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Configuring Server Storage Backup and Performance Options

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					                              Chapter 7

        Chapter 7:
Configuring Server Storage,
 Backup, and Performance
         Options
          Learning Objectives
                                            Chapter 7


   Explain basic and dynamic disks
   Partition, format, and manage basic
    disks and convert them to dynamic
    disks
   Create and manage simple, spanned,
    striped, RAID-5, and mirrored dynamic
    disks
   Mount a drive
Learning Objectives (continued)
                                           Chapter 7


   Manage removable storage and set up
    media pools
   Perform disk backups
   Tune server performance
   Configure Windows 2000 Server for an
    uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
                Basic Disk
                                               Chapter 7


   Uses traditional disk management
    techniques for partitions and formatting
   Supports primary and extended
    partitions, RAID 0, RAID1 and RAID5
   Default disk structure for a new 2000
    server install and when upgrading any
    previous versions of NT Server
   Offered for backward compatibility with
    earlier versions of Windows and MS-
    DOS
              Disk Partitioning
                                                  Chapter 7


   Process of dividing a disk into sections
    (partitions) and formatting those sections into
    tracks and sectors for a file system
   Each partition is assigned a drive letter (C:,
    D:, etc.) in Windows
   Places a master boot record and partition
    table at the beginning of the disk
             Partitioning Tip
                                             Chapter 7


   When you partition a basic disk, leave
    1 MB free for workspace which is
    necessary to later convert to a
    dynamic disk
    Primary and Extended Partitions
                                                       Chapter 7


   Primary partition: A partition or portion of a
    hard disk that is bootable
      Disksmust have at least one primary partition and
       can have up to four
   Extended Partition: Linked to a primary
    partition in order to increase the available disk
    space
      Disks  can have only one extended partition, but
       the extended partition can have many logical drive
       letters (C:, D:, etc.)
      Used mainly to overcome the limit of 4 primary
       partitions per disk
      Boot and System Partitions
                                             Chapter 7


   Boot partition: A partition that holds the
    Windows 2000 Server system files (the
    WINNT folder)
   System partition: A partition that
    contains boot files, such as Boot.ini and
    Ntldr in Windows 2000 Server
Viewing the System and
    Boot Partitions                      Chapter 7




 Figure 7-3 System and boot partitions
Formatting Using the Disk
   Management Tool                      Chapter 7




    Figure 7-4 Formatting a partition
             Formatting Tips
                                           Chapter 7


   When you format a partition, avoid using
    the quick format option, because it does
    not check for bad sectors during the
    format
   After you partition and format a disk, be
    sure to update the emergency repair
    disk to reflect your change
        Volume and Stripe Sets
                                                Chapter 7


   Volume set: Two or more formatted
    basic disk partitions that are combined
    to look like one partition with a single
    drive letter
   Stripe set: Two or more basic disks set
    up so that files are striped for RAID0 or
    RAID5.
      Converting a Basic Disk to
          a Dynamic Disk                         Chapter 7


   To convert a disk:
     Right-click  on the basic disk (not on a
      partition) to convert
     Click Upgrade to Dynamic Disk
     Converting a Dynamic Disk
          to a Basic Disk                          Chapter 7


   To convert back to a basic disk:
     Back   up the dynamic disk
     Delete the dynamic disk volume
     Click the disk, click the Action menu, and
      click Restore Basic Disk
     Partition and format the disk
             Dynamic Disks
                                           Chapter 7


   Dynamic disk: In Windows 2000 Server,
    a disk that does not use traditional
    partitioning
   There is no restriction to the number of
    volumes that can be set up on one disk
   You can extend volumes onto other
    physical disks if more space is needed
   Dynamic disks are only compatible with
    Windows 2000.
     Dynamic Disks (continued)
                                                Chapter 7


   Dynamic disks support:
     Spanned   volumes and volume extensions
     Up to 32 disks in one spanned volume
     RAID levels 0, 1, and 5
     FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS
     Reactivation if they go off line
              Simple Volume
                                                Chapter 7


   Simple volume: A portion of a single
    disk or an entire single disk that is has
    been converted to a dynamic disk and
    formatted.
   A simple volume is not fault tolerant.
           Spanned Volume
                                        Chapter 7


   Spanned volume: Two or more sections
    of one or more Windows 2000 dynamic
    disks that are combined to appear as
    one disk.
   A spanned volume can span any part of
    2 to 32 disks
Spanned Volume (continued)
                                      Chapter 7




     2 GB   2 GB    3 GB       4 GB

       11 GB spanned volume


            One drive letter


     Figure 7-5 Spanned volume
                Design Tip
                                            Chapter 7


   In a spanned volume if one disk fails,
    the entire volume is inaccessible.
   If a portion of a volume is deleted, such
    as one disk, the entire disk set is
    deleted.
   For these reasons, avoid placing
    mission-critical data and applications on
    a spanned volume.
              Striped Volume
                                               Chapter 7


   Striped volume: Two or more dynamic disks
    (or equal portions of those disks) that use
    striping so that files are spread in blocks
    across the disks
   Also known as RAID level 0
   Striping requires at least 2 disks (or equal
    portions of disks) and can include as many as
    32.
   Striping equalizes the disk load, extends the
    life of disks, and increases disk performance
        Striped Volume Layout
                                                                                      Chapter 7

            Disk 1         Disk 2         Disk 3          Disk 4             Disk 5


Row 1    1-64 KB        65-128 KB       129-192 KB      193-256 KB         257-320 KB




Row 2   321-384 KB      385-448 KB      449-512 KB      513-576 KB         577-640 KB




Row 3   641-704 KB      704-720 KB



             Writing a 720KB file to a Striped Volume that spans 5 disks



              Figure 7-6 Disks in a striped volume
            Striped Volumes
                                           Chapter 7


   If one or more disks in a striped volume
    fail, the data will be inaccessible.
   Frequently back up a striped volume so
    you do not lose data if a disk failure
    occurs.
              RAID-5 Volume
                                                    Chapter 7


   RAID-5 volume: Three or more dynamic disks
    (or equal portions of those disks) that use
    provide fault tolerance through disk striping
    and creating parity blocks for data recovery
   A RAID-5 volume is not as fast at writing
    because it must calculate and write the parity
    block for each row
   RAID-5 is fault tolerant. If a single drive in the
    volume fails, the parity information can be
    used to regenerate the lost data.
                       RAID-5 Layout
                                                                              Chapter 7

            Disk 1        Disk 2        Disk 3        Disk 4         Disk 5


Row 1   Parity block    1-64 KB       65-128 KB      129-192 KB    193-256 KB




Row 2   257-320 KB     Parity block   321-384 KB     385-448 KB    449-512 KB




Row 3   513-576 KB     577-640 KB     Parity block    641-704 KB   704-720 KB




                 Figure 7-7 Disks in a RAID-5 volume
     Disk Spaced Used for Parity
                                           Chapter 7


   The amount of disk space used for
    parity is 1/n where n equals the number
    of physical disks
   When you plan disk capacity, take into
    account the amount of space (for parity)
    that cannot be used for production data
            Mirrored Volume
                                          Chapter 7


   Mirrored volume: Two dynamic disks that
    are set up so that data on one disk is
    stored (mirrored) on a redundant disk
   Disk read performance is the same as
    reading from a simple volume, but the
    disk write time is increased in order to
    write on both disks
             Design Caution
                                         Chapter 7


   The system and boot partitions can be on
    a simple, spanned, or mirrored volume,
    but not on a striped or RAID-5 volume
    (unless hardware RAID is used)
    Disk Performance and Repair
                                           Chapter 7


   You can extend the life of disks by using
    striped or RAID-5 volumes because
    read/write requests are spread across all
    disks.
   Regularly defragment disks to extend
    disk life and increase performance
Using the Disk Defragmenter
                                                Chapter 7




  Figure 7-8 Analyzing a disk’s fragmentation
          Troubleshooting Tip
                                            Chapter 7


   Ensure disk integrity and repair disk
    problems by using the “checkdisk” utility,
    called chkdsk
   Chkdsk can check FAT16, FAT32, and
    NTFS formatted volumes
                       Chkdsk
                                                 Chapter 7


   In NTFS, chkdsk can check:
     Files
     Folders
     Indexes
     Security descriptors
     User files
     Disk allocation units

   If there is physical damage on a disk, use
    chkdsk with the /r switch to identify bad
    sectors
             Mounted Drive
                                          Chapter 7


   Windows 2000 offers the ability to
    access a physical disk, CD-ROM, or Zip
    drive through a folder that appears on
    another drive letter.
   Using mounted drives enables you to
    add new drives without allocating drive
    letters.
    Disk Security Through Backup
                                                   Chapter 7


   Try to backup a server to a tape drive
    attached to the server. This provides
    several advantages:
     No   load on the network while backing up
     If each server has its own tape drive, you
      can backup other servers if one tape drive
      fails
     The registry can only be backed up locally
      (without 3rd party backup tools)
    Windows 2000 Backup Options
                                                        Chapter 7
   Windows 2000 Server backup options:
     Normal   – a full backup – backs up everything
      selected in the backup job (whether changed or
      not) and removes the archive attribute.
     Incremental – a partial backup – only backs up
      files that have changed since the last full backup
      or incremental backup and removes the archive
      attribute.
     Differential – a partial backup – backs up all files
      that have changed since the last full backup (even
      if they have not changed since the last differential
      backup) and does not remove the archive
      attribute.
    Windows 2000 Backup Options
                                            Chapter 7


   Copy – backs up only the files or
    directories selected and leaves the
    archive attribute unchanged
   Daily – backs up only the files that have
    changed on the day the backup is
    performed and leaves the archive
    attribute unchanged
   Starting a Backup
                                         Chapter 7




Figure 7-10 Manually starting a backup
          Scheduling Backups
                                              Chapter 7


   For regularly performed backups, use
    the scheduling capability in the Backup
    tool – which actually employs the
    Scheduled Tasks tool
Configuring a Scheduled Backup
                                            Chapter 7




      Figure 7-11 Scheduling a backup job
          Performing a Restore
                                            Chapter 7


   Perform a restore by using the Backup
    tool and clicking the Restore tab
   You can restore all files and folders from
    a backup job or only those you select
    specifically
        Configuring Application
             Performance                            Chapter 7


   Windows 2000 can be optimized for
    applications or background services
   Use Applications performance when a system
    will be used by someone logged into the
    console
   Use background services when a system will
    fulfill requests for services on the network (file
    and print)
   Application performance is tuned by opening
    the Control Panel System icon, accessing the
    Advanced tab, and clicking the Performance
    Options button
     Configuring Virtual Memory
                                                             Chapter 7


   Virtual memory is a file (called the page file) stored
    on the hard disk and is used to store programs and
    data when there is little available RAM.
   The general formula for configuring a page file is to
    size it to match the amount of RAM times 1.5
   For performance, you should tune a server by
    configuring the page file to be stored on a hard disk
    separate from the disk which contains the operating
    system.
   Virtual memory settings can be found under Control
    Panel, System, Advanced, Performance Options.
Page File Configuration
                                          Chapter 7




 Figure 7-12 Configuring virtual memory
           Configuring Server RAM
                                                                                Chapter 7

Optimizing Memory Settings          Purpose

Minimize memory used                Optimizes the memory used on servers with

                                    10 or fewer simultaneous network users

Balance                             Optimizes memory use for a small LAN with

                                    64 or fewer users

Maximize data throughput for file   Used for a large network with 64 users or

sharing                             more where file serving resources need more

                                    memory allocation to make the server efficient
                Configuring Server
                RAM (continued)                                         Chapter 7

Optimizing Memory Settings       Purpose
Maximize data throughput for     Used in servers that share applications
network applications             such as Microsoft Office. Used to
                                 reduce paging activity when this affects
                                 server performance
Make browser broadcasts to LAN   Used for networks that have both
manager 2.x clients              Windows 2000 Server and Microsoft’s
                                 early server operating system, LAN
                                 Manager


            These options are found in the properties of
                     File and Printer Sharing.
Configuring RAM Allocation
                                            Chapter 7




  Figure 7-13 Adjusting memory allocation
           Chapter Summary
                                            Chapter 7


   Windows 2000 Server supports two
    kinds of disks, basic and dynamic
   Basic disks are for backward
    compatibility and dynamic disks offer
    comprehensive disk management
   Windows 2000 Server supports many
    kinds of removable storage such as
    tapes, CD-ROMs, CD-RWs, Zip, and
    Jaz drives
           Chapter Summary
                                         Chapter 7


   Removable storage is managed through
    libraries and media pools
   Server backups are handled through the
    Backup tool which offers several backup
    alternatives
   Tune your server right away for running
    applications, virtual memory, and
    memory used for network connectivity

				
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Description: Explain basic and dynamic disks Partition, format, and manage basic disks and convert them to dynamic disks Create and manage simple, spanned, striped, RAID-5, and mirrored dynamic disks Mount a drive Manage removable storage and set up media pools Perform disk backups T une server performance Configure Windows 2000 Server for an uninterruptible power supply (UPS)