Disability Act (ADA) or the Family and Medical
Leave Act (FMLA). Early identification of these employees will get them back to work as
fast as possible. Lastly, make sure that you have an attorney review your attendance
policy to make sure it does not violate any State or Federal labor laws. By incorporating
the above four strategies into your company you will not only reduce absenteeism you
will reduce employee burnout, turnover, poor morale, and workplace negativism.

For Employees Who Are Frequently Absent

One of the most important steps you can take if you are frequently absent, is to keep your
employer informed. Employees who are frequently absent without good cause are
generally absent due to numerous frivolous reasons. Employees who are absent for good
cause have legitimate reasons, e.g. sickness or family member illness, and the employee
needs time off to resolve their personal problems. Most employers generally understand
the need to be gone from work due to a legitimate reason; therefore, it is important to
communicate clearly and accurately so your employer does not assume you are out for
frivolous reasons.

As an employee are allowed to take up to take various paid and unpaid leave which may
be taken continuous or intermittently, thereby allowing the employee to work on a less
than full-time schedule. Authorized leave can be used for the care of a child after birth,
adoption,              or               foster              care              placement.
"Traditional methods of absenteeism control based only on disciplinary procedures
have proven to be ineffective."…Discipline by itself does not identify or address the
root causes of absenteeism. Discipline programs might give the illusion of control. If
absenteeism is to be controlled, the physical and emotional needs of employees
needs to be addressed. According to a 1985 study on "Rates of Absence Among
Nurses", it was determined that half of the absenteeism could be controlled through
attending to the physical and emotional needs of employees.
Low Morale Associated with Absenteeism
"Workplaces with low morale report absentee rates of up to 35%, while offices with high
morale enjoy absentee rates as low as 2%."


            Source: Randstand, Wichita Business Journal, November 15, 2004


Discipline Alone is not Effective


Only two to three percent of employees abuse sick leave. “The key is getting employees
to view sick time as insurance, to be used if needed, "according to Michael Markowich,
M.D. The use of disciplinary measures alone
is not an effective tool for lowering absenteeism rates. Rather than having the negative
incentive of discipline to decrease absenteeism, a workplace that promotes trusting and
respectful relationships among employees and puts flexibility and responsibility in the
hands of the employees with their decision making brings about a sense of a partnership
with management on the use of sick leave.


                      Source: Business and Health, December 1991


Positive Approaches


Some positive interventions to help resolve absenteeism problems as opposed to
negative or punitive approaches:


1.) Change management style. Authoritarian managers are associated with high
absenteeism rates. If managers do not practice in an authoritarian style of management,
absenteeism may be
   reduced, as well as a reduction in turnover, job burnout, and employee health
problems.
2.) Reducing employee stress reduces absenteeism. Stressful relationships between
employees may be reduced by adopting policies and professionalism. Having an internal
conflict resolution
    Process in place can also help in decreasing stress.


3.) Incentive programs can reduce absenteeism. Some examples of incentives include
two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance, a buffet lunch, or a gift
certificate.


                             Source: Employer-Employee.com


Root Causes in Working Conditions
Workers who feel micro-managed or don't get along well with their supervisors tend to
take more sick leave according to a study done by Hallis, a recruitment consultant.
Workers who get along well with their supervisors use less sick time.
Workers who have a high degree of autonomy and work in small teams tend to be
happiest according to Professor Ian Hickie.
Workers who are less stimulated and unchallenged tend to use more sick days.
One company gives employees their birthday off as a paid holiday as a way of helping
employees feel appreciated and sick leave rates went down.


  Source: "Back Off Boss: You're Making Me Feel Sick", Brigid Delaney, March 31, 2004


Scheduling Options Help
On a typical day, between two to four percent of Americans fail to show up for work. A
study done by insurance companies compared the effect of three kinds of flex time
scheduling on absences. One group could adjust their schedules daily, one group every 2
weeks, and the third group only four times a year. The group with the best attendance
was the group that could change their schedule only quarterly. This showed a correlation
between choosing a schedule and sticking to it bringing about a higher commitment to
good attendance. The use of comp time may be helpful for employees who need to take
off of work for a doctor's appointment at the last minute or other personal situations.
Incentive plans to reward people who use minimal sick leave annually can also help in
reducing absenteeism.


Source: Companies Combat Absenteeism, Creative Recruiting and Retention Strategies,
Joan Lloyd and Associates, March 20, 1988

Benefits of Sick Leave Use
In a report from the Institute for Women's Policy and Research, "No Time to be Sick: Why
Everyone Suffers When Workers Don't Have Paid Sick Leave,” it reviewed the
consequences of inadequate paid sick leave:
-employees come to work when they are sick, spreading illness to co-workers, extending
their own period of illness, and impairing their productivity on the job.
-parents who stay at home when they are sick or to care for a sick child lose pay and risk
being fired.
-children take longer to recover from illnesses and medical emergencies if their parents
can't spend time with them in their recuperation.
-use of health care resources increases when workers are sick longer and when more
workers and children contract illnesses.
-employers lose valuable productivity-enhancing effects that would likely occur from
offering more adequate paid sick time and paid family care leave.


