Guide to Windows NT Server

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					                                  Chapter 1

Network Operating Systems

    Instructor: Rob Knauerhase
      Portland State University
                              Chapter 1

 Chapter 1: Networking with
Microsoft Windows NT Server
          Learning Objectives
                                           Chapter 1

   Explain workgroup networking
   Explain domain networking and the
    advantages of file server operating
   Present a history of how Windows NT
    Server evolved
   Describe the capabilities of Microsoft NT
          Learning Objectives
                                             Chapter 1

   Compare different file systems used by
    Microsoft NT Server
   Discuss how Microsoft NT Server is
    integrated with Internet and intranet
        Workgroup Networking
                                         Chapter 1

   Microsoft Windows NT Server is a
    network operating system -- software
    that enables computers on a network to
    communicate and share resources and
   Peer-to-peer network: A network where
    computers communicate with each
    other on an equal basis without going
    through an intermediary
         Workgroup Networking
                                             Chapter 1

   Workstation
    A  computer that has its own CPU
     May be used as a standalone computer for
      a variety of software applications
   Workgroup: As used in Microsoft
    networks, a number of computers
    (users) who share drive and printer
    resources in an independent peer-to-
    peer relationship
  A Simple Peer-to-Peer
       Workgroup                                         Chapter 1

Workstation         Workstation            Workstation

          Workstation             Workstation
        Workgroup Networking
                                                       Chapter 1

   Effective for small networks or offices
   Less effective when resource management is
    totally decentralized
     Offersonly moderate network security
     No centralized storage or account management
     No point of centralized administrative control
     Not optimized for heavy multiple access to one
      computer; potential for slow response
       Networking in a Domain
                                            Chapter 1

   Domain: A grouping of network users
    and file servers to make common
    administrative and security
    management tasks more efficient
   File server: A computer that provides
    files and other services to workstations.
A File Server on a Network
                                                       Chapter 1

                 File server with NT
Workstation    Server operating system   Workstation


      Workstation           Laptop computer
Advantages of the Domain Model
                                           Chapter 1

   All members can share computer files
   Printers and other resources can be
   Access to resources can be centrally
    controlled and administered
   Members can share software
    applications (consistency)

Advantages of the Domain Model
                                          Chapter 1

   All computers can be backed up from
    one location (easily)
   Sharing of resources can reflect work
    groupings within the domain
   Network administrator can save time
    when installing software upgrades
   Detailed monitoring and analysis can be
    done from a central location
             A History of
        Microsoft Windows NT                 Chapter 1

   Work began in 1988 when Microsoft had
    two operating systems
     MS-DOS   (& early Windows versions)
     OS/2 (co-developed with IBM)

   Design focused on providing broader
    capabilities in areas key to business and
    network users
          needed a “real” operating system
     e.g.,
     competitive pressure from Mac, Unix
              Original Windows NT
               Development Goals                           Chapter 1

Goal            Today’s Implementation
Reliability     Programs cannot interfere with the operating
                system or with other programs, making the
                system more crashproof
Security        Meets the requirements for government C2
Scalability     Runs on small or large (multi-CPU) systems,
                runs on Intel-compatible or RISC machines.
Extensibility   Uses standards (drivers, application
                programming interfaces), and other standard
                methods to extend capabilities for hardware
                and software development
          Original Windows NT
           Development Goals                                     Chapter 1

Goal            Today’s Implementation
Portability     Program kernel is written for portability to a
                growing number of hardware platforms
Compatibility   Not as compatible as Windows 95 with older
                MS-DOS, but very compatible with Windows-
                based programs
Distributability Extensively network-compatible with network
                 communication protocols, remote access
                 services, and Internet/intranet services
Government      Conforms to open systems and security
certification   requirements of the federal government
    Microsoft Windows NT Server
             Capabilities                       Chapter 1

   Sharing resources       Distributability
   Managing resources      Client/server
   Security                 applications
   Scalability and         Electronic mail
    compatibility           Fault tolerance
   Reliability
             Sharing Resources
                                                          Chapter 1

   Files needed by several people can be stored
    at one location
     Mapped  drive: A disk drive that is shared on the
      network by a file server or workstation. Also
      known as a drive share.
   Data are consistent across machines
   Many kinds of printers can be shared on a
   Software can be loaded or run on
    workstations across network (site license)
Workstations Accessing a Shared
    NT Server Hard Drive                          Chapter 1

     Workstation              Windows NT Server

                             Shared drive


Workstations Sharing One Printer
                                                        Chapter 1




    File server

                  Shared printer

     Hub                                  Workstation
             Managing Resources
                                           Chapter 1

   Centralizing management of resources
    allows a network administrator to
    simplify network management tasks
   Network resources
     File
     Workstations
     Shared printers
     Shared folders
                                               Chapter 1

   Windows NT Server has a C2 top secret
    security rating from the US government
     File and folder protection
     Account passwords
     File, folder, and account auditing
     File server access protection on a network
     File server management controls

   This is a minimum of security; by no
    means is it perfect.
     Scalability and Compatibility
                                             Chapter 1

   Scalability
     Works  on single-processor and
      multiprocessor computers
     Handles small or large databases

   Compatibility
     Communicates    with IBM, Novell, UNIX,
      Banyan, DEC, and other systems
     Works with all (most?) PC hardware, much
      existing Windows software.
                                                 Chapter 1

