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Buffalo and antelope--Hieroglyphs of Indus writing (Kalyanaraman, April 2012)

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									Buffalo and antelope--Hieroglyphs of Indus writing
This monograph focuses on two animal hieroglyphs: buffalo and antelope of Indus writing.

Executive summary

The orthographic and archaeological context1 of the use of hieroglyphs by Meluhhans suggests
the following rebus readings: kara ‘buffalo’; rebus: khar ‘blacksmith’. mẽḍā ‘ram’; rebus:
mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’; ढ, meḍh ‘merchant’s helper, meluhha’.

Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin in the Musee du
Louvre, Paris. One of the two anthropomorphic figures carved on this seal wears the horns of
                                          water buffalo while
                                          sitting on a throne
                                          with hoofed legs,
                                          surrounded by
                                          snakes, fishes and
                                          water buffaloes. Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville
                                          for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du
                                          Louvre. Source:

                                         A pair of buffaloes flank a round spot in the bottom
                                         register of the cylinder seal impression.

                                         Glyph: ‘round spot’:      [ gōṭī ] f (Dim. Of      )A
                                         roundish stone or pebble. Rebus:       [ kōṭhī ] f (
                                         S) A granary, garner, storehouse, warehouse, treasury,
                                         factory, bank. (Marathi)
                                         Fig. 14.14 and Fig. 14.15 from: Parpola, Asko, 1994.
                                         Deciphering the Indus script. Cambridge: Cambridge
                                         University Press. 4:o (28 cm), xxii, 374 pp., with 226
                                         figs. and 11 tables. Hb ISBN 0-521-43079-8.(p.250)

                                          One side of a triangular amulet from Mohenjo-daro,
                                          showing a horned
                                          deity sitting in
                                          "yogic" posture on
                                          a throne with
hoofed legs, surrounded by fishes, gavials and snakes.
Surface find made in 1936, now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Copyrighted photo by the
Ashmolean Museum.

                m0304. Seal from Mohenjo-daro, excavation number DK 5175, now in the
                National Museum of India, New Delhi. The seated person wears the horns of the
                water buffalo and sits in a "yogic" posture on a drum(haystack?)-legged throne,
                surrounded by a tiger, an elephant, a rhinoceros, and a water buffalo.

                         Comparble to m0304 showing a seated person in penance, is a seal
                         showing a scarfed person in penance: He also has scarf as a pigtail, is
                         horned with two stars shown within the horn-curves. Glyph of ‘a pair of
                         stars’ also on the ‘water-carrier’ glyph of Gadd seal (PBA18).
                                            Other glyphic elements are: twig, horns.
                                            http://www.harappa.com/indus/33.html Seal, m1181.
                                            Mohenjo-daro. Square seal depicting a nude male
                                            deity with three faces, seated in yogic position on a
throne, wearing                             bangles on both arms and an elaborate headdress.
Five symbols of the                         Indus script appear on either side of the headdress
which is made of two outward projecting buffalo style curved horns, with two upward projecting
points. A single branch with three pipal leaves rises from the middle of the headdress. Seven
bangles are depicted on the left arm and six on the right, with the hands resting on the knees. The
heels are pressed together under the groin and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne. The
feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals.
The seal may not have been fired, but the stone is very hard. A grooved and perforated boss is
present on the back of the seal.

Material: tan steatite Dimensions: 2.65 x 2.7 cm, 0.83 to 0.86 thickness Mohenjo-daro, DK
12050 Islamabad Museum, NMP 50.296 Mackay 1938: 335, pl. LXXXVII, 222

