The Restoration and the Eighteenth
Read C.F. Main’s quotation on page 468.
What conclusions can you draw about English society based
on this quotation?
Can you compare this quotation with American society
Moving away from the Renaissance….
From 1600 to 1800, the colonies were established. In 1775,
the colonies rebelled against the British.
Meanwhile, by 1660, England was devastated by twenty years
of civil war, a plague, and a fire that left 2/3 of Londoners
By the end of the eighteenth century, England transformed
into a society that valued philosophy, art, and literature. The
middle class grew and colonies were established throughout
Reason and Enlightenment
The “Age of Reason” and the “Enlightenment” suggest a shift
People start asking “how” not “why” events were occurring
(such as earthquakes and comets).
Workings of the human body to the laws of the universe
became less frightening and superstitious.
When have we seen examples of superstition in
Changes in religion
The new science influenced religion. Deism viewed the
universe as a machine, which God had built and left to run on
When Charles II reestablished the Anglican Church as the
official church of the country, other sects were outlawed and
Catholics were viewed with suspicion and the only Catholic
successor fled with his family to France. This allowed
Protestants to remain comfortably in power.
Theatre and Literature
Theatres in England were reestablished and women played
new types of roles that dramatized the relationships between
men and women.
Moral corruption and commercialism was satirized by
authors such as Pope and Swift.
Journalism became a new profession, and many journalists
saw themselves as public manners and morals.
Poetry was created for public occasions.
Novels (“something new”) developed and became popular
with English women.
A simpler life?
The “age of sensibility” was defined by Dr. Samuel Johnson,
who had conservative and traditional beliefs. He questioned
the optimistic assumption that the future would be better
than the past.
At the end of the century, as industrialization exploded,
writers returned to nature and folk themes. Why do you
think this was the case?
Haves and Have-Nots…
Groups will be randomly assigned a social status.
Read “haves” (page 473) and “have-nots” (page 478)
Scenario: Samuel Pepys, a member of the upper-class in
eighteenth century England, attended a lot of fancy parties.
However, he also interacted with the common people and the
poor. Imagine that your group is being interviewed by Samuel
Pepys. Based on your reading and class notes, list your top ten
concerns that affect your social class.You could bring up policies
that you would like changed or things you would like to stay the
You will present your group’s argument to Samuel Pepys (aka Ms.