The costs and benefits of expanding sick leave, according to the article, include:
      -workers who stay at home when they are ill won't infect other employees or
       customers (patients), which will decrease absenteeism and increase co-workers'
       productivity
      -workers will recover more quickly if they stay at home when ill and will be more
       productive when they return to work.
      Fewer health care resources will be used if the employee population is healthier
       and has fewer sick days overall, which in turn might lower employer's health care
   Costs.
     Worker retention will improve through improved health, job satisfaction, and
      mutual loyalty.
     Employers who don't terminate employees for absenteeism due to illness will
      benefit from reduced turnover and the increased productivity of workers who have
      longer job tenure.


Remedial Measures for Reducing Absenteeism

  The definition of absenteeism, its causes, its affects on productivity, and its costs in
  terms of finances and administrative effectiveness are quite clear. What is not as clear
  is how to take affirmative action to control absenteeism in such a way as not to create
  mistrust, costly administration and systems avoidance (game players). Traditional
  methods of absenteeism control based only on disciplinary procedures have proven to
  be ineffective. It is almost impossible to create a fair disciplinary procedure because
  even well run disciplinary systems, which treat similar actions in consistently similar
  ways, are usually seen as unfair. The reason for this is discipline alone usually does
  not identify or address the root causes of absenteeism. Every employee who takes
  time off in defiance of company regulations has reasons, right or wrong, which justify
  to themselves the legitimacy of their actions. Unless a management attendance
  program identifies and addresses the causes of employee absenteeism it will be
  ineffective and unfair. Traditional disciplinary programs alone can, at best, give the
  illusion of control. It is no secret that there are ways to beat even the best systems.
  The fear of discipline often only increases the desire to avoid management systems.

  If absenteeism is to be controlled, the physical and emotional needs of employees
  must be addressed. In a 1985 study on "Rates of Absence among Nurses" it was
  found that 50% of absenteeism could be controlled through attending to employees
  physical and emotional needs. It is required to develop a willingness on the part of all
  employees to attend work regularly and to assist them in motivating their coworkers to
  attend work regularly. This can be done through;

  1. addressing the physical and emotional needs of employees
2. communicating the attendance goals of the organization so employees can
understand and identify with them

3. dealing with cases of excessive absenteeism effectively and fairly so deterrence
can occur

It is required to create work environments in which the following can be actualized.

1. The greater the extent to which individuals identify their goals with the goals of the
organization and care what happens to it, the greater their motivation to be regular in
attendance.

2. The more people find their jobs meaningful to them, the greater their motivation to
be regular in attendance.

3. As employee’s workload increases due to the absence of a co-worker, peer
pressure is exerted on the absent co-worker to attend work on a regular basis.

4. The more people like working for the organization the higher their motivation to
attend regularly. Recognition of good employee attendance helps improve
attendance.

5. Employees will have a lower absence ratio if they feel free to discuss their on-the-
job problems with their immediate supervisor.

6. Employees with a low absence ratio have attitudes of confidence and "team" spirit.

7. Low absence ratio employees are found to be more satisfied with their opportunity
for promotion and upgrading.

Remedial measures could be taken for each causes of absenteeism. These remedies
can be classified as-


1) ORGANIZATIONAL REMEDIES:

Each organization is unique. Hence, suggestions based on certain broad assumptions
are-
 Carry out periodic collection of data on absenteeism & analyze them to find out the
trend of absenteeism (trade wise, sex wise and age wise for further studies).

 Find out

          - Causes & correlation of absenteeism

          - Gap between employee’s expectation & reality

          - Level of job satisfaction of employees on the basis of attitude
    survey.

 Introduce suggestion scheme and obtain employees view points for reducing
absenteeism.

 Improve supervision & communication.

 Introduce incentive scheme like “Attendance Bonus”

 Improve working conditions

 Improve welfare, safety & health schemes

 Impose penalty/punishment/fines for absence

 Improve organizational climate/culture.

 Increase Quality of Work life (QWL) of employees

 Introduce flexi-timing, if feasible.




2) ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIES:

 Provide campus/quarters & housing facilities on hire or hire-purchase basis

 Improve hygiene of living quarters
 Provide reasonable health care/hospital facilities

 Provide services like subsidized canteens, transport & schools

 Organize religious/cultural festivals & facilities including temples etc.

 Propagate family welfare schemes & virtues of maintaining small family.

 Organize sports & other recreational and entertainment facilities


3) PERSONAL REMEDIES:

 Increase intrinsic motivation

 Identify “Chronic absentees” and attend them individually

 Carry out counseling of individuals (chronic absentees)

 Introduce participative management system by discussing problems regarding
absenteeism & arriving at remedial steps in consultation with employees

 Introduce both positive steps (incentive bonus for better attendance) & negative
steps (disciplinary actions like fine)

 Take preventive steps to avoid accidents & alcoholism

 Provide permanent counselors to carryout individual counseling

So managers must take critical look at their policies, corporate culture as absence
policies are often not used for the purposes they are intended. Before employers can
determine the best way to combat absenteeism, they must identify the organizational
and individual factors that contribute to the problem.

Among the most common potential problem areas employers need to explore are-

 Job Satisfaction: Employees who like their job are more likely to come to work
than those who find work unstimulating.

 Work Attitude: Some employees come to work no matter how sick they feel, while
others call in sick no matter how well they feel.
 Company Culture: If management’s attitude is lax and absenteeism is accepted as
a normal practice, the organization’s culture may have to be changed before
attendance can be improved.