                             In a comparable glyphic composition showing a person seated in
                             penance, two serpents are shown flanking the person.
                              m453BC Seated in penance, the person is flanked on either side by
a kneeling adorant, offering a pot and a hooded serpent rearing up. Glyph: kaṇḍo ‘stool’. Rebus;
kaṇḍ ‘furnace’. Vikalpa: kaṇḍ ‘stone (ore) metal’. Rebus: kamaḍha ‘penance’. Rebus 1: kaṇḍ
‘stone ore’. Rebus 2: kampaṭṭa ‘mint’. Glyph: ‘serpent hood’: paṭa. Rebus: pata ‘sharpness (of
knife), tempered (metal). padm ‘tempered iron’ (Ko.) Glyph: rimless pot: baṭa. Rebus: bhaṭa
‘smelter, furnace’. It appears that the message of the glyphics is about a mint or metal workshop
which produces sharpened, tempered iron (stone ore) using a furnace.

       paṭam , n. < phaṭa. 1. Cobra's hood;                                               .
                                 (             . 34, 1). phaṭa n. ʻ expanded hood of snake ʼ MBh. 2.
*phēṭṭa -- 2. [Cf. phuṭa -- m., °ṭā -- f., sphuṭa -- m. lex., °ṭā -- f. Pañcat. (Pk.phuḍā -- f.), sphaṭa -
- m., °ṭā -- f., sphōṭā -- f. lex. and phaṇa -- 1. Conn. words in Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 386]
1. Pk. phaḍa -- m.n. ʻ snake's hood ʼ, °ḍā -- f., M. phaḍā m., °ḍī f.
2. A. pheṭ, phẽṭ.(CDIAL 9040). Rebus: patam = sharpness (as of the edge of a knife)(Ta.); padm
(obl. Padt-) temper of iron (Ko.); pada = keenness of edge or sharpness (Ka.); hada = sharpeness
(as of a knife), forming (as metals) to proper degree of hardness (Tu.); padnā sharpness (Go.);
padanu, padunu = sharpness, temper (Te.); padnu = sharpening (of knife by heating and
hammering)(Konḍa); pato = sharp (as a blade); patter = to sharpen (Malt.)(DEDR 3907). paṭiman
        m. Sharpness, pungency (Skt. Apte.lexicon).             padunu Goodness of metal;

                               he failed in giving the right temper to the steel. "

             ." HK. iv. 193.                   a bone or whetstone;                   to set or sharpen.


A lexeme which may explain the 'mountain' or 'haystack' glyphs; Rebus: Rebus: mẽṛhẽt, meḍ
‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.): kunda 'hayrick'; rebus: kundār turner (A.)

Cylinder seal: hunting scene Period: Akkadian Date: ca. 2250–2150 B.C. Geography:
                                                                    Mesopotamia Culture:
                                                                    Akkadian Medium:
                                                                    Chert Dimensions: H. 1
                                                                    1/8 in. (2.8 cm)
                                                                    Classification: Stone-
                                                                    Cylinder Seal, Inscribed

                         After Amiet, P., 1961, La glyptique mesopotamienne archaique, Paris:
                         497; Mundigak IV.3; 3.
                         Sumerian cylinder seal showing flanking goats with hooves on tree
                                                    and/or mountain. Uruk period. (After Joyce
                                                    Burstein in: Katherine Anne Harper, Robert
                                                    L. Brown, 2002, The roots of tantra, SUNY
Press, p.100) Hence, two goats + mountain glyph reads rebus: meḍ kundār 'iron turner'. Leaf on
mountain: kamaṛkom 'petiole of leaf'; rebus: kampaṭṭam 'mint'. loa = a species of fig tree, ficus
glomerata, the fruit of ficus glomerata (Santali) Rebus: lo ‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’
(Gypsy). The glyphic composition is read rebus: meḍ loa kundār 'iron turner mint'.

