Job Performance In Banking Sector by AsimRana2


									T & D Project

Project of Training and Development

Submitted by:

                     Muhammad Asim
                     Nadeem Abbas

Class                 MBA 4th (Morning)

Submitted to:         Madam Arooj Malik

Date                   26-01-2011

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                ~~ In the name of Allah; most Beneficent, most Merciful ~~


   First of all we thanks to Almighty Allah who enable us to accomplish this compulsory
requirement of MBA program at Federal Urdu University of arts Science & Technology.
We tried our level best to be specific, concise, and comprehensive throughout the period
of preparation this project. We like to thanks Miss Arooj Malik who provided us enough
moral and ethical support for completing this project. she also provided us valuable
advice and suggestions regarding this project. We also thanks to all our colleagues who
did cooperation during whole period.

                                                          Muhammad Asim
                                                          Nadeem Abbas

                                                          MBA 4th (HR)

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                    2
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This study explores the relationship between job performance, individual job facets, and
socio- demographic variables in the banking sector. Job performance of the employees
why low in the banking sector is the main focus of this study. The sample consist 100
employees from nine commercial banks of Islamabad & Rawalpindi. The result shows
that job performance of employees has direct relation with required job skills and has
negative relation with satisfaction, motivation and technology. So required job skills are
more important to improve employees performance.

       Key words:
                     Employee Performance
                     Banking Sector
                     Satisfaction
                     Motivation
                     Technology
                     Required Job Skills

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                      3
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The purpose of this study is to identify the different factors that could contribute in
employee performance in banking sector. Secondly it determines the effect of these
factors or benefits provided on employee performance

Job satisfaction is one criterion for establishing the health of organization; for getting
effective services mostly depends on the human source and job satisfaction experienced
by employees will affect the quality of service they get. . This study examines how to
effectively stimulate employees to become more productive performer in relation with
providing them some additional benefits.

In this technological era organizations are competing one another for their survivor for
this purpose the performance of there employees matter a lot. So organizations are
working hard to not only retain the employees in an efficient manner but also looking
forward to formulate effective plans and strategies to increase employee performance by
providing them valuable benefits.


It is worth mentioning that after privatization of the banking sector in Pakistan continued
to experience the ups and downs and failed to achieve a sustainable growth rate. So it is
very demanding sector for research. It will help us to know how job satisfaction affects
the employee performance in banking sector of Pakistan. After this research our
knowledge will be enhance and finally we will get research experience. And our research
will help banks to improve their performance.

Literature Review

The banking system is now a day is passing from bad days of its history in Pakistan
because of political instability, financial crises, and poor job performance of employees.
In Pakistan job performance of banking employees is low because of lower job
satisfaction because in banks there is use interest and interest in Islam is harem so the low

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                         4
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satisfaction cause poor job performance in banks. The employees feel that which salary
we received is from interest so there satisfaction level is low and performance also

Porter and Lawler (1968) said that there are three types of job performance
One is measure of output and sales in given time of period, second is measure of
individual performance by comparing with other. The last one is to measure the
performance by performance appraisal.

We have found these variables and made informal interviews and library search on them.


Job satisfaction is one condition for establishing the health of an organization;
representing effective services mostly depends on the human resource (Fitzgerald 1994)
and job satisfaction experienced by employees will affect the quality of service they
deliver. The impact of other factors on effectiveness, such as infrastructures and inside
relationships, should also be recognized. Job satisfaction has been defined as a helpful
affecting situation resulting from the pleasure a worker derives from the job (Locke,
1976; Spector, 1997) and as the affective and cognitive attitude held by an employee
about various aspects of their job (Kalleberg, 1977; Mercer, 1997; Wright and
Cropanzano, 1997; Wong 1998); the later implying that satisfaction is associated to the
factor facets rather than the whole job, which is consistent with Spector's (1997) view.