 Excessive rates of sick leave: As some insurance companies are now are doing,
employers need to monitor sick leave rates and reward employees who use fewer
sick leaves.

Thus, Absenteeism affects the organization from the multiple angles. It affects
severely the production process and the business. The effect of unauthorized
absenteeism is more than the other types of absenteeism. However, it is difficult to
completely avoid absenteeism, but it can be minimized & controlled using various
measures…

 Selecting the employees by testing them thoroughly regarding their aspirations
value system, responsibility and sensitiveness.

 Adopting humanistic approach in dealing with the personal problems of
employees.

 Following proactive approach in identifying and redressing employee grievances.

 Providing hygienic working conditions.

 Providing welfare measures and fringe benefits balancing the need for the
employees and the ability of the organization.

 Providing high wages and allowances based on the organizational financial
position.

 Improving the communication network, particularly, the upward communication.

 Providing leave facility based on the needs of the employees and organizational
requirement.

 Providing safety and health measures.

 Providing cordial human relation and industrial relations.

 Educating the workers.
    Counseling the worker about their career, income and expenditure habits and
      culture.

    Free-flow of information, exchanging of ideas, problems etc. between subordinate
      and superior.

    Granting leave and financial assistance liberally in case of sickness of employee
      and his family members.

    Offering attendance bonus and inducements.

    Providing extensive training, special allowances in case of technological
      advancements

Once you know the cause of absenteeism in the organization, it become easy to correct,
or minimize, the problem. It requires insight into the special dynamics present in your
work place. It will require two-way communication, as both the needs of the employees
and of management must be met if good attendance is to be achieved.

Attendance is not an expectation. It is a right of employers to have good attendance.
Each and every employee has a contractual obligation to attend work regularly. All levels
of management must believe in, be committed to, and communicate their expectations of
good attendance. If a specific number of sick days are considered acceptable per
employee, at best that will be the result. Employees will live up or down to expectations.
Expectations must be clear to both management and employees in order to bring
absenteeism to the lowest. Attendance expectations must be clearly communicated and
followed.




                      ANALYSIS OF SURVEY RESULTS

     Age group of absentees
     An attempt was made to classify the respondents on the basis of their age
groups. For this, respondents included in the sample were classified into four age
groups: upon 25 years, , 25 years to 30 years, 30 years to 50 years, and 50 years
and above. The information about age wise classified respondents is presented
below

                   Table no.3.1 Age wise Classification of Respondents


         Sal No   Description          No o respondents      Percentage

         1        Upto25               19                    19

         2        25-30                41.                   41.

         3        30-50                31                    31

         4        Above50              9                     9

                                       100                   100



                        Age wise classiicaion o
                             respondens

                     Above50
                       9%              Upto25
                                        19%                  Upto25
                  30-50                                      25-30
                  31%
                                                             30-50
                                       25-30                 Above50
                                       41%


The analysis indicates that almost one fifth ( 19%) absentees are belonging o he age
group of 25 year. 41% employees are in he age group up to 25-30 Years. 31%
employees are in he age group o 30-50 Years. And remaining 9 are in he age group
above 50 Years. Analysis significantly indicates that     Younger employees were found
absent more frequently than the older employees.


Gender Wise Classification of Respondent
The respondents included in the sample were classified on the basis of their sex for
identifying the absenteeism in the city of SIDCUL Haridwar district.. The sex wise
classified categories included male as well as female respondents. The results are
shown in table no.3.2
               Table No 3.2 Gender Wise Classifications of Respondents
s.no.                   Description               No. respondents     Percentage
1.                      Male                      78                  78
2.                      Female                    22                  22
                        Total                     100                 100



                                  Gender Wise Classification



                         female
                          22%

                                                                      Male
                                                                      female
                                                Male
                                                78%




      The analysis elaborates that the sample includes 78% male and 22% female
     respondents. It signifies that the Female employees were found more frequently
                           absent than their male counterpart.

Marital Status wise classification of Respondents
 The respondents included in the sample were classified on the basis of their marital
 status for identifying the absenteeism in the various industries around SIDCUL
 Haridwar district. The marital status wise classified categories included married as
 well as unmarried respondents. The results are shown in table no.3.

 Table no. 3.3 Marital Status


S.no.                 Description            Respondents            Percentage
1.                    Married                76                     76
2.                    Unmarried              24                     24
                      Total                  100                    100




                                                                       Married
                                                                       Unmarried




             The analysis elaborates that the sample includes 76% married and
24% unmarried respondents. It signifies that the sample has been dominated by the
married respondents who seems to be more absent from their job.




Educational Qualification level wise classification of Respondents
The respondents included in the sample were classified on the basis of their
education level for identifying their level of abseeintism. The education level
wise classified categories included those respondents who were educated up to
matrix and below, undergraduate, graduation level, post graduate and
professional degree to their credit. The information regarding this is highlighted
in table no. 3.4.