Glyph: ‘hoof’: Ku. khuṭo ʻ leg, foot ʼ, °ṭī ʻ goat's leg ʼ; N. khuṭo ʻ leg, foot ʼ(CDIAL 3894).
S. khuṛī f. ʻ heel ʼ; WPah. paṅ. khūṛ ʻ foot ʼ. khura m. ʻ hoof ʼ Kāty r. 2. *khuḍa -- 1 (khuḍaka --
, khula° ʻ ankle -- bone ʼ Suśr.). [← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 376: it belongs to the word --
group ʻ heel <-> ankle -- knee -- wrist ʼ, see *kuṭṭha -- ](CDIAL 3906). Ta. kuracu,
kuraccai horse's hoof. Ka. gorasu, gorase, gorise, gorusu hoof. Te. gorija, gorise, (B. also) gorije,
korije id. / Cf. Skt.khura- id. (DEDR 1770). Allograph: (Kathiawar) kh ṭ m. ʻ Brahmani bull ʼ
(G.) Rebus: kh ṭ ‘community, guild’ (Santali)
kamaḍha ‘penance’ (Pkt.) Rebus: kammaṭi a coiner (Ka.) kampaṭṭam ‘mint’ (Ta.) Kur. Kaṇḍō a
stool. Malt. Kanḍo stool, seat. (DEDR 1179) Rebus: kaṇḍ = a furnace, altar (Santali.lex.)
dhaṭu m. (also dhaṭhu) m. ‘scarf’ (WPah.) (CDIAL 6707) Allograph: ḍato = claws of crab
(Santali); dhātu = mineral (Skt.), dhatu id. (Santali)
kūdī, kūṭī bunch of twigs (Skt.lex.) kūdī (also written as kūṭī in manuscripts) occurs in the
Atharvaveda (AV 5.19.12) and Kauśika Sūtra (Bloomsfield’s ed.n, xliv. Cf. Bloomsfield,
American Journal of Philology, 11, 355; 12,416; Roth, Festgruss an Bohtlingk, 98) denotes it as
a twig. This is identified as that of Badarī, the jujube tied to the body of the dead to efface their
traces. (See Vedic Index, I, p. 177). Rebus: kuṭhi

‘smelting furnace‘ (Santali) koṭe ‘forged (metal) (Santali) Vikalpa:         [ maṇḍa ] manḍa.

[Tel.] n. A twig with leaves on it.           . A small branch,         . the back of the

hand.          . A frying brush,              .

mēḍha The polar star. (Marathi) Rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.) dula ‘pair’ (Kashmiri); Rebus: dul ‘cast
ḍabe, ḍabea ‘large horns, with a sweeping upward curve, applied to buffaloes’ (Santali) Rebus:
ḍab, ḍhimba, ḍhompo ‘lump (ingot?)’, clot, make a lump or clot, coagulate, fuse, melt together
The glyphic composition of the seal read rebus: dul meḍ ḍab dhatu kammaṭi ‘cast metal ingot,
metallic minerals coiner.’
The text of the inscription shows two types of ‘fish’ glyphs: one fish + fish with scales
circumscribed by four short-strokes: aya ‘fish’ (Mu.); rebus: aya ‘metal’ (Skt.)
gaṇḍa set of four (Santali) kaṇḍa ‘fire-altar’ cf. ayaskāṇḍa a quantity of iron, excellent iron
(Pāṇ.gaṇ) The reading is consistent with the entire glyphic composition related to the mineral,
mint forge.
*the person is seated on a hoofed platform (representing a bull): decoding of glyphics read rebus:
ḍangar ‘bull’; ḍhangar ‘blacksmith’ (H.); koṇḍo ‘stool’; rebus: koḍ ‘workshop’. The glyphics
show that the seal relates to a blacksmith’s workshop.

*the seated person’s hair-dress includes a horned twig. Aḍaru twig; aḍiri small and thin branch of
a tree; aḍari small branches (Ka.); aḍaru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). Aḍar = splinter (Santali); rebus:
aduru = native metal (Ka.) Vikalpa: kūtī = bunch of twigs (Skt.) Rebus: kuṭhi = furnace (Santali)
*tiger’s mane on face: The face is depicted with bristles of hair, representing a tiger’s mane.
Cūḍā, cūlā, cūliyā tiger’s mane (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4883) Rebus: cuḷḷai = potter’s kiln, furnace (Ta.);
cūḷai furnace, kiln, funeral pile (Ta.); cuḷḷa potter’s furnace; cūḷa brick kiln (Ma.); cullī fireplace
(Skt.); cullī, ullī id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4879; DEDR 2709). Sulgao, salgao to light a fire; sen:gel,
sokol fire (Santali.lex.) hollu, holu = fireplace (Kuwi); soḍu fireplace, stones set up as a fireplace
(Mand.); ule furnace (Tu.)(DEDR 2857).