Job Satisfaction Theory

Situational theories assume that the interaction of factors such as task characteristics,
organizational characteristics and individual characteristics influence the job satisfaction
(Hoy and Miskel, 1996). The individual evaluates the situational characteristics before
commencing of employment (Quarstein 1992), where as situational occurrences are
evaluated afterwards and overall satisfaction is a purpose of a arrangement of situational
characteristics and situational occurrences. The situational characteristics generally
planned as key factors in job satisfaction are: the work itself, compensate,
encouragement, management and co-workers (Smith 1969), while other factors such as
employee participation and organizational loyalty may force also.

There have been several studies into job satisfaction which investigate the force of
demographic characteristics such as age, gender, tenure, and learning (Clark, 1993; Clark
and Oswald, 1995; Hickson and Oshagbemi, 1999; Oshagbemi, 1998, 2000a, b). The
results recommend the existence of relationships between demographic characteristics
and job satisfaction, but the facts to be mixed, with positive and negative relationships
sometimes recognized for the relations between same variables.

The relationship among job satisfaction and performance is still open to question; it
would be risky to suppose that high job satisfaction leads to high performance, or that
high performers are satisfied with their jobs (Euske 1980). A number of studies point out

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                        5
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a weak link (Petty1984; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky, 1985) while others (Caldwell and
O'Reilly, 1990; Spector, 1997) recommend a possible relationship between satisfaction
and performance. The reason and result determinants are still uncertain and it cannot be
assumed that satisfaction leads to high performance, or that high performers are
necessarily fulfilled with their jobs easily.(Euske 1980).

During an informal interview of our teacher (sir, Hadayat Ali Khan 2009) tells us that he
was not satisfied with his job in bank. So he decided to resigned and now he is select the
teaching profession. Now days he is teaching in our university (federal Urdu university
Islamabad). The reason of their resigned is that he was not satisfied with his job. He
thought that the salary which he earns comes from interest. Interest is harem in our


Job performance is also affected by the technological factor. In different organization
there are different tools and techniques for increasing employee performance. In
organizations management provide different type of software’s and programs to operate
now a day’s paper work has come to an end and total work is done through the computer.
In banks we can see that technology has brought a big change.
Some employee feels that they should be provided advance tools and equipments (like
computers) to perform their job efficiently and effectively. The allotment of the
computers and use of new technology helps the employees to do monotonous and boring
tasks in split seconds and become more valuable to organization. The use of technology
on their part not only allows them to accomplish their tasks efficiently but also enables
the employees to perform well. There are some peoples who have problems to operating
of computer and new MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (MIS). As online
banking, ATM , credit cards, online shopping and money transfer , these all things are
required new technology. So banks give proper training to their employees to increase the
job performance.

Ishrat Hussain Says Pakistan’s banking sector reforms which were initiated in the early
1990s have distorted the sector into a well-organized, sound and strong banking system.
The most recent complete evaluation carried out both by the World Bank and the IMF in
2004 came to the following conclusion:

“For reaching reforms have resulted in well-organized and competitive financial system
in particular, the mostly state-owned banking system has been changed into largely
private sector”

So we can say that in government banking sector did not use latest technology. So there
performance is low comparatively private sector. For example Bank Alflah is the Worlds
Leading Bank because it is a private bank than our National Bank of Pakistan.

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                      6
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Motivation has been defined as: the emotional method that gives behavior purpose and
direction (Kreitner, 1995); a tendency to perform in a purposive manner to accomplish
specific, unmet wants (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); an internal force to satisfy an
unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to attain (Bedeian, 1993). For this paper,
motivation is operationally defined as the internal strength that drives individuals to
achieve personal and organizational goals.

Ramsden said in (1998), changing the perceived environment of Australian
universities ( poor morale and declining commitment) is “likely to produce
disproportionately large results” in terms of institutional productivity and profitability.
But which aspects of the work environment need to be changed (if at all) to encourage
higher levels of academic motivation within Australia’s universities? Specifically,
which work environment characteristics represent high/low sources of work motivation
for academics in Australian universities? To address these questions, a 1998 study
examined the quality of work life of full-time academics within universities in
Australia (Winter & Sarros, 2001; Winter et al., 2000).