Table no 3.4 Educational Qualification level wise classification of Respondents



         S.no.        description            No. of respondents                     percentage
           1        Matriculation &                       27                           27
                        below
           2        Under graduate                        26                           26
           3          Graduate                            35                           35
           4        Post graduate                          4                            4
           5         Professional                          8                            8
                     qualification



                                        Education
                                    Professional    wise Classification
                                    qualification        Matriculation
                           Post                           & below
                                        7%
                         graduate                           27%
                            4%
                                                                    Matriculation &
                                       0%                           below
                                                                    Under graduate

                                                                    Graduate

                                                                    Post graduate

                                                                    Professional
                      Graduate
                                                                    qualification
                        36%                          Under
                                                    graduate
                                                      26%
                         total                           100                           100
             The analysis of the data indicates that the sample is
    dominated by the respondents who are educated up to graduate and
    above as it was indicated by almost 39% respondents in the sample.
    . The analysis indicates that the sample includes 27%, 26%,
    respondents respectively educated up to matrix and below, under
    graduation. It is also found that 8% respondent belongs to those
    categories who are having professional degree to their credit.


Family size

The respondents included in the sample were classified on the basis of their
family size for identifying their level of absenteeism. The family size wise
classified categories included those respondents whose families includes, less
than 4 member, between 4 to 6 members and more than 6 members. The results
are shown in table no .3.5.




Table no -3.5 Family size
     s.no      Description            respondents    percentage
     1         Less than 4            56             56
     2         4to6 members           31             31
     3         More than 6 members    13             13
               Total                  100            100
                                       Family Size




             More han 6
              members
               13%

                                        Less than 4          Less than 4
                                           56%

                                                             4to6 members



                                                             More han 6 members
    4to6 members
         31%




The analysis suggests that the sample includes 56%, 31%, and 13% respondents
whose family size is less then 4 members, 4 to 6 member And more than 6 members
respectively. Analysis clearly signifies that the sample is dominated by the
respondents whose family size is up to 4 members.




Monthly income
An attempt was made to classify respondents on the basis of their monthly income.
For this purpose, the respondents were classified in the following categories: One
who have a monthly income below Rs.5,000 per month. The other categories
include, monthly income from Rs.5,000 to Rs.10,000, Rs.10,000 to Rs.15,000, and
Rs.15000 and above per month. The information regarding the monthly income wise
classified respondents is presented in table no.4.6.
                        Table no table no.4.6 Monthly Income
     sl.no           description        No. of respondents          Percentage
       1           Below Rs. 5000               35                      35
       2           Rs. 5000-10000               40                      40
       3           Rs.10000-15000               18                      18
       4            Above 15000                  6                       6
                       Total                    100                     100




The analysis projects that the sample includes 35%, 40%, 18%, and 6% respondents respectively
representing the group of respondents with monthly income, upto Rs.5,000, Rs.5,000 to
Rs.10,000, Rs 10000 to Rs 15000 and Rs 15001 and above. This signifies that the absenteeism is
dominated by those respondents who are having the monthly income between Rs.5000 to Rs.
10000 PM.


Type of company
Absenteeism is one of the indicators to monitor and evaluate various labor welfare
programmed and labor policies. With this aim in view, statistics on absenteeism amongst
the workers are collected of different sector industries was collected. The information in
this respect is presented below.

Table no 3.7 Type of Industry


            S.no         Description                 Respondents              percentage
               1            Manufacturing                     31                      31
               2               Trading                        34                      34
               3         Service industry                     29                      29
               4               others                          6                      6
                                Total                         100                     100



                               Classification as per type of
                                         industry


                                                                   Manufacturing
                               others             Manufactu
                      Service 6%                    ring           Trading
                      industry                      31%
                        29%
                                                                   Service industry
                                        Trading
                                         34%
                                                                   others




The analysis indicates that sample is dominated by those respondents who belong to
trading industry as it account to 34% respondents in the sample. Manufacturing
companies was indicated by 31% respondents in the sample. 29% employees indicated
that they belongs to service industry and remaining 6% indicated that they belongs to
other type of industry

Location/Residence
An attempt was made to isolate the respondents as per their location and resident where
they are living. The information in this respect is presented below in the table no 3.8
                                Table no 3.8 Location/Residence
       S.no.       Description               No. of respondents         Percentage
       1           Inside        company 13                             13
                   premises
       2        Outside      company 87                       87
                premises
                Total                  100                    100



                                   Area of residence




                                       Inside company
                                           premises
                                             13%                      Inside
                                                                      company
                                                                      premises
                                                                      Outside
                         Outside                                      company
                        company                                       premises
                        premises
                          87%



The data presented in the above table indicates that more than 87% employees reside
the outside campus area. Only 13% employees reside inside the campus. It was found
that employees those who were residing outside the campus get absent more frequently.
Reason may be the Conveyance problem, so management must provide the conveyance
to the employees who reside outside the campus. This will to an extent help in controlling
the absenteeism problem.


Classification as per Accommodation
An attempt was made to classification the respondent on the basis of accommodation
provided by the company. The response thus received is presented in the table below
                Table no 3.8 Classification as per Accommodation
S.no                                              Description No.         of Percentage
                                                               respondents
1                                                 Yes          19                19
2                                                   No           81               81
                                                    Total        100              100




                           Accomodation by the company




                                            Yes
                                            19%


                                                                            Yes
                                                                            No

                      No
                     81%




The information presented in the above table indicates that only 19% employees have
got accommodation from the company. In comparison to this majority of them 81% does
not get accommodation in accommodation allowance from the company.