*bangles on arms cūḍā ‘bracelets’ (H.); rebus: soḍu ‘fireplace’. Vikalpa: sekeseke, sekseke
covered, as the arms with ornaments; sekra those who work in brass and bell metal; sekra sakom
a kind of armlet of bell metal (Santali)

*fish + splinter glyph ayo, hako ‘fish’; a~s = scales of fish (Santali); rebus: aya = iron (G.); ayah,
ayas = metal (Skt.)sal stake, spike, splinter, thorn, difficulty (H.); sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)
Vikalpa: Glyph: ḍhāḷiyum = adj. sloping, inclining; rebus: ḍhāḷako = a large metal ingot (G.) H.
dhāṛnā ‘to send out, pour out, cast (metal)’ (CDIAL 6771). Thus, the ligatured ‘fish + sloping
(stroke)’ is read rebus: metal ingot.

Glyph: clump between the two horns: kuṇḍa n. ʻ clump ʼ e.g. darbha—kuṇḍa—Pāṇ.(CDIAL
3236). Kundār turner (A.)(CDIAL 3295). Kuṇḍa n. ʻ clump ʼ e.g. darbha—kuṇḍa—Pāṇ. [←
Drav. (Tam. Koṇṭai ʻ tuft of hair ʼ, Kan. Goṇḍe ʻ cluster ʼ, &c.) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 374]