Employee Needs

According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs; physiological, safety, social,
ego, and self- actualizing (Maslow, 1943). Maslow said that lower level needs had to be
satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees
The motivation is very important in influencing the employees to accomplish individual
as well as the organizational goals. This inner drive motivates the employees to form and
exhibit the purposive behavior to achieve specific, unmet needs. This little
encouragement on the part of organization enables them to accomplish their goals
efficiently by acknowledging employees on their work and effort, providing them good
work environment, considering their needs and forming pleasant job design. The
motivation increases employee performance.

In banks management motivates the employees by giving incentives, bonuses, flexible
work schedule.


Incentives designed to motivate employees can be either extrinsic or intrinsic; they can
appeal to physical and safety needs or to needs for growth and development. The
specific values attached to rewards (and punishments) result from a emotional calculus.
This study examines four incentive devices: bonuses, merit pay, flexible salary steps, and
no monetary awards. National bank of Pakistan gives medical facility, house and car
loans, and performance awards in cash.


FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                       7
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Bonuses are one-time payments rewarding employees for individual or group
productivity. Bonuses represent pure pay-for-performance. They do not add to the basic
salary. Although they are more popular in private sector settings, they have been
attempted among various public sector organizations (Gabris, Mitchell, and McLemore,
1985; Greiner, Hatry, Koss, Millar, and Woodward, 1981; Lawler, 1990.
Experiential facts supports the contention that ESBs could boost morale, attract the right
employees, uplift productivity, and lead to better performance (Marton, 1998). Chen
(2003) concludes that ESBs have a positive relation to firm market value. Chen & Kuo
(2006) used the Ohlson (1995) model to investigate the effect of ESBs on firm value,
finding a significant positive relation between ESBs and firm market value.

Flexible Work Schedule

During the past decade there has been a rapidly increasing interest in flexible forms
of work scheduling. The current literature (Swart, 1974; Fields, 1974; Noll en and
Martin, 1978; Orpin, 1981; Schein, Mauner, and Novak 1977; Kim and Campagna,
1981) suggests that organizational attachment, attendance, and job attitudes are
favourably associated with flexible work schedules. Performance results appear to
be conflicting (reflecting either no change or favorable changes), while
experienced symptoms of stress appear to decline subsequent to the implementation
of a flexible working hour arrangement. However, the majority of the available
literature (see the Golembiewski and Proehl, 1978; and Glueck, 1979 reviews) is
strongly characterized by: its theoretical nature, anecdotal reports of flexible
working hour systems, the use of non-standardized research scales, the failure to
include statistical treatment of reported data, and the absence of other systematic
data collection strategies.

Job Skills

Job skill is more important factor for affective job performance. If there are no
required skills for a job in a person his performance can not be good. So we can say
that job performance has more relay on job skills. If a person have different job
skills he can easily perform his duty and various tasks. So we can say that if a
person has different job skills he can easily understand his job responsibilities and
his job performance will be high. He will also satisfied with his job.
Some studies report directly on the relationship between job skills and work outcomes.

 One exception is Fried and Ferris’s (1987) meta-analysis of the Job Characteristics
Model, in which they find a relatively strong relationship (90 percent credibility of –0.24)
between skills requirements. In another study, skill variety was reported to correlate with
turnover cognitions, satisfaction, and motivation (Jhons 1992). Other researchers report
relationships between broader concepts that incorporate job skills and work outcomes.
For example, Karasek and Theovell (1990) explain that enriched jobs help employees to
better handle with work stressors.

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                        8
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In banking sector job skills are very important because every task in bank require specific
skill. That’s why banks often arrange continuous improvement program to enhance the
skills of its employees.

Theoretical Framework
The objective of this study to explore the major reason that leads to decrease of job
performance of employees in banking sector. For this purpose we have take job
performance as dependent variable it is the variable of primary interest, the variance of
which is attempted to be explained by the four main variables which influence on the job
performance of employees in positive relation. As depicted through the literature review
the following hypothesis can be made in banking sector of Pakistan.

Hypothesis 1:
              There is positive relation ship between performance of employees and job
satisfaction. If the satisfaction level of employees will high then there job performance
will automatically high. Employee’s satisfaction and performance have direct relation
with each other. Performance of employees can be increased by increasing satisfaction

Hypothesis 2:
               The performance and employee motivation also has direct relation. If the
motivation level of employee is high the job performance of employee will high.
Motivation and performance has positive relation with each other. Performance of
employees can be increased by motivation. If motivation will low then performance will
also decrease.

Hypothesis 3:
               Job skills and performance of job has positive relation with each other. If
employee has required job skills then performance of employee will high. The great
extent of skills will give more performance.

Hypothesis 4:
                Technology and job performance also has positive relation. Technology
has reduced the human efforts. If there is providing new technology then job performance
of employees will be more.

This is the theoretical frame work for job performance according to our study. Job
performance is here dependent variable and job satisfaction, motivation, job skills, and
technology are dependent variables. Dependent variables have positive relation with
independent variable.

FEDERAL URDU UNIVERISTY ISLAMABAD                                                       9
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           Job Satisfaction


                                                                        Employee Performance
       Required Job Skills


                                                                          Fig 1


A present research study is carried out on banking sector of Pakistan to find out what are
the main factors that govern the problem of job performance. For this reason different
private and public banks are selected i.e., Faisal Bank, Allied Bank, Muslim Commercial
Bank, HSBC Bank, United bank, National Bank etc.

Data Collection Instruments
   For this purpose, primary sources of data collection will be used.

           Quantitative Method

Quantitative Method

    The main instrument used in this method is Questionnaires. The questionnaire
     will be used both for staff and Administration.

     In preparing questionnaires Likert Scale (strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree
       (5)) is used. These questionnaires will be personally handed over to the respective
        A cross sectional survey design was used to collect data from the Islamabad City
of Pakistan. The respondents were from different Banks, with different employment
backgrounds and at different jobs. This particular sampling technique gives data about
job performance. A total of 100 questionnaires were hand distributed. Of those 80 were

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returned. Among the total individuals30 were females and 50 were males. The
respondents were all employed in full-time jobs.

          The main instrument we used was questionnaire data for this study was
collected over a week period. The survey instrument consisted of two pages. Most items,
other than demographics, were captured using a five-point Likert-type scale with
responses ranging from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5). Job performance was
used as dependent variable and satisfaction, motivation, required skills and technology
was used as independent variables. Respondents were asked to indicate their gender,
parental status, house hold earning, hours worked per week and marital status. All these
demographics are proven to have significant impact on their job performance.

            Total data was collected in 1 week February 2010. Total 100 questionnaire
were divide 80 were returned. A non probabilistic convenience sampling technique was
used. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS (Version 17.0). We used multiple
regressions as data analysis test. In order to check the normality of data, Kolmogorov-
Smirnov test was applied. Correlation was also found among variables. Frequencies of
variables and demographics also measured.

Results and Discussion
                              In measuring result first we calculate mean of variables
then we calculate the frequencies of demographics and variables as shown below.


                 Age        Gender Status
N       Valid    79         79         79
        Missing 82          82         82

This is frequency statistics of damographices.

These are the detailed wise demographics frequency tables.

Frequency Table:


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                    Frequenc         Valid            Cumulative
                    y        Percent Percent          Percent
Valid     25-34     20           12.4       25.3      25.3
          34-44     59           36.6       74.7      100.0
          Total     79           49.1       100.0
Missing System 82                50.9
Total               161          100.0

                    Frequenc         Valid            Cumulative
                    y        Percent Percent          Percent
Valid     male      50           31.1       63.3      63.3
          Female 29              18.0       36.7      100.0
          Total     79           49.1       100.0
Missing System 82                50.9
Total               161          100.0

                         Frequenc         Valid         Cumulative
                         y        Percent Percent       Percent
Valid     Married        43         26.7      54.4      54.4
          Unmarried 36              22.4      45.6      100.0
          Total          79         49.1      100.0
Missing System           82         50.9
Total                    161        100.0

This is frequency table for variables.
                  Performanc Satisfactio Motivatio              Technolog
                  e          n           n         Skills       y
N        Valid    79             79           79      79        79
         Missing 82              82           82      82        82

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These are the histogram charts of frequencies of demographics.

After measuring frequency we analyze the reliability. For measuring reliability of the
test instrument first the Cronbach Alpha was computed, which is 0.595 showing a
reliable scale for measuring instrument.

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha                 N of Items

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Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha                        N of Items
.595                                    18


Case Processing Summary
                          N             %
Cases Valid               79            49.1
          Excludeda 82                  50.9
          Total           161           100.0
a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the

In addition we measure Mean Standard Deviation and internal consistency is reported for
these variables. There are 65% male and 35% females. The average hours worked per
weak were 40 hours. The average income level was 25000 rupees.

We also measure normality of data through normality test and Kolmogorov test for
which is significant.


Case Processing Summary
                  Valid                  Missing             Total
                  N             Percent N            Percent N       Percent
Performanc 79                   49.1%    82          50.9%   161     100.0%
Satisfaction 79                 49.1%    82          50.9%   161     100.0%
Motivation        79            49.1%    82          50.9%   161     100.0%
Skills            79            49.1%    82          50.9%   161     100.0%
Technology 79                   49.1%    82          50.9%   161     100.0%

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Tests of Normality
                Kolmogorov-Smirnova          Shapiro-Wilk
                Statistic df      Sig.       Statistic df           Sig.
Performanc .179           79      .000       .907       79          .000
Satisfaction .106         79      .028       .959       79          .012
Motivation      .191      79      .000       .872       79          .000
Skills          .186      79      .000       .904       79          .000
Technology .264           79      .000       .791       79          .000
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

We found significance correlations between variables.


                                  Performanc Satisfactio Motivatio                     Technolog
                                  e          n           n         Skills              y
Performanc Pearson                1             -.066        -.187         -.100       -.140
e          Correlation
                Sig. (2-tailed)                 .562         .100          .380        .219
                N                 79            79           79            79          79
Satisfaction Pearson              -.066         1            .154          .153        .097
                Sig. (2-tailed)   .562                       .175          .179        .395
                N                 79            79           79            79          79
Motivation      Pearson           -.187         .154         1             .712        .456**
                Sig. (2-tailed)   .100          .175                       .000        .000
                N                 79            79           79            79          79
Skills          Pearson           -.100         .153         .712          1           .714**
                Sig. (2-tailed)   .380          .179         .000                      .000

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                N                  79            79             79        79       79
Technology Pearson                 -.140         .097           .456**    .714**   1
                Sig. (2-tailed)    .219          .395           .000      .000
                N                  79            79             79        79       79
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

We also made regression analysis to examine the relationship between job performance
and independent variables. By imperial result R square is .052 which shows that
hypothesized model explains 52% variations in Job Performance through satisfaction,
motivation, skills and technology. The value of R is .228, which shows that there exists
multiple correlations. R shows the sample and R square shows the population.

                Model Summary
                                           Adjusted      R Std. Error of
                Model R           R Square Square          the Estimate
                1       .228a     .052      .001               .61893
                a. Predictors: (Constant), Technology, Satisfaction,
                Motivation, Skills

. The results show that F statistics is 1.018 which shows coherence of modal and fitness
of modal. Hence independent variables account significant variation in dependent
variable. For the relative importance of contribution to variation t-statistics is used.

                      Sum         of           Mean
Model                 Squares          Df      Square           F        Sig.
1       Regression 1.560               4       .390             1.018    .404a
        Residual      28.347           74      .383
        Total         29.907           78
a. Predictors: (Constant), Technology, Satisfaction, Motivation, Skills
b. Dependent Variable: Performance

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                    Unstandardized                d
                    Coefficients                  Coefficients
Model               B             Std. Error      Beta           t        Sig.
1       (Constant) 2.251          .362                           6.224    .000
        Satisfactio -.049         .133            -.043          -.372    .711
        Motivation -.177          .116            -.248          -1.526   .131
        Skills      .147          .150            .202           .979     .331
        Technolog -.105           .102            -.167          -1.026   .308
a. Dependent Variable: Performance

The regression analysis through beta coefficients depicts that job performance has
negative relation with satisfaction, motivation and technology and has positive relation
with required job skills.


Our research taps employee performance in the banking sector and its relation with job
satisfaction, motivation, required job skills, technology. It has been conclude there is
negative relation between job performance (dependent variable) and job satisfaction,
motivation, and technology but have positive relation with skills. In Pakistani banking
sector there is limited research has been made on banking sector and future research can
be made why our hypothesis are not sustainable.

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Buffum, W.E., Konick, A. (1982), "Employees’ job satisfaction, residents functioning,
and treatment progress in psychiatric institutions", Health and Social Work, Vol. 7

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model of job satisfaction", .

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Smith, P.C., Kendall, L.M., Hulin, C.L. (1969), Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and
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Questionnaire on employee performance and satisfaction
Dear sir/madam

Your contribution in helping us analyze “Employees performance and satisfaction in
banking sector” is valued highly. Completion of this information is voluntary and
confidentiality is assured. No individual data will be reported. Please don’t mention your
name on this questionnaire.
                                   Thank You!

Age             Gender         Marital Status      Parental Status
   25-34,                                            No Children
   35-44,                                            oldest child < age 6
   45-54,                                            oldest child aged 6-18
  55-64,                                             oldest child aged > age 18
Household earnings Hours worked per week       At which post you are working.
  < 10,000             < 20
         -             20-34
         -             35-45
  > 30,000             > 45
How long have you been working at________________________ (Name of Bank).
  Less then 6 months
   -2 years
   -3 years
   -5 years


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Strongly agree     Agree       Neutral          Disagree       Strongly disagree
1                2           3              4                  5
Kindly make tick mark the choice which meets your opinion
Job Performance

I try hard to improve my performance at work.             1    2   3    4     5
You actually enjoy performing the activities that make up 1    2   3    4     5
your job.
Your personal problems affect the job.                    1    2   3    4     5
You have the capability to achieve the targets in time.   1    2   3    4     5
You feel over burden in your job.                         1    2   3    4     5

Job Satisfaction
I am highly motivated with the current working             1   2   3    4     5
environment of my Bank.
I am satisfied with my compensation & benefits package.    1   2   3    4     5
Your salary is satisfied.                                  1   2   3    4     5
You feels that your working hours are convenient           1   2   3    4     5
Your complaints are settled quickly by the bank.           1   2   3    4     5

I become more excited in work when working in fair 1           2   3    4     5
I believe that employees must be treated respectfully. 1       2   3    4     5
I try to improve my performance at work.               1       2   3    4     5

Job Skills
I fully utilize my skills and abilities in the Bank        1   2   3    4     5
Bank place a great emphasis on honestly, integrity, Skills 1   2   3    4     5
and ethical behavior
Work assigned to me is interesting, rewarding and 1            2   3    4     5
challenging and give me a feeling of personal

Computer helps me to complete my tasks efficiently.        1   2   3    4     5
Organization is updating its technology.                   1   2   3    4     5

                           THANK YOU


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