Absentees having side business
In the new global, competitive scenario where the old rules of the game have changed
faster than field hockey, the rules by which human resources have been looked after had
to change, too. Clearly only quality people can produce quality goods and services. To
that end, programs catering to the physical and mental well being of employees are
getting institutionalized. That really is myopic, considering that most people working in the
corporate sector spend practically all of their waking, conscious, productive and creative
hours in their offices. However they engage themselves in other side business in their
lean and leisure time. Keeping this into consideration an attempt was made to know from
the employees whether they are engaged themselves in any side business or fully
dependent on the company itself. The information in this respect is presented in the
following table no 3.9
                        Table no 3.9 Absentees having side business
       s. no.    Description              No. o respondents      Percentage
       1         Yes                      9                      9
       2         No                       91                     91
                 Total                    100                    100



                             Classification of employees as per their
                                  engagement in side business



                                               Yes
                                               9%

                                                                        Yes
                                                                        No
                                     No
                                    91%

The data presented in the above table and pie chart indicates that very few only 9%
employees indicated they were having side business. In comparison to this majority of
them 91% revealed that they were not having any side business and are fully dependent
on their present job.

Job Satisfaction
An opportunity for better career growth, stagnation and lack of job enrichment at the
present organization are also driving employees to new job avenues. Usually job
dissatisfaction is considered to be a root cause of absenteeism. Keeping this into
consideration an attempt was made to know from the employees whether they are
satisfied with their present job or not. The information in this respect is presented below.
                            Table no 3.10 Job Satisfactions


            sl.no   Description              No. of respondents   percentage
        1           Yes                      82                   82
        2           No                       18                   18
                    Total                    100                  100



                                  Satisfaction with present job




                                    No
                                   18%

                                                                   Yes
                                                                   No
                                                   Yes
                                                   82%




The information presented in the above table indicates that more than three fourth
respondent in the sample are satisfied with their present job as it was indicated by 82%
respondents in the sample. Only 18 indicated that they are not satisfied with their present
job.

Satisfaction level regarding job environment
Empirical evidences reveal that globalization leads to inequality. Since globalization
emphasizes efficiency. Advanced countries have had a head start over the other
countries by at least three centuries. The technological base of the countries is not
only wide but highly sophisticated. With the advent of information technology, the
role of human resources has emerged as more important. Specialized human skills
     will become the determining factor in the coming decades. Productive activities are
     becoming “knowledge intensive” rather than “resource intensive”.                              This haze
     changed the working environment to a great extent. Keeping this into consideration
     an attempt was made to know employees satisfaction with regarding to their job
     environment. The information in this respect is presented below.
                     Table no 3.11 Satisfaction level regarding job environments
sl.no                                                                      Description No.         of percentage
                                                                                          respondents
1                                                                          Highly             14          14
                                                                           satisfied
2                                                                          Satisfied to       36          36
                                                                           some
                                                                           extent
3                                                                          So-so              11          11
4                                                                          dissatisfied       29          29

                                                 Highly satisfied
                                                                           Total             100         100
                            Satisfaction level
       Highly                    Highly
    dissatisfied                satisfied        Satisfied to some exent
        10%                       14%

                                                 So-so
     dissatisfied
        29%
                                                 dissatisfied
                                 Satisfied to
                    So-so        some exent      Highly dissatisfied
                    11%             36%
5                                                                          Highly             10          10
                                                                           dissatisfied
     the information presented in the above table and pie chart reveals that majority of the
     respondent in the sample are satisfied to some extent or not satisfied to as is combine
     together account to 76% in the sample. Only 14 % indicated that they were highly
     satisfied with the present job environment. The answer revealed that there was no
     apparent connection between the absenteeism & the job environment. Here we are
     talking about the actual physical working conditions at work….heat, light, air, conditioning
etc.Many of workers who said they were satisfied with their job environment, had poor
attendance records. Many others who said they were unsatisfied; were never absent. So,
no doubt, this factor has a great bearing on absenteeism.


Awareness regarding leave rules
The management of attendance is an important aspect of supervision in the workplace.
The various research studies reveals that the cost of absenteeism is greater than the
direct payment of wages and benefits paid durance the absence. Organizations must
also consider the indirect cost of staffing, scheduling, re-training, lost productivity,
diminished moral, turnover, opportunity cost. The indirect costs often exceed the direct
cost of absenteeism. This can be reduced to some extent if the employees are made
aware about their importance and their leave rule and so on. Keeping this into
consideration an attempt was made to know the level of awareness regarding the leave
rule and other organization procedure related to their leave. The information in this
respect is presented below.
                 Table no 3.12 Awareness regarding leave rules


          s.no   Description            No. of respondents    percentage
          1      Fully aware            21                    21
          2      unaware                79                    79
                 Total                  100                   100
                       Awareness about leave rule




                                 Fully aware
                                     21%

                                                                Fully aware
                                                                unaware
            unaware
              79%




The information pertaining to this reveals that majority of the employees were not aware
about the rule and regulation of the organization regarding leave as it was indicated by
79% respondents in the sample. Only 21 % revealed that they were fully aware about the
rule in this respect. In the answer to this question, there was a dramatic switch over. This
gives the impression that there is a partial awareness or unawareness among
employees. So, there is a need to take various steps to make employees aware of leave
rules & procedure through various tools & introductory programmers.



