Lecture 16 by adzpoller123


									Lecture 16 – Summary
From the point of view of the message that is to be expressed in a clause (cf. lecture 14),
a good deal of the information to be conveyed can only be expressed by means of
adverbials. Adverbials fulfil a wide variety of functions: some of them can be used to
express when and where the event represented by the proposition took place, while
others can be used to express other accompanying circumstances, such as manner, cause
and reason. Others again are used to focus on a particular part of a clause, to express the
speaker’s (or writer’s) evaluation of the proposition, or to indicate the semantic
relationship between the current clause and an earlier clause in the text.

This lecture will primarily address the distinction between adverbs and adverbials, the
different types of adverbials we can recognize, the different positions in the clause at
which adverbials occur, and the semantic content expressed by different types of

1. Adverbs, adverb phrases and adverbials
Adverb is the term we use for a particular word class (cf. EGTU ch. 8). The vast majority
of adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition of the suffix -ly: happily, quickly,
reluctantly. But there are also a number of very common adverbs which are not marked
in any way to help us recognize them as adverbs, such as again, always, often, sometimes,
seldom, never, now, then; here, there; therefore, thus; also, too; very, and several others.
These form a closed set: new adverbs are typically formed by means of the suffix -ly.

Adverb phrase is the term for a phrase with an adverb as Head. The adverb phrase can
contain modifiers of various kinds, as in

        This happens very rarely. Nevertheless, it happens too often for my taste.
or it can consist of only an adverb, as in
        They sometimes take a walk along the river.
Adverbial is the term for a clause element or, if you like, a syntactic function,
comparable to Subject, Verb, direct Object, etc.

Note that there is no simple one-to-one correspondence between adverb (the word class)
and adverbial (the clause element): at least some adverbs can function as Noun Phrase
postmodifiers, as in the lecture today, and many of them can function as modifiers in
Adjective Phrases and Adverb Phrases, as in extremely happy, very rarely; stupidly
Adverbials, for their part, can have a number of different realizations (cf. EGTU 10.4):
adverb phrases (remember that even single adverbs count as adverb phrases when they
function as adverbials!), prepositional phrases, as in Mary went to Paris last year, or
noun phrases, as in Mary went to Paris last year.

In addition, adverbials can be realized by clauses: finite clauses, as in John went home
because he was tired, non-finite clauses, as in John stopped for a moment to catch his
breath, or verbless clauses, as in If necessary, repeat the procedure. More about
adverbial clauses in lectures 20 and 21.

2. Adverbial types
From a syntactic point of view, we can recognize three types of adverbial in English,
namely adjuncts, disjuncts and conjuncts. Of these, adjuncts are more closely
integrated in the structure of the clause, whereas disjuncts and conjuncts are peripheral to
the clause.

Disjuncts are primarily used to provide some kind of comment on what is expressed in
the clause, as in

         Fortunately, I found the ticket in time.
Conjuncts are used to specify the semantic relation between the proposition expressed by
the clause in which they occur and the proposition expressed by another clause in the
text, as in the example
         John loves Cajun food; Mary, on the other hand, can’t stand it,
where the conjunct on the other hand expresses the contrast between the two

Adjuncts provide information about the circumstances in which the event took place
(time, place, reason, manner, etc.), or modify the meaning of the whole, or part of the,

        After saying goodbye, she walked hesitantly towards the door.
The first adjunct in the example above indicates when the event took place (time), the
second adjunct indicates the manner in which the action was performed, and the third
adjunct indicates the direction of her movement (place).

The greater degree of integration of adjuncts in the structure of the clause can be shown
in several ways. It is only among the adjuncts that we find adverbials that are
syntactically obligatory (cf. the discussion of verb complementation types in lecture 14).
Examples of this type are

       The milk is in the fridge.
       We keep the milk in the fridge.
Unlike disjuncts and conjuncts, most adjuncts are affected by clause negation and can be
the focused part in cleft constructions (more about these in lecture 18). In the examples
below, D, C, and A represent disjunct, conjunct, and adjunct, respectively.

               D          C                        A             A
          Fortunately, however, she got        to Harrods before they closed.
          Fortunately, however, she didn’t get to Harrods before they closed.

Note that the meaning of the disjunct remains constant: in both cases, Fortunately
indicates that the speaker regards the content of the following clause (regardless what that
is) as 'a good thing'. The only way to negate the disjunct is by adding the prefix un- to the
adverb. Similarly, the conjunct however also remains unaffected by the clause negation:
in both cases, it indicates that there is some contrast between the current clause and an
earlier part of the text (a natural lead-up to the first example might be She left home much
later than she had intended, to the second, She had been spending far too much money
during her day in London).

The two adjuncts, on the other hand, are clearly affected by the negation: the second
example above may be interpreted either as 'she got to Harrods, but not before they
closed' or as 'she got to some other department store before they closed, but not to

3. Adverbial positions
In the presentation of clause patterns in lecture 14 only obligatory adverbials, that is,
valency adverbials, were included. The reason for this was that other adverbials can
occupy so many different positions in the clause that we cannot specify these as easily as
we can specify the internal order of the core clause elements such as Subject, Verb,
indirect Object, direct Object, and so on.

The following diagram summarizes the information on adverbial positions given in
The major positions are labelled Initial, Medial, and End. Initial here means a position
before the Subject, Medial anywhere between the Subject and the last obligatory clause
element, and End a position after the obligatory clause elements. The superscripts 1–4
have been added in the diagram to distinguish between different variants within the
general Medial position. If there are no auxiliaries in the verb phrase, there will only be
two possible Medial positions. If there are no obligatory clause elements after the Verb
(i.e. the main verb is a one-place intransitive verb), there can be no M4 position.

Initial position is typical of Disjuncts, as in

         Fortunately, no lives were lost in the fire.
In Initial position we also often find Conjuncts, as in
         John left early. Nevertheless, he had seen more than he liked.
Here we may also find Adjuncts which specify the background setting for an event, as in
         In the summer of 1991 John went back to Trinidad.
Medial position is, generally speaking, typical of many adjuncts, as in
         Peter serenely accepted the offer. (M1)
         You never can tell. (M1)
         He might never have met her. (M2)
         She is being jealously guarded by her husband. (M3)
         He was still suspicious. (M4)
but we may also find Disjuncts and Conjuncts here:
         They have probably never heard about you. (M3)
         John left early. He had, nevertheless, seen more than he liked. (M3)
         This is perhaps unnecessary. (M4)
End position can be seen as the neutral position of, among others, time and place
adverbials, from which they can be fronted, for example in accordance with the
Information Principle (more of this in lecture 17). In other words, if they provide given
information, or information that is backgrounded, they tend to be placed in Initial
         Have you seen my new car? I bought it in London last month. (new information)
         Last month I bought a new car. (backgrounded)
The M4 position can be regarded as the position where adverbials in End position end up
when an obligatory clause element, such as the direct Object, has been postponed,
typically in accordance with the principle of end weight (EGTU 11.4). We may compare
the following two examples:
         He denied the rumour vigorously.
with the adverbial in End position, and
         He denied vigorously the rumour that he was about to resign.
where the heavy postmodified direct Object noun phrase has been postponed, so that the
adverbial ends up in M4 position.

The question of the actual placement of adverbials is a large and complex one, which
can’t be treated adequately within the space of this lecture. For more on this, see EGTU
10.9. Especially recommended is 10.9.6, which deals with differences in adverbial usage
between English and Norwegian.

4. Semantic categories of adverbials
All the three major types of adverbials — adjuncts, disjuncts and conjuncts — can
express a number of different semantic categories, or meaning categories. The group of
adjuncts exhibits the greatest amount of variation in this respect: of the fourteen different
semantic categories of adjuncts recognized in EGTU, some have a number of important
subcategories, so the total number of subcategories will be even greater than fourteen.

4.1 Adjuncts

The major semantic categories of adjuncts are:

  Time adjuncts are used to specify various temporal characteristics of the event or
  situation represented by the clause, such as its location or extension in time. Thus we
  can recognize time adjuncts which refer to definite points in time or limited periods of
  time, as in
          He first met her in 1982.
  Other time adjuncts specify a time span in relation to the speech moment, either
  backward in time or forward in time, as in the example
          I’ve been here since last Friday, and I’m staying until Tuesday.
  Time adjuncts expressing duration, by contrast, are not oriented towards the speech
          Mary lived in Sheffield for eight years.
  Time adjuncts can also be used to indicate frequency, that is, how often something
  happens, as in
          They go to Brighton every summer.

  Place adjuncts are used to specify the location of an event or a situation, as in
          They live in a small village.
  or to specify various features of movement, such as source (or starting-point), path,
  distance, and goal. In the example
          They walked from the church along the river to the market square.
  we find three space adjuncts expressing source, path and goal, respectively.

  Under the heading process adjuncts we may gather several subcategories which
  specify various important characteristics of the action expressed by the verb phrase.
  Thus within the category of process adjuncts we find adjuncts expressing manner,
  instrument, means, and agent, as in the following examples:
         He wiped his hands carefully on the towel. (manner)
         By spreading some nasty rumours he tried to discredit his opponent. (means)
         He signed the letter with a leaking fountain-pen. (instrument)
        Last year, 16 sheep were killed by wolverines here. (agent)
Manner adjuncts are obligatory after normally transitive verbs (ergative verbs) when
these are used intransitively to ascribe a permanent property to the referent of the
subject (cf. lecture 14), as in
        Her skin bruises easily.
        The poem reads well.

Similarly, under the heading contingency adjuncts we may gather four important
categories, namely adjuncts of reason, purpose, condition, and concession. These
adjunct types are usually realized as subclauses: finite, non-finite and verbless (more
about these clause types in lectures 19–22). The characteristic subordinating
conjunctions that signal these adjunct types are because, since, and as for reason, in
order to + infinitive (or just a to-infinitive) for purpose, if or unless for condition, and
although or though for concession:
        Sue stayed at home, because she had a cold. (reason)
        John stopped to catch his breath. (purpose)
        If necessary, repeat the procedure. (condition)
        It was cold, though the sun was shining. (concession)

Degree adjuncts are used to indicate what we may call the intensity of the verbal
action, either strengthening it or weakening it. This strengthening effect, or scaling
upwards, is found with adverbs such as much, fully, highly, badly, as in
        John needed the money badly.
The weakening effect, or scaling downwards, is found with adverbs such as little,
slightly, somewhat. Little can be fronted, in which case the clause must undergo
Subject-Auxiliary inversion, as in
        Little did he know what the future held in store for him.

Focusing adjuncts are used in order to focus attention on a particular part of the
clause, or to restrict the reference of the focused element. There is a fairly small class
of adverbs that can be used as focusing adjuncts, e.g.:

restrictive: alone, exclusively, just, merely, only, solely; chiefly, especially, mainly,
notably, primarily, specifically
additive: also, equally, even, likewise, similarly, too.

The focused element often receives nuclear stress, as in

        Even Jòhn appreciated the smoked oysters.

Viewpoint adjuncts are used to specify a particular point of view from which the
proposition is to be seen. In the example
       Scientifically, the project was a huge success.
the adverbial scientifically can be paraphrased as ‘from a scientific point of view’.
  Adverbs formed by adding the suffix -wise to a noun are commonly used as viewpoint
  adjuncts in informal English, especially American English:

          How are you doing, moneywise?

  Respect adjuncts are realized by prepositional phrases or subordinate clauses of the
  type as far as X is concerned. They serve to indicate in what respect the action
  described in the clause is/was/will be carried out, or in what respect a characterization
  is true. These adjuncts are easily moved to Initial position.
           As far as travelling facilities are concerned, we have obviously made a
           popular decision; but with respect to the date, many people are expressing
           He was in a thoroughly sound condition as regards intellect.

4.2 Disjuncts

The semantic categories of disjuncts are:

  Fact-evaluating disjuncts are used to express the speaker’s evaluation, in emotional
  terms, of an event or situation that is taken be a fact, as in
          Fortunately, no lives were lost in the fire.
          Sadly, they never met again after the war.

  Modal disjuncts, on the other hand, are used to express the speaker’s views on how
  likely it is that the proposition is true; hence they are sometimes called truth-evaluating
  disjuncts. The meaning of modal disjuncts comes close to the meaning of modal
  auxiliaries expressing epistemic modality (cf. lecture 12). Typical examples would be
           Apparently, they never received your letter.
           Obviously, he must have misunderstood you.
           She may possibly be at home.
  As the last two examples show, it is possible for a modal, or truth-evaluating, disjunct
  to co-occur with a modal auxiliary expressing the same epistemic modality.

  Subject-evaluating disjuncts are used to express the speaker’s subjective evaluation
  of the actions of the referent of the subject:
          He sensibly refrained from further comments.
  Adverbs used as subject-evaluating disjuncts can be related to adjectives functioning
  as subject Predicatives with a clausal subject:

                         S                      V     sP
       That he refrained from further comments was sensible.
  Style disjuncts are used to express the speaker’s comment on how the message is
  worded or how the utterance is to be interpreted. As examples of the first use we may
  find expressions such as briefly, to put it gently, not to put too fine a point on it, and so
  on. Examples of the second type would be frankly, honestly, seriously, etc.

  The term comment disjunct will be used here for those disjunct types that lack a label
  in EGTU: comment clauses and sentential relative clauses. Both clause types will be
  taken up in greater detail in later lectures; for our present purposes we may note that
  both types allow the speaker to insert a clause element that provides a comment on the
  content of the rest of the clause. Comment clauses are often short, formulaic
          You know, I don’t think this is correct.
          Why are you so late? Well, you see, my car broke down, so I had to walk.
  A clause introduced by as can be used to comment on the communicative status of the
  utterance (already known to hearer, already stated by speaker, etc.):
          John has resigned, as you may have heard.
          As I keep saying, we can’t solve these problems without increased funds.
  A sentential relative clause, finally, allows the speaker/writer to insert any kind of
  comment on the content of a clause:
          John said he couldn’t help me, which is ridiculous.
          She forgot to sign the letter, which she was to regret later.

4.3 Conjuncts

Conjuncts differ from other adverbials in that their impact goes beyond the individual
clause or sentence; thus they serve to mark semantic relationships between propositions
expressed by different clauses, or between larger sections of a text. In this respect their
function resembles that of conjunctions (co-ordinating and subordinating), although there
is greater positional variation to be found among the conjuncts.

Most of the children wanted to go to the     but Mary preferred to stay at home.
beach,                                       (conjunction)
Most of the children wanted to go to the     However, Mary preferred to stay at home.
beach.                                       (conjunct)
                                             Mary, however, preferred to stay at home.
                                             Mary preferred to stay at home, however.

Conjuncts can be used to express the semantic relationship between propositions:
comparison (similarly, likewise), contrast (on the other hand), concession (however,
nevertheless), reason (therefore, because of that), result (consequently, in consequence,
as a result).
Conjuncts can be used to indicate the organization of a text: addition (in addition,
furthermore), enumeration (first, secondly, finally), transition (by the way; meanwhile,
in the meantime).

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