Emergent Leadership

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					      Emergent Leadership
• Leaders which arise from the group and
  have their base of power from followers
  rather than a higher authority. Example;
  elected leaders
• Idiosyncrasy credits -- The freedom to
  violate group norms given to members
  who have contributed much to the group
    Participative Leadership
• Involving subordinates in making work-
  related decisions
• Advantages: Motivation, Quality,
• Disadvantages: .Time and effort, Loss of
  power, Lack of knowledge or interest
 Transformational Leadership
• Leadership, which provides followers
  with a vision that instills commitment
• Characteristics of transformational
  – Individualized consideration
  – Intellectual stimulation
  – Charisma
    The Charismatic Leader
• Traits include self-confidence,
  dominance, and a strong conviction in
  one’s beliefs
• They simultaneously hold high
  expectations and confidence in the
  abilities of their followers
      Stages of Charismatic
• Leader carefully assesses the need for
• Leader formulates a vision
• The leader gets the subordinates to carry
  out the mission by setting an example of
  self-sacrifice or expertise that inspires
  confidence and trust
 Gender and Leadership Style
• Gender differences in leadership
  behavior -- Different expectations are
  held for male and female leaders
• Gender difference in leadership style --
  Women consistently are more
  participative in style or democratic than
  are men.
     Reactions to Women as
• Men can get away with more
  assertiveness, and being direct than can
• When women behaved in a directive way,
  they got more frowns and scowls, and
  negative headshakes than positive
  expressions. Men got more positives than
         Does Leadership Matter
Substitute or Neutralizer     Person     Production
                              Oriented   Oriented

Subordinate Characteristics
1. Experience,
ability, training                        X (S)
2. Professional Orientation   X (S)      X (S)
3. Indifference to rewards    X (N)      X (N)
Task Characteristics
1. Routine & clear                       X (S)
2. Provides own feedback                 X (S)
3. Intrinsically satisfying   X (S)
      Does Leadership Matter?

Substitute or Neutralizer       People     Production
                                Oriented   Oriented
Organizational Characteristic
1. Cohesive work group          X (S)      X(S)
2. Low position power           X(N)       X (N)
3. formalization                           X(S)
4. Inflexibility, rigid work               X (N)
5. Spatial distance between     X (N)      X (N)
   leader and group