Relationship with colleagues
Building Positive Relationships Are Necessary Because We Are Dependent On Each
other. Building positive relationships is something we all want. We form bonds with all
types of different people from our boss and colleges, to our friends and family.
Unfortunately many of us have just gone about it the wrong way. But the good news is
that we can change our behavior and break our bad relationship habits. By improving
your self esteem and learning good interpersonal communication skills, you can change
your relationship situation almost instantly. Building trust in relationships can't be done
before you build trust in yourself. So when you're ready to treat yourself the as a well
respected individual, the same kind of people will be drawn to you.
              Table no 3.13 Relationship with colleagues
          sl.no   Description           No. of respondents     percentage
          1       Excellent             14                     10
          2       Good                  44                     29
          3       Fair                  65                     43.
          4       No so good            16                     11
          5       Bad                   11                     7



                              Relationship with colleagues


                                  Bad
                                             Excellent
                                  7%
                                               9%            Excellent
                     No so good                              Good
                        11%                                  Fair
                                                             No so good

                    Fair                        Good         Bad
                    44%                         29%




In information presented in the above table indicates that 82% of absentees enjoy a good
relationship with their colleagues. Though this factor plays a deciding role & has an
impact on the rate of absenteeism.



Feeling about company
What your customer thinks of you is not only important, it is everything. Image is also
important in dealing with the community in which you work, governmental agencies,
lenders and so on. Image is the way others (clients, employees, the community,
competitors, etc.) perceive your company and its products. And, it is the action you take
to bring that about. It means using the old adage of “putting your best foot forward.”
Image must make sense and be believable and accurate. It must be consistent – in visual
approach as well as in the way you handle customers. Image can mean gaining a visual
identification of your company by its customers such as with a logo. However, it is not
limited to this. Image is a part of everything you do including written materials, the way
you deal with customers and others, what people noticed about you, etc.Establishing an
image should be part of your marketing and human resource plan. Keeping this factor
into consideration an attempt was made to know the feeling about the employees about
the image perceived by them about their present organization. The information in this
respect is presented below
                            Table no 3.14 Feeling Abut Company
           s.no     Description             No. of respondents    percentage
           1        Excellent               25                    25
           2        Good                    52                    52
           3         fair                   23                    23
                    Total                   100                   100



                                  Feeling about company




                         fair             Excellent
                        23%                 25%
                                                                   Excellent
                                                                   Good
                                                                   fair
                                 Good
                                 52%




Here that identifiable thing called “company image” was questioned. The feeling of most
of the employees or absentees was excellent & good as it was indicted by 77 %
respondent in the sample. .
Awareness regarding standing orders
For the smooth functioning of organization every company forms some rules and
regulation and standing orders for the employees at all the level. For proper functioning
and order execution it is necessary for the organization that all the employees should be
aware about the standing order. This is most important technique for educing
absenteeism in the organization. Keeping this into consideration, an attempt was made to
know the level of awareness of employees about the rules and regulation of the
organization. The information in this respect is presented below.


                    Table no 3.15 Awareness about Standing Orders

           s.no     Description               No. of respondents      percentage
           1        Yes                       26                      26
           2        No                        74                      74
                    Total                     100                     100

                              Awarenss about standing orders




                                                     Yes
                                                     26%

                                                                                 Yes
                                                                                 No
                             No
                            74%




Orders.    The    information     presented   in    the    above   table    indicates   the   very
alarming/shocking. Major portions of about 74% employees were found unaware of these
orders. This is a major backdrop and defect on the part of management. Management
must strictly work towards developing awareness among employees regarding the
Standing
Main causes of absenteeism
Workers' responsibilities are multiplying at home and at work. Studies have consistently found
that implementing workplace policies that help workers balance work and family responsibilities
improve employee morale, reduces turnover, and increases productivity.” There are many reasons
of absenteeism such as serious accidents and illnesses, low morale, poor work conditions,
boredom on the job, lack of job satisfaction, inadequate leadership and poor supervision, personal
problems (financial, marital, substance abuse, child care, etc.), poor physical fitness, inadequate
nutrition , transportation problems, stress and excessive workload etc. keeping these factors into
consideration, an attempt was made to know from the employees to list the important reasons
which causes them to be absent from work. Some of the important reasons as highlighted by the
employees is presented below in the table no

                    Table no 3.16 Main causes of absenteeism

           sl.no       Description              No. of respondents        percentage
           1           Sickness                 31                        31
           2           Social      &religious 23                          23
                       cause
           3           Job dissatisfaction      38                        38
           4           others                   8                         8
                       Total                    100                       100
                                    major cause of Absenteeism




                           others                                Sickness
                            8%             Sickness
                                             31%
                                                                 Social &religious cause
     Job dissatisfaction
            38%
                                     Social &religious           Job dissatisfaction
                                          cause
                                           23%
                                                                 others




The information presented in the above table reveals that Sickness, Accidents or
Maternity: factors accounted for about 31% of absenteeism among the employees of
SIDCUL Haridwar area. Social & Religious Causes: under these factors are clubbed
such issues like visiting villages for attending marriages and other social ceremonies,
besides regular attendance at home town at the time of religious festivals. Such factors
were found causing as high as 23% of total absenteeism. Absenteeism due to Job
Dissatisfaction accounts 38% in the sample. Other causes:        like visiting villages for
attending litigation, matters, rest, recreation & other causes was accounted for 8% of
absenteeism.


Person Responsible for Managing Absenteeism
Each year, employee absenteeism drains millions of rupees from organizations across
the country, and each year the issue is viewed in both the private and public business
sectors as a costly detractor from work productivity and management practices. Though
Human Resources departments are expected to implement and seek out new strategic
business plans that benefit employers, in most organizations, effective absence
management plans often go unaddressed. it is imperative that HR professionals view the
gaining control of employee absenteeism as a significant and strategic contribution to
their organization. Traditional methods of absenteeism control based only on disciplinary
procedures have proven to be ineffective."…Discipline by itself does not identify or
address the root causes of absenteeism. Discipline programs might give the illusion of
control. If absenteeism is to be controlled, the physical and emotional needs of
employees needs to be addressed Keeping this into consideration an attempt was made
to know from the employees about Person Responsible for Managing Absenteeism In
their organization. Information in this respect is presented below.


      Table no 3.17 Person Responsible for Managing Absenteeism


  Sl.no    Description             No. of respondents      Percentage
  1        Top management          15                      15
  2        Middle           level 42                       42
           management
  3        Lower            level 43                       43
           management
           Total                   100                     100
                         Person Responsible for Managing Absenteeism




          Lower level
                                            Top management
          management
             43%
                                                 15%

                                                                       Top management


                                                                       Middle level
                                                                       management

                                                                       Lower level
                                                                       management

                          Middle level
                          management
                             42%




the information presented in the above table indicates that in most of the organization the
abseeinteeism is managed by middle and lower level management as it is indicated by
85 % respondents in the sample. Only 15% respondents revealed that absenteeism is
managed by top level management in their organization.


Reduction of Absenteeism, A key goal within the department
plan
Unauthorized or unscheduled absenteeism is a problem for every organization or
business. It creates cost and productivity problems, puts an unfair burden on the majority
of employees who show up for work, ultimately hinders customer satisfaction, and drains
the country's economy. Experience shows that better attendance is synonymous with
better quality, lower costs, and greater productivity (Hazzard, 1990).
"The keys to success with an attendance management program are to develop a procedure/policy,
which will work for your organization; the temporary modified work agreement should be a living
document; you need a good cultural fit of solutions, whether it be a collaboration or education of
stakeholders; invest the time to return employees to work; and work with benefits providers or
seek third party assistance."to manage these problem management must have a policy reduce
absenteeism. Reduction o asceticism should be a key goal within every department planning.
Keeping these factors into consideration an attempt was made o know from he employees whether
reduction of absenteeism is a key goal within the department plan or not. The information in his
respect is presented below


Table No 3.18
Reduction of absenteeism, a key goal within the department plan
        sl.no    Description           No. of respondents              Percentage
        1        Yes                   10                              10
        2        No                    51                              51
        3        Don’t know            39                              39
                 Total                 100                             100
                    Reduction of absenteeism , a key goal within the
                                   department plan




                                       Yes
                                       9%
               Don’t know
                 39%                                               Yes
                                                                   No
                                              No                   Don’t know
                                             52%




the information presented in the above table revels that 52 % employees are of the
opinion that concept of Reduction of absenteeism , a key goal within the department plan
is not available in the organization where as 39 % expresses their unawareness about
the subject. Only 9% agree to the statement. This indicates that company should focus
more on building the awareness about the topic so that all the employees be made aware
about the various issues related to this.

Absence policy
Literature on absenteeism reveals several recommendations for managing absenteeism.
Controlling absenteeism in the workplace begins with a sound absenteeism policy that is
incorporated into an employee handbook. The policy should define absenteeism and
outline consequences for those who break the rules or whose absences become
unacceptably disruptive. Keeping hose accords into consideration an attempt was made
o know room he employees whether their organization is having a absenteeism policy or
the information in this respect presented below
Table no 3.19 Existence o Absenteeism policies


s.no                  Description             No. of respondents    Percentage
1                     Yes                     35                    35
2                     No                      22                    22
3                     N/A                     43                    43
                      Total                   100                   100



                       Management of Grievence Policy




                                                    Yes
                N/A                                 35%
                43%                                                          Yes
                                                                             No
                                                                             N/A
                                         No
                                        22%




The information presented in the above table indicates that more than one third
employees in the sample are of the opinion that their exist a absenteeism policy in their
organisation as it was indicated by 35 % employees in the sample. 22% reveals that
there is not any absenteeism policy and it is handled on case by case basis. On the other
hand 43% employees does not know about the any existence of absenteeism policy.
Process of handling absence
It is frequently asked by most of the manager that how he should deal with the fact that
on any given day a substantial number of his employees are absent from work. Empirical
evidences and various research studies reveals that          the problem of employee
absenteeism is a problem best resolved by taking the following four positive interventions
versus taking a negative or punitive approach like Changing           Management Style
Changing Working Conditions, Provide Incentives and Develop an Attendance Policy.
This can be achieved by developing the effective process of handling the absence.
Keeping his into consideration, an attempt was made to know from he employees
whether their organization is having he process to handling the absence.
                     Table no 3.20 Process of handling absence
s.no                   Description            No. of respondents     Percentage
1                      Yes                    36                     36
2                      No                     23                     23
3                      Don’t know             41                     41
                       Total                  100                    100
He information presented in the above table indicates that           more than one third
employees in the sample        are of the opinion that their exist a proper process
absenteeism policy in their organization as it was indicated by 36 % employees in the
sample. 23% reveals that there is not any process absenteeism. in comparison to this 41
% employees does not know any thing about the process of handling absenteeism in
their organization.



Record of absence

Every company should have an attendance policy. An attendance policy allows a
manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Besides stress as a
primary reason for employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic
violence, and family problems. If management confront an employee about his or her
frequent absenteeism, and they inform that it is due to personal problems, consider
referring the employee to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).             For    effective
absenteeism management every organization should have proper record o absenteeism.
Keeping his into consideration an attempt was made o know from the employees whether
their organization is having the proper Record of absence. The information in his respect
is presented in the table below.
                                   Table no 3.21 Record of absence


s.no                   Description             No. of respondents     percentage
1                      Yes                     45                     45
2                      No                      25                     25
3                      Don’t know              30                     30
                       Total                   100                    100
                               FINDINGS


Social & Religious Causes (30%) and Sickness, Accidents or Maternity (22%) has
been revealed as the main cause for Absenteeism by most of the employees.
While other causes- like visiting villages for attending litigation, matters, rest,
recreation etc. was accounted for absenteeism by a majority of (40%) employees.



Younger employees of less than 25yrs of age were found absent more frequently
than older employees but the latter are absent for longer periods of time

A majority of employees were found unaware of Leave Rules (76%)



84% employees were not familiar of Standing Orders.

It was found that female employees get more frequently absent as compared to
their male counterpart.

Employees who live outside the campus were found frequently absent then local
employees. A majority of employees of about 66% who get absent were found to
be from outside the campus.

Very few employees were found running their side business.

Their has been found no correlation between job dissatisfaction & absenteeism at
various industry across SIDCUL Haridwar as most of the absentees were fully
satisfied with their job & work environment.
                               CONCLUSION

No doubt Absenteeism is a universal problem in the industry & is not peculiar to
Indian industry. It has been observed that the phenomenon of Absenteeism does
not exist only in Indian industry; it is a universal fact. The difference is only in terms
of magnitude. The rate of Absenteeism varies from industry to industry, place to
place, occupation to occupation. It differ according to the make-up of the work force.
It as a major barometer of employee morale, absenteeism above 5% per week is
very serious (3% is the standard goal of industry). Left unchecked, high
absenteeism usually develops into very serious business problems including morale
issues and high turnover.
If absenteeism is to be controlled.- the physical and emotional needs of employees
must be addressed. Insight into the special dynamics present in work place & two-
way communication is required, as both the needs of the employees and of
management must be met if good attendance is to be achieved


From the study conducted in deepen small and medium scale firms, around
state capital o Utatrakhand, it is concluded that the attendance management
system is such good; the facilities, work environment are best of its kind, that
the rate of Absenteeism is almost negligible.
Most    of   the   management        personal    strongly     believes    in   achieving
organizational excellence through Human Resources and follows “People
First” approach. The success can largely be attributed to the continuous
fulfillment of all the corporate objectives, one of which seeks to adopt an
appropriate Human Resource Development policy. It has taken a number of
steps and measures, small or big, which together have contributed in evolving
an integral Human Resource Management approach. An in depth analysis of
HR related problems like Absenteeism and their causes, is done time to time
to lay down appropriate policies, rules and norms for the complete well being
of its employees. It considers HR as the most valuable resource and the
company is committed to provide all possible facilities & opportunities to
keep the employees committed to attendance.


So, In order to develop willingness on the part of all employees to attend work
regularly & to assist them in motivating their co-workers the company is
taking all possible steps.
                               RECOMMENDATIONS

No doubt there is absenteeism is a serious problem or most of the managers engaged in
dire sector industry around SIDCUL Haridwar. it is working hard towards bringing it to its
lowest. The Attendance Management System of this unit is really best and need to be
applauded but it still require a little bit of perfection in areas…


             Affirmative action need to be taken to control absenteeism in such a way as
              not to create mistrust, costly administration & systems avoidance.


             Employees need to be made aware of leave rules & standing orders.


             The physical & emotional needs of employees must be addressed.


             Management must try hard to develop a willingness on the part of all
              employees to attend work regularly & to assist them in motivating    their
              co-workers to attend work regularly.


             Management must work towards the successful administration of an
              attendance management program


             Absence policies need to be critically looked upon as these are often not
              used for the purposes they were intended.


             Management must explore the most common potential problem areas like
              job satisfaction, work attitude, company culture, and excessive rates of sick
              leaves.
         Management must strictly work towards finding out the causes of worker
          discontent & eliminate them.




         Management must & need to look at absenteeism a little more closely, in
          terms of the principal reason (sickness…) for it.


         Worker’s way of reacting & responding to discontent need to be changed.


         The organization should make employees aware of & understand the loss
          by absenteeism to them.


         The practice of participative management should be preferred.


         The organization should provide various health (physical & mental)
          schemes not only for the employees but also for their family members.


         Cultural programmers should be organized to relive the job stress.


         Various programmed should be organized to reduce alcoholism & drugs
    use   among workers.


         100% attendance award must be introduced.

				
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