Chapter 22 The Battle for National Reform (p. 593) - The word “progressive” had many MI: Reforming National Government meanings, so even progressives didn’t know what exactly that word meant. -> ++- Beginning early in the 20th century, the state a local levels began to look to the federal government, but all of them were weak and delayed due to partisan politics. ++- Progressives wanted to make it more - seemed poorly suited to serve as an agent responsive to their demands. Some of reform-> reformers urged an end to the election system, by which made the Senators be elected by their state legislatures. Instead, the direct popular election was proposed. -They believed that it would make the Senate more effective to the public demands ++- In 1912, the 17th Amendment passed by -> Congress was ratified by the states in 1913, brought about that change. ++- Even a reformed Congress wasn’t able -Why that kind of leadership wasn’t to take a leadership for the progressive coherent for the progressive agenda? agenda, the only solution was the presidency. ++- The presidency was still firmly in the -The Republican party believed that the hands if conservative leaders of the government and its leader should work first Republican party. After President William and foremost to stabilize existing conditions McKinley’s death, his vice president, and protect wealth and poverty Theodor Roosevelt, came into power. Roosevelt’s presidency brought variety advantages to the nation. After he left in 1909, he was replaced by his friend William Howard Taft, who disappointed Roosevelt and his progressive followers. ++- The next president, Woodrow Wilson created new regulatory mechanisms that gave the government the power to protect -During that time Washington established the safety of food, regulation of trade and itself as the great power enters of American fight monopoly, and the bank system’s government. -> control. Summary: Beginning early in the 20th century, the state a local levels began to look to the federal government, but all of them were weak and delayed due to partisan politics. The Senators weren’t elected by their state legislatures anymore. Instead, there was a direct popular election proposed. In 1912, the 17th Amendment passed by Congress was ratified by the states in 1913, brought about that change. In 1912, Woodrow Wilson came into presidency; he created new regulatory mechanisms that brought benefits for the country. Theodore Roosevelt and the Modern Presidency (p.594) The Accidental President - Roosevelt’s Background- In September 1901, after President William McKinley died, the Vice President, Theodore Roosevelt came into presidency. Roosevelt was the youngest president. His reputation as a wild man was a result less of the substance of his early political career than its style. He never openly rebelled against the leaders of his party; he became rather, a champion of cautious, moderate change. Reform, he believed, to protect society against more radical changes. Government, Capital, and Labor -Roosevelt’s Vision of Federal Power- Roosevelt considered the federal government as a mediator of the public good, with a president at it center. He was not opposed to the principle of economic concentration, but he acknowledged that the consolidation produced dangerous abuses of power. Therefore, he allied himself with those progressives who urged regulation of the trusts. - (p. 595) Northern Security Company- In 1903, the new Department of Commerce and Labor was established. Roosevelt made a highly publicize efforts to break up trusts, by ordering the Justice Department to invoke the Sherman Antitrust Act against a new railroad monopoly in Northwest. “The Square Deal” -Reform wasn’t Roosevelt’s top priority during his first years as president. He was more concerned with winning reelection, which meant that he couldn’t be against the Republican Old Guard. By dispensing patronage to conservatives ad progressives alike, by reshuffling the leadership of unstable Southern Republican organizations, by winning the support of northern businessmen, Roosevelt won the 1904 election. -The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, establishing the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) had been an early effort for regulation of industry, by asking Congress to increase fed power to oversee rates. The Hepburn Regulation Act of 1906 required restoring the authority to the government, but the bill was cautious that it satisfied few progressives. (p. 596) -Roosevelt also urged Congress to pass Pure Food and Drug Act, which stopped the sale of dangerous and ineffective medicines. When Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle came up in 1906, which described the truth about meatpacking industry, Roosevelt supported the Meat Inspection Act, which helped to eliminate many diseases from meat. From 1907, he also proposed 8-hour day for workers, better compensation for victims of industrial accidents, inheritance and income taxes, regulation of the stock market and others. Roosevelt and Conservation - Roosevelt’s strict policies on behalf of conservation lead to that gulf; he had been concerned about the unregulated exploitation of American natural resources and its wilderness. So, he restricted private development on government acres, by adding them to the previously modest national forest system. -In the early 20th century, many people who considered themselves “conservationists” (such as Giffold Pinchot, the 1st director of National Forest Service)- promoted policies to protect land for carefully managed development. Pinchot and Roosevelt believed that it should apply to the landscape the same scientific method standards of management of cities and industries. -In 1902, the president backed the National Reclamation Act or the Newlands Act, which was the culmination of years of lobbying by businessmen and others from the West. This act provided federal funds for the construction of dams, reservoirs, and canals in the West- project that will bring cheap electric power. Roosevelt and Preservation - Roosevelt was also interested in concerns of naturalists- those within the conservation movement committed to protecting land, wildlife from human intrusion. In the early presidency, Roosevelt even spent 4 hour day camping. He created the expansion of the National Forest System for protecting public land from exploitation or development at all, but also grew National Park System to protect lands from any development. (p. 598) The Hetch Hetchy Controversy - In 1906, Hetch Hetchy Valley in Yosemite National Park seen as beautiful land by naturalists, but San Francisco residents Roosevelt’s head of National Forest System Gifford Pinchot wanted land to build dam reservoir for city’s growing water needs. -Competing Conservationists Visions- There was a battle between naturalists and the advocates, which consumed the energies of John Muir for the rest of his life. To Pinchot, the issue was the practical one of whether saw needs of city more important than claims of preservation; issue placed in 1908 referendum, dam approved by large margin in election. The Panic of 1907 -Despite the flurry of reforms Roosevelt was able to enact, the government still had little control over the industrial economy. In 1907, a serious panic and recession began. As in 1893, American industrial production had outrun the capacity of either domestic or foreign markets to absorb it. -Conservatives blamed Roosevelt’s “mad” economic policies for the disaster. J.P. Morgan pooled assets of NY banks to prop up banks, made deal with Pres to allow U.S. Steel of the shares of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company. -The Panic of 1907, combined with Roosevelt’s growing “radicalism” during his second term. In 1904, he had made a public promise to step down four years later. The Troubled Succession In 1909, William Howard Taft assumed the presidency, had been Theodore Roosevelt’s most trusted lieutenant and his hand-picked successor. (p. 599) Taft and the Progressives -Taft’s 1st problem arose in the opening months of the new administration when he called Congress into special session to lower protective tariff rates, an old progressive demand. During early administration called on Congress to lower tariff, refused to oppose Republic Old Guard. The result was the feeble Payne-Aldrich Tariff, which reduced tariff rates at all and in some areas raised them. Progressives resented Taft’s passivity. -A sensational controversy broke out late in 1909 that helped destroy Taft’s popularity with reforms. Ballinger- Pinchot Dispute in which Head of Forest Service Gifford Pinchot was told that Sec of Interior Richard Ballinger had sold public lands in Alaska for personal profit. Taft thought charges groundless, Pinchot leaked info to press. President discharged Pinchot for insubordination, and the congressional committee appointed to study the controversy. (p. 600) The Return of Roosevelt - Theodore Roosevelt was in Africa or Europe; he had no plans to reenter politics. However, on September 1, 1910, in Osawatomie, Kansas, he outlined a set of principles, which je labeled the “New Nationalism,” that moved a considerable away from the cautious conservatism. He argued that social justice was possibly only effort of strong fed government could bring social justice. Spreading Insurgency -The Congressional elections of 1910 provided many further evidence of how far the progressive revolt had spread. Republicans suffered defeat candidates lost and progressives reelected. The Democrats, who were now offering progressive candidates of their own, won the control of the House of the Representatives for the 1st time in 16 years. (601) Roosevelt versus Taft -La Follette retained some diehard support. Taft remained the choice of most party leaders, who controlled the nominating process. had support of conservative Republicans and party leaders, Roosevelt supported by the new Progressive Party, was nominated himself as its presidential candidate. At convention Republican National Committee gave nomination to Taft. Woodrow Wilson and The New Freedom Woodrow Wilson -Reform sentiment had been gaining strength within the Democrats as well as the Republican Party in the first years of the century. At the 1912 Democratic Conversation in Baltimore in June, Champ Clark, the conservative Speaker of the House, was unable to assemble most of the majority for nomination; finally, became the governor of NJ. -Wilson had been a professor at Princeton in political science until 1902; was named as the president of the university; in 1910, became the governor of NJ. In 1912, presented a progressive program “New Freedom.” It differed from Roosevelt’s New Nationalism in its approach to economic policy and the trusts. Roosevelt and Taft split Republican vote; Wilson won. (p. 602) The Scholar as President -Wilson was a bold and forceful president- used position as leader of Democrats to build coalition to support his program. His 1st triumph as a president was the fulfillment of an old Democratic goal: substantial lowering of the protective tariff. Greatly lowered tariff in Underwood-Simmons Tariff in order to introduce competition into market and breakup trusts; to make up for revenues past graduated income tax -On December 23, 1913, the Federal Reserve Act was established, which created 12 regional banks which were controlled by other banks. The regional Federal Reserve banks hold certain %- used reserves in order to support loans to private banks at an interest (“discount” ) rate, issued Federal Reserve notes backed by government, shifted funds to meet credit demands and protect banks. - (p. 602) In 1914, Wilson proposed 2 measures to deal with monopoly. The Congress passed Federal Trade Commission Act (created a regulatory agency that would help business determine whether their actions acceptable to the government) and Clay Antitrust Act (did little for protection from conservative assaults). (p. 603) Retreat and Advance -By the fall of 1914, Wilson believed that the New Freedom was complete. He refused to support progressive suffrage movement and efforts to halt segregation in federal agencies after Democrats had heavy losses in Congress in 1914 elections to Republicans Wilson began new reforms. He supported a measure for farmers for receiving credit and compensation or federal employees. -Wilson was sponsoring measures that expanded the role of the national government in significant ways. In 1916, Wilson supported the Keating-Owen Act, which was the 1st federal law regulating child labor. Appointment of progressive Louis Brandeis to Supreme Court; supported measured expanding role of federal government 1916 Keating-Owen Act regulated child labor. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 supported agricultural extension education. (p. 604) The “Big Stick”: America and The World, 1901-1917 Roosevelt and “Civilization” - Racial and Economic Basis of Roosevelt’s Diplomacy- Roosevelt believed in the value and significance of using American power in the world, but he thought that an important distinction existed between the “civilized”(predominantly white and Anglo-Saxon or Teutonic) and “uncivilized”(nonwhite such as Latin or Slavic) nations. (p. 605) Protecting the “Open Door” in Asia -Great White Fleet- In 1904 the Japanese made a surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur in Southern Manchuria (a province of China that both nations craved to control). Roosevelt helped Russia and Japan to end the Russo-Japanese War - got the Nobel Prize in 1906. (p. 606) The Iron Fisted Neighbor -Roosevelt became interested in Latin America. He embarked on a serious of ventures in the Caribbean and South America; established a pattern of American intervention in the region that would long serve his presidency. -In 1902, Venezuela began to renege on debts to European bankers- Germans bombarded its port. Roosevelt pressured the German navy to withdraw. -In 1904, he announced the “the Roosevelt Corollary” to the Monroe Doctrine. The Panama Canal -The most famous accomplishment of Roosevelt’s presidency (linked in the Atlantic and the Pacific) -John Hay – the secretary of state, who negotiated an agreement with Columbian diplomats in Washington. - Panamanian Revolt- In November 1903, Philippe Bunau- Varilla (chief engineer of French canal project) helped to organize and finance a revolution in Panama- it had support from U.S. – Roosevelt send troops from the U.S.S. Nashville in Panama. (p. 607) – Taft’s secretary of state, Philander Knox, worked aggressively to extend American investments into less- developed regions- “Dollar Diplomacy”. -Investigation in Nicaragua- In 1909, the revolution broke in Nicaragua; the administration allied with the insurgents and sent American troops into the country to seize the customs houses; then to protect the regime. Diplomacy and Morality -In 1905, The U.S. took control of the finances in DR, and in 19106 established a military government. -(p. 608) Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy – wasn’t similar with his predecessors with Mexico. In 1910, Diaz had been replaced by Francisco Madero, who promised American business in Mexico. He and Wilson dragged into conflict. - Wilson saw a bloodless action, but in a clash with Mexican troops in Veracruz the America killed 126 defenders. (p. 609) – Intervention in Mexico- Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing to lead and American expeditionary force across the Mexican border in pursuit of villa- never found it and lost 12 troops. Again, the U.S. and Mexico were in conflict.
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