Pk. Kuṁḍa— n. ʻ heap of crushed sugarcane stalks ʼ (CDIAL 3266) Ta. Koṇtai tuft, dressing
of hair in large coil on the head, crest of a bird, head (as of a nail), knob (as of a cane), round top.
Ma. Koṇṭa tuft `of hair. Ko.goṇḍ knob on end of walking-stick, head of pin; koṇḍ knot of hair at
back of head. To. Kwïḍy Badaga woman’s knot of hair at back of head (< Badaga koṇḍe). Ka.
Koṇḍe, goṇḍe tuft, tassel, cluster. Koḍ. Koṇḍe tassels of sash, knob-like foot of cane-stem. Tu.
Goṇḍè topknot, tassel, cluster. Te. Koṇḍe, (K. also) koṇḍi knot of hair on the crown of the head.
Cf. 2049 Ta. Koṭi. / Cf. Skt. Kuṇḍa- clump (e.g. darbha-kuṇḍa-), Pkt. (DNM) goṇḍī- = mañjarī-;
Turner, CDIAL, no. 3266; cf. also Mar. gōḍā cluster, tuft. (DEDR 2081) kuṇḍī = crooked buffalo
horns (L.) rebus: kuṇḍī = chief of village. Kuṇḍi-a = village headman; leader of a village
(Pkt.lex.) I.e. śreṇi jet.t.ha chief of metal-worker guild. Koḍ ‘horns’; rebus: koḍ ‘artisan’s
workshop’ (G.) Thus the entire glyphic composition of hieroglyphs on m1185 seal is a message
conveyed from a sodagor ‘merchant, trader’. The bill of lading lists a variety of repertoire of the
artisan guild’s trade load from a mint — the native metal and brass workshop of blacksmith
(guild) with furnace: aḍar kuṭhi ‘native metal furnace’; soḍu ‘fireplace’; sekra ‘bell-metal and
brass worker’; aya sal ‘iron (metal) workshop’.
kundavum = manger, a hayrick (G.) Rebus: kundār turner (A.); kũdār, kũdāri (B.); kundāru (Or.);
kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn stone; kundau murhut = a
graven image (Santali) kunda a turner's lathe (Skt.)(CDIAL 3295) This rebus reading may
explain the hayrick glyph shown on the sodagor 'merchant, trader' seal surrounded by four
animals.Two antelopes are put next to the hayrick on the platform of the seal on which the
horned person is seated.
                                                             Cylinder seal. Chlorite. AO 22303 H.
                                                             3.9 cm. Dia. 2.6 cm. “At the end of the
                                                             Uruk period (c.3500-3100 BC)
                                                             appeared the cylindrical seals which
                                                             were to be used, among other things,
                                                             to seal the first written documents. The
                                                             print left by the rolling of these
                           miniature bas-reliefs on the soft clay of the tablet reveals a rich
                           iconography that varies with the different epochs. Thus the dynasty of
                           Akkad (2340-2200 BC) the stone-cutters showed a certain predilection
for mythological scenes. On the Sharkalisharri cylinder, fifth king of the Akkad dynasty, two
naked heroes, acolytes of Eas, water two buffaloes which carry the inscription, central element of
the composition: "the divine Sharkalisharri, king of Akkad, Ibni-sharrum, the scribe, (is) his
servant." – Louvre “An inscription is held between the buffaloes' horns. A scene testifying to
relations with distant lands. Buffaloes are emblematic animals in glyptic art in the Agade period.
They first appear in the reign of Sargon, indicating sustained relations between the Akkadian
Empire and the distant country of Meluhha, that is, the present Indus Valley, where these animals
come from.”
   1: <lo->(B) {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''. See <lo-> `to be left over'. @B24310. #20851.
Re<lo->(B) {V} ``(pot, etc.) to ^overflow''. See <lo-> `to be left over'. (Munda etyma)Rebus:
<lua>(B),,<loa>(B) {N} ``^iron''. Pl. <-le>. @B23760. #21231.
    <lowa>(F) {N} ``^iron''. *Loan. @N501. #21131.
                                                                           Cylinder seal: bull-
                                                                           man combatting lion;
                                                                           nude hero combatting
                                                                           water buffalo;
                                                                           Period: Akkadian
                                                                           Date: ca. 2250–2150
                                                                           B.C. Geography:
                                                                           Culture: Akkadian
                                                                           Medium: Albite
Dimensions: H. 15/16 in. ( 3.4 cm ); Diam. 7/8 in. ( 2.3 cm) Classification: Stone-Cylinder
Seal, Inscribed
Glyph: Vikalpa lexemes: Ta. meṭṭu mound, heap of earth; mēṭu height, eminence, hillock; muṭṭu
rising ground, high ground, heap. Ma. mēṭu rising ground, hillock; māṭu hillock, raised ground;
miṭṭāl rising ground, an alluvial bank; (Tiyya) maṭṭa hill. Ka. mēḍu height, rising ground, hillock;
miṭṭu rising or high ground, hill; miṭṭe state of being high, rising ground, hill, mass, a large
number; (Hav.) muṭṭe heap (as of straw). Tu. miṭṭè prominent, protruding; muṭṭe heap. Te. meṭṭa
raised or high ground, hill; (K.) meṭṭu mound; miṭṭa high ground, hillock, mound; high, elevated,
raised, projecting; (VPK) mēṭu, mēṭa, mēṭi stack of hay; (Inscr.) meṇṭa-cēnu dry field (cf. meṭṭu-
nēla, meṭṭu-vari). Kol. (SR.) meṭṭā hill; (Kin.) meṭṭ, (Hislop) met mountain. Nk. meṭṭ hill,
mountain. Ga. (S.3, LSB 20.3) meṭṭa high land. Go. (Tr. W. Ph.) maṭṭā, (Mu.) maṭṭa mountain;
(M. L.) meṭā id., hill; (A. D. Ko.) meṭṭa, (Y. Ma. M.) meṭa hill; (SR.) meṭṭā hillock (Voc. 2949).
Konḍa meṭa id. Kuwi (S.) metta hill; (Isr.) meṭa sand hill. (DEDR 5058)

Glyph: Vikalpa reading: kamaṛkom = fig leaf (Santali.lex.) kamarmaṛā (Has.), kamaṛkom (Nag.);
the petiole or stalk of a leaf (Mundari.lex.)Rebus: kampaṭṭam coinage, coin (Ta.)(DEDR 1236)
kampaṭṭa- muḷai die, coining stamp (Ta.) Vikalpa: lo ‘iron’ (Assamese, Bengali); loa ‘iron’
Glyph: Vikalpa reading: M. ḍagar f. ʻ little hill, slope ʼ.S. ṭakuru m. ʻ mountain ʼ N. ṭākuro, ri ʻ
hill top ʼ. P. ṭekrā m., rī f. ʻ rock, hill ʼ; H. ṭekar, krā m. ʻ heap, hillock ʼ; G. ṭekrɔ m., rī f. ʻ
mountain, hillock ʼ.6. K. ṭēg m. ʻ hillock, mound ʼ.7. G. ṭũk ʻ peak ʼ.8. M. ṭũg n. ʻ mound, lump
ʼ. — Ext. — r -- : Or. ṭuṅguri ʻ hillock ʼ; M. ṭũgar n. ʻ bump, mound ʼ (see *uṭṭungara -- ); -- -- l -
- : M. ṭũgaḷ, gūḷ n.9. K. ḍȧki f. ʻ hill, rising ground ʼ. — Ext. — r -- : K. ḍakürü f. ʻ hill on a road
ʼ.10. Ext. — r -- : Pk. ḍaggara — m. ʻ upper terrace of a house ʼ; 11. Ku. ḍ g, ḍ k ʻ stony land ʼ;
B. ḍāṅ ʻ heap ʼ, ḍāṅgā ʻ hill, dry upland ʼ; H. ḍ g f. ʻ mountain — ridge ʼ; M. ḍ g m.n., ḍ gaṇ,
gāṇ, ḍ gāṇ n. ʻ hill — tract ʼ. — Ext. — r -- : N. ḍaṅgur ʻ heap ʼ.12. M. ḍũg m. ʻ hill, pile ʼ, gā m.
ʻ eminence ʼ, gī f. ʻ heap ʼ. — Ext. — r -- : Pk. ḍuṁgara — m. ʻ mountain ʼ; Ku. ḍũgar, ḍũgrī; N.
ḍuṅgar ʻ heap ʼ; Or. ḍuṅguri ʻ hillock ʼ, H. ḍūgar m., G. ḍũgar m., ḍũgrī f. 13. S.ḍūgaru m. ʻ hill
ʼ, H. M. ḍõgar m. 14. Pa. tuṅga -- ʻ high ʼ; Pk. Tuṁga -- ʻ high ʼ, tuṁg ya — m. ʻ mountain ʼ; K.
tŏng, t ngu m. ʻ peak ʼ, P. tuṅg f.; A. tuṅg ʻ importance ʼ; Si. Tungu ʻ lofty, mountain ʼ. — Cf.
uttuṅga -- ʻ lofty ʼ MBh. 15. K. th ngu m. ʻ peak ʼ. 16. H. d g f. ʻ hill, precipice ʼ, d gī ʻ
belonging to hill country ʼ. Addenda: *ṭakka — 3. 12. *ḍuṅga -- : S.kcch. ḍūṅghar m. ʻ hillock ʼ.
(CDIAL 5423). Unc An eminence, a mount, a little hill (Marathi). ṭākuro = hill top (N.); ṭāngī =
hill, stony country (Or.); ṭān:gara = rocky hilly land (Or.); ḍān:gā = hill, dry upland (B.); ḍā~g =
mountain-ridge (H.)(CDIAL 5476). Marathi.             [ ḍāṅga ] m n ( H Peak or summit of a hill.)

The following glosses, kārā in Urdu, Telugu, Tamil and kaṛā, kaṛa in Kurku and Santali of the
linguistic area indicate an ancient form, kārā to denote ‘buffalo’. Rebus: khār 1 खार् । लोहकारः m.
(sg. abl. khāra 1 खार; the pl. dat. of this word is khāran 1 खारन ्, which is to be distinguished
from khāran 2, q.v., s.v.), a blacksmith, an iron worker (cf.bandūka-khār, p. 111b, l. 46; K.*Pr.
46; H. xi, 17); a farrier (El.). This word is often a part of a name, and in such case comes at the
end (W. 118) as in Wahab khār, Wahab the smith (H. ii, 12; vi, 17). khāra-basta खार-बस ्््त ।
चर्मप्रसेविका f. the skin bellows of a blacksmith. -büṭhü; । लोहकारभित्तः f. the wall of a
blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -bāy -बाय ् । लोहकारप्नी f. a blacksmith's wife (Gr.Gr. 34). -
dŏkuru -द्िकरु। लोहकारायोघनः m. a blacksmith's hammer, a sledge-hammer. -gȧji or -güjü ।
लोहकारचत्लः f. a blacksmith's furnace or hearth. -hāl -हाल ् । लोहकारकन्ः f. a blacksmith's
       ु                                                                ु
smelting furnace; cf. hāl 5. -kūrü -करू&below; । लोहकारकनया f. a blacksmith's daughter. -koṭu ।
लोहकारपत्रः m. the son of a blacksmith, esp. a skilful son, who can work at the same profession. -
küṭü । लोहकारकनया f. a blacksmith's daughter, esp. one who has the virtues and qualities
properly belonging to her father's profession or caste. -më˘ʦü । लोहकारर्त्तका f. (for 2, see
[khāra 3] ), 'blacksmith's earth,' i.e. iron-ore. -n cyuwu -नयचचिु। लोहकारा्र्जः m. a blacksmith's
son. -nay -नय ् । लोहकारनाभलका f. (for khāranay 2, see [khārun] ), the trough into which the
blacksmith allows melted iron to flow after smelting. -ʦañ । लोहकारशानताङ्गाराः f.pl. charcoal
used by blacksmiths in their furnaces. -wān िान ् । (Kashmiri)

       காரா kār-ā n. < கரு-மை + ஆ&sup8;. [T. kārāvu, U. kārā.] Buffalo; எருமை.
செங்கண் வன்கட் காரா (தஞ்மெவா. 380).(Tamil) kār-āvu. [Tel.] n. A wild cow. forest
cattle. kaarenumu n. wild buffalo (female) (Telugu) गौर gaur, adj. (f. -ī), White, pale; of fair
                        complexion, fair;—yellow;—red, pale red;—s.m. A kind of buffalo, the
                        Bos gaurus (Urdu) kaṛa, kaḍa ‘a buffalo bull’ (Santali) Kur. kaṛā young
                        male buffalo; kaṛī young female buffalo; kaṛrū, kaḍrū buffalo calf (male or
                        female). Ko. kaṛc ng buffalo calf between two and three years; kaṛc kurl
                        cow calf between two and three years; ? To. kaṛ pen for calves from 6
                        months to 1-2 years.Ko. (Ph.) kāṛā young buffalo ( Voc.648). Konḍa (BB)
                        gṛālu calf. Kui (K.) grāḍu, (W.) ḍrāḍu (pl. ḍrāṭka) id.; (W.) gāṛo a bullock
or buffalo not trained to the plough; kṛai young female buffalo or goat. Br. xarās bull, bullock;
xaṛ ram.(DEDR 1123).
Vikalpa: ran:gā ‘buffalo’; Rebus: ran:ga ‘pewter or alloy of tin (ran:ku), lead (nāga) and
antimony (an~jana)’(Santali)
Stamp seal with a water-buffalo, Mohenjo-daro. “As is usual on Indus Valley seals that show a
water buffalo,this animal is standing with upraised head and both hornsclearly visible. (Mackay,
1938b, p. 391). A feeding trough isplaced in front of it, and a double row of undecipherable
scriptfills the entire space above. The horns are incised to show thenatural growth lines. During
the Akkadian period, cylinderseals in Mesopotamia depict water buffaloes in a similar pose that
may have been copied from Indus seals (see cat. No.135)(For a Mesopotamian seal with water
buffalo, see Parpola1994, p. