Genetics_ Evolutionary_ Psychology_ and Behavior

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					Genetics, Evolutionary, Psychology,
                      and Behavior
Genes: Our Codes for Life
   Plan of your life
       Chromosomes – threadlike structures made of DNA
        molecules that contain genes
       DNA – a complex molecule containing the genetic information
        that makes up the chromosomes
Genes: Our Code of Life
    46 Chromosomes
        23 donated from mother (from her egg)
        23 donated from father (from his sperm)
Genes: Our Code of Life
   Genes - small segments of the giant DNA molecules

   Human Genome (complete instructions for
    making an organism) have discovered the
    common sequence within human DNA.
Human Genome
   Genetics and psychologists are interested in
    the occasional variations found at particular
    gene sites in human DNA
       Why one person has a disease and one does not
       Why one person is taller or shorter
Twin and Adoption Studies

•   To see the influences of environment and hereditary
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
Twin and Adoption Studies
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
Identical Versus Fraternal Twins
    Identical Versus Fraternal Twins

   Identical – develop from a single fertilized egg
    that splits in 2
       Genetically Identical

   Fraternal – develop from separate fertilized
Separated Twins
   Would there be a difference between identical twins
    separated at birth compared to fraternal twins separated
    at birth?
   Are they going to be similar?
Separated Twins
    Research has shown that identical twins that were separated
        Similar life choices
        Similar personalities
        Similar characteristics
        Similar tastes
        Similar abilities
        Similar attitudes
        Similar fears
Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives

   Creates 2 groups:
       Genetic Relatives
       Environmental Relatives

   If the child was not adopted and raised by their biological
    parents, would they be different?
   While sharing that home environment, do adopted siblings also come to
    share traits?
Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives
   Findings:
       Growing up together typically does not make you have similar
       Adopted Children are more like their biological parents
           Extraversion and Agreeableness
Biological Versus Adoptive Relatives
   Findings:
       Environment can influence
           Attitudes
           Values
           Manners
           Faith
           Politics
Questions about twin study:
   What is the hypothesis?
   What is the sample size?
   How are the findings summarized?
   What do you think the data say about nature versus
   Would the results change if it is fraternal twins over
    identical twins?
   Do you think these studies are conclusive? Why or why
   Do you think sample size has anything to do with the
    validity of the conclusions? Why or why not?
 Genetics, Evolutionary,
Psychology, and Behavior

              UNIT 3C

 the proportion of variation among individuals
  that we can attribute to genes
 We can not give a percentage of your traits that are
                   Nature Nurture

   We have many similarities but the most
    important is being adaptive in our environment
     Genes are self regulating
      Africanbutterfly is green in the summer and turn
       brown in the fall
      Genes react to our environment
        Gene-Environment Interaction

 Genes and Experience are both important
   Genes and Scene Dance Together

    From conception on we are the product of a cascade of
     interactions between our genetic predisposition and our
     surrounding environments
 The New Frontier: Molecular Genetics

 The subfield of biology that studies the
 molecular structure and function of genes
  Seeks to identify specific genes influencing
 Molecular Genetics goal is to find some of the
  many genes that influence normal human traits,
    body weight, height….
              Molecular Genetics

 How they do this:
  Find  a family with disorder across several
  Draw blood or take cheek swabs from both
   affected and unaffected family members and
   examine the DNA
     Evolutionary Psychology:
   Understanding Human Nature

 Evolutionary Psychologists
   the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using
    principles of natural selection
             Evolutionary Psychology

 Natural Selection – Charles Darwin’s
  Organisms’       varied offspring compete for
    Offspring that survive are more likely to pass their genes to
     ensuing generations
Natural Selection and Adaption
     Evolutionary Success Helps Explain

 We are different but very similar
   Eat the same foods, avoid predators, learn and remember
Questions Evolutionary Psychologists ask:

 Why do infants start to fear strangers about he
    time they become mobile?
   Why are biological fathers so much less likely than
    unrelated boyfriends to abuse and murder the
    children with whom they share a home?
   Why do so many more people have phobias about
    spiders, snakes, and heights than about dangerous
    threats, such as guns and electricity?
   Why do humans share some universal moral
   How are men and women alike? How and why do
    men’s and women’s sexuality differ?
  Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective

 Problem with Evolutionary Perspective
   Starts with an effect and then works backwards to propose
    an explanation
   All Hindsight Explanations!!!!

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