Insulin is necessary for glucose uptake in various tissues (muscle,fat and liver).There are situations when normal or even high levels of in sulin levels are not enough for the proper fucnctioning of carbohydrate metabolism.This is due to the decreased sensitivity of of the various tissues (muscle ,fat and liver) to insulin and as a result insulin action is not carried out with optimum efficiency.This condition is called "insulin resistance".Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of insulin resistance .The most important environmetal factor is obesity(abdominal obesity) and can give rise to insulin resistance in genetically predisposed individual. Insulin resistance of skeletal muscles results in decreased uptake of blood glucose by the muscle cells,resulting in hyperglycemia.Insulin resitance of fat cells results in increased breakdown of lipids(lipolysis)because one of the functions of insulin is to prevent lipolysis.Due to increased lipolysis concentration of free fatty acids in the blood increases.Increased levels of LDL in the blood disturbs not only lipid profile but also increases glucose production in the liver.Insulin resistance of liver cells results in increased hepatic gluconeogenesis (glucose production in liver).It is now medically proven fact the insulin resistance plays very important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. It would be interesting to know that insulin resistance not only manifests as type 2 diabetes but other disorders like hypertension,dyslipidemia,coronary artery disease etc.
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