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Guidelines for Effective PowerPoint Presentations

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Guidelines for Effective PowerPoint Presentations Powered By Docstoc
					      Guidelines for Effective
     PowerPoint Presentations
Before you begin, brainstorm some notes
about your audience:

  –Who will be viewing the presentation?
  –What is their level of knowledge on your topic?
  –What might they expect to see while you speak?
  –What types of visual rhetoric will be effective?
  –What layouts and colors will be appropriate?
      Using Text in PowerPoint
Text in PowerPoint slides should not be a script for
your presentation.

Instead, it should serve as an outline to guide and
reinforce your key points so that your audience can
easily follow along with your oral discussion.

Because PowerPoint presentations convey large
amounts of information in a relatively small space,
their text requires even more demanding grammar
control and editing than regular essays.
              Bulleted Lists
Bulleted Lists are the most often used format
for PowerPoint text.

Bulleted lists are not free license to write
whatever you please.

In fact, effective lists follow very specific rules.

Use the following slides to guide your format.
             Bulleted Lists
Bulleted lists can be effective for quickly
conveying sets of simple, related information,
or for listing simple steps in a process.

However, bullets should only be used when
multiple things are listed, generally at least
three.

Since bulleted lists do not allow commentary,
explanation, or elaboration, use them only
when the information is perfectly clear.
           Bulleted Lists
 Bulleted items may be complete sentences, but
 they are generally presented as fragments:
         » single words
         » short phrases
         » clauses

 However, this does not mean you have license to
 do what you please with wording.

LISTS MUST USE PARALLEL STRUCTURE!
           Parallel Structure
Whether using sentences or phrases, bulleted lists
must maintain PARALLEL STRUCTURE.

     • If the first item starts with a verb, all must.

     • If the first uses an –ing verbal phrase, all must.

     • If the first begins adjective noun, all must.

     • And so on.
             Bulleted Lists
If one item in a list is a complete sentence,
all must be.


Park features:
  –A central fountain is the primary focus.
  –A sculpture in the fountain reflects the theme.
  –All paths lead to the fountain.
  –Groups of seating face the fountain.
                   Parallel Structure
                     Single Words
   Must All Be the Same Parts of Speech
          • Noun            • Verb             • Adjective
          • Noun            • Verb             • Adjective
          • Noun            • Verb             • Adjective
In his Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening (1841),
Andrew Jackson Downing recommends these trees for picturesque landscapes:
        • Elm
        • Oak
        • Walnut
        • Ash
        • Larch
        • Lombardy Poplar
               Parallel Structure
The following example shows a list of verb phrases:

To create a picturesque pond where none previously existed,
   – Find a low location with a natural spring or stream.
   – Be sure the location has a natural egress to prevent stagnation.
   – Use a level to plan the edges of the water.
   – Dig and/or fill areas to create a jagged, irregular border.
   – Vary the elevation around the edge of the water.
   – Create variety along the border with pebbles, rocks, and plantings.
   – Utilize old tree stumps and moss-covered rocks to suggest age.
           Parallel Structure
The following example shows a list of verb
phrases that complete the infinitive (“to” form):

Downing recommends using curving paths to

  – create a more natural landscape

  – allow more diverse views

  – control the approach to the main residence

  – provide more pleasing opportunities for exercise
           Parallel Structure
The following example shows a list of –ing verb
phrases:

In laying out walks and paths, Downing recommends:

  – Using easy flowing curves
  – Avoiding sharp angles and abrupt turn
  – Following the natural shapes of the surface
  – Providing reason for the curves (avoiding trees,
     rocks, etc.)
          Parallel Structure
The following list uses parallel noun phrases:

Downing recommends specific features to
create a picturesque effect:
  – Easy undulations in the ground’s surface
  – Deliberate groupings of trees with luxuriant
     branches and full foliage
  – Curved paths without straight lines or sharp
     angles curves
  – Smooth lakes with irregular margins
        Parallel Structure
  Capitalization and Punctuation
Bulleted lists using complete sentences
should always capitalize the first word of each
item and use a period at the end of each item.

If the bulleted list uses fragments, it does not
matter whether the first word of each item is
capitalized, but BE CONSISTENT—not only
within each list, but throughout any lists within
the same project.
   Using Images in PowerPoint

Images should help illustrate points in your
oral presentation.

Images should clearly convey information.

Images should be appropriate for your
audience.
   Using Images in PowerPoint
Types of Images you might consider:
    • Photographs
    • Drawings
    • Diagrams
    • Tables
    • Charts
    • Graphs
    • Maps
    • Video
    Using Citations in PowerPoint
Like any other project, PowerPoint presentations
require appropriate documentation.
As in an essay, you may use parenthetical citations or
name your source in the text on the slide.
For quoted text (words) or cited statistics, include your
source on the slide.
For images, graphs, maps, etc., you may either include
the citation on the page, or add a slide at the end for
image credits.
The final slide of your presentation should be a
reference list.
                 References
Brown, R. (2006). New “old” trends in landscape
design. Landscape Architecture, 24(1), 44-72.

Downing, A. J. (1841). Treatise on the Theory and
Practice of Landscape Gardening, Henry Addams
Publications.

Jones, B. (1997). Downing’s use of picturesque
design. Landscape History, 8(4), 19-27.

Logan, H. (2001, June). Preserving historic
landscapes. This Old House Magazine, 27-31.

				
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