   The NT Server operating system kernel
    runs in privileged mode
     Protects  operating system from problems
      created by malfunctioning program
     Gives operating system an extra level of
      security from intruders
     Prevents system crashes because of out-
      of-control applications
                                                 Chapter 1

   NT Server takes full advantage of
    multitasking and multithreading
    capabilities of modern Pentium
     Multitasking: Ability to run two or more
      programs at the same time
     Multithreading: Ability to run several
      program processes or parts (threads) at
      the same time
                                            Chapter 1

   Distributability: The process of dividing
    complex application program tasks
    among two or more computers
   Windows NT Server handles it through
    the Distributed Component Object
    Model (DCOM)
      Client/Server Applications
                                               Chapter 1

   Began appearing in late 1980s
   Provide more information to users than
    traditional mainframe (unable to meet
    reporting and data query needs) or file-
    server-based application systems
    (unable to handle large databases)
   Focus on quickly bringing data to
       Technological Tools of
      Client/Server Applications       Chapter 1

   Relational databases
   Graphical user interfaces (GUIs)
   Powerful reporting tools
   More powerful PC workstations
   Networks
          Relational Databases
                                           Chapter 1

   Store large amounts of data on a server
   Provide fast access to data for updating,
    querying, or reporting
   Store data, voice, and video
   Provide open access paths to a variety
    or reporting and development tools
             Three Tiers of
         Client/Server Systems                      Chapter 1

   PC client workstation
     Contains   GUI presentation logic
   Application server
     Stores client/server applications and
      reports used by client
   Database server
     Provides   data-related services, including
Client/Server Application System
                                                                     Chapter 1

    Database server                             Application server
    (data services)                             (business process

                      Client workstation (GUI
                       presentation services
                 Electronic Mail
                                                         Chapter 1

   Critical network application
        even   grandmothers have E-mail these days...
   Fast and convenient
        companies    see strong benefits from E-mail
          • among employees
          • between employees and customers

   Enables use of distribution lists
        much   like
        Fault Tolerance Options
                                                  Chapter 1

   Recovery from hard disk failures
   Recovery from lost data in a file
   Recovery from system configuration errors
   Protection from power outages
   Advanced warning about system and
    hardware problems
   Recovery from network connectivity failures
           Server File Systems
                                              Chapter 1

   File allocation table (FAT) file system
   NT file system (NTFS)

   NT also allows conversion of the High
    Performance File System (HPFS) to
        eases   transition from OS/2
              FAT File System
                                             Chapter 1

   Based on the use of a file allocation
    table, a flat table that records the blocks
    used to store the data contained in each
    file on a disk
        blocks   - units of disk storage
   Used by several operating systems
    (MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT)
   Does not support advanced security and
          Advantages of FAT
                                       Chapter 1

   Simple system, supported by many
    small computer operating systems
   Low operating system overhead
   Supports partitions up to 4 GB
         Disadvantages of FAT
                                             Chapter 1

   Can become corrupted over time as
    files are spread among disjointed
    allocation units, and pointers to each
    unit are lost
   Does not offer many file or directory
    security or auditing options
   Does not support long filenames (11
    character limit, “8 dot 3” convention)
                                            Chapter 1

   Native Windows NT file system
   Has a detailed directory structure
   Supports C2 security specifications
   Supports large disks, long filenames,
    and file compression
   Keeps a log of file system activity
   Supports Portable Operating System
    Interface (POSIX)
                                        Chapter 1

   Used by the OS/2 operating system
   Not supported by Windows NT 4.0
           Choosing a File System
                                                          Chapter 1

Feature           FAT                   NTFS
Total volume size 4 GB                  2 TB
Maximum file size 4 GB                  64 GB
Filename length   11 characters       256 characters
                  (except for VFAT,
                  which supports 256)
Security          Limited security      C2-rated extensive
                  based on attributes   security options
File compression Supported with extra Supported as part
                 utilities            of NTFS
          Choosing a File System
                                                Chapter 1

Feature          FAT       NTFS
File activity    None      Tracking via a log
POSIX support    None      POSIX1 support
Large database   Limited   Yes
Multiple disk    No        Yes
drives in one
        Internet Integration and
         Electronic Commerce                       Chapter 1

   Internet
     Global network of diverse WWW and
      information servers offering voice, video,
      and text data to millions of users
     Major source of commerce

   Intranet
     Private network within an organization
     Restricted from public access
Internet Information Server (IIS)
          for NT Server                    Chapter 1

   Gives organizations ability to take
    advantage of intranet and Internet
   Index Server: Built-in service which
    automatically indexes information
    created for intranet access within a
            Chapter Summary
                                                Chapter 1

   Windows NT Server is an operating
    system meant for networking.
     Provides  more options for network
      productivity and growth
     Offers many resource options for shared
      folders, printers, and other resources
     Provides network management facilities
      through domains and groups
     Has built-in protection from crashes
              Chapter Summary
                                                 Chapter 1

   NT Server enables scalability and
     Gives  options to scale up to larger and
      more powerful hardware
     DCOM compatibility offers solid foundation
      for distributed application services such as
      client/server applications

             Chapter Summary
                                                Chapter 1

   NT Server supports FAT and NTFS.
     Installationdepends on file sizes, volume
      size, security needs, and purpose of server
      and number of users
   NT Server offers access to and
    integration of Internet and intranet
    services through Microsoft’s Web server
    software, IIS, and built-in Index Server

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