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					  Critical Thinking
            -
       Inside a
Dialysis Machine
      Done by:
      Tan Jiefeng (21)
      Nicholas Tay (22)
      Wang Shiyao (23)
      Class 1I1
       What is Kidney Failure?

• Not able to remove waste and extra
  water from the blood or keep body
  chemicals in balance.

• Needs the help of a Dialysis machine.
           What is Dialysis?

• Dialysis is the cleansing of blood
  through a special machine.

• Dialysis machines help to remove
  the waste products from their blood.
How does a Dialysis Machine work?

• Path which blood takes:
What is inside a Dialyzer?


• Inside a Dialyzer, there is a semi-
  permeable membrane.

- On one side there is blood.

- On the other side there is a special
  solution called dialysate.
      What is inside a Dialyzer?
• Dialysate is a solution that pulls waste
  from blood.
     What is diffusion?

     Diffusion is the
movement of substances
    from an area of
HIGH CONCENTRATION
      to an area of
LOWER CONCENTRATION.
     Semi-permeability


• Smaller substances are able to pass
  through the semi-permeable membrane
- Because they are small enough.

• Bigger substances cannot pass through
  the semi-permeable membrane
- Because they are too big.
     Question 4a

  How do you think
      the waste
  substances in the
 blood such as urea
is removed from the
        blood?
             Question 4a
• They are removed from the blood in
  the dialyzer.
• In the dialyzer, the blood with waste
  products will flow past one side of a
  semi-permeable membrane.
• On the other side of this membrane,
  there is a special substance called
  dialysate, which pulls waste from
  blood. The waste such as urea will pass
  through the membrane.
      Question 4b

Will the red and white
    blood cells and
platelets which make
   up the blood be
  removed? Why?
             Question 4b


• The red and white blood cells and
  platelets will not be removed.

- This is because they are too big to pass
  through the semi-permeable
  membrane in the dialyzer and thus will
  return to the blood compartment.
        Question 4c
 Diffusible substances needed
  by the body such as sugars,
    amino acids and certain
    amounts of salts can go
through the membrane. What
  can be done to make sure
that these substances are not
      removed by dialysis?
                  Question 4c
• To make sure that these substances are not
  removed, the concentration of these substances on
  the other side of the membrane has to be the
  same.

- This is because diffusion is substances moving from a
  higher concentration to a lower concentration,

- If the concentration on both sides of the membrane
  is the same, then the substances will not move.
     Question 4d

Water from the blood
  can also diffuse
    through the
membrane. Why is it
  not removed by
      dialysis?
         Question 4d

Similarly, if the concentration
of water on the other side of
the membrane is the same as
that of blood, then there will
be no diffusion, and
no movement of water.
   Concepts


 Diffusion
   Semi-
permeability
                      Bibliography
• images.google.com
• http://dialysis-patient-care.blogspot.com/
• http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-amino-acids.htm
• http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/hemodialysisdose/
• http://www.answers.com/topic/how-does-kidney-dialysis-remove-
  waste-products-from-the-body
• http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_removed_by_dialysis
• http://en.allexperts.com/q/Biology-664/Dialysis.htm
• http://en.allexperts.com/q/Molecular-Biology-1353/Dialysis.htm
Thank you!

				
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posted:4/20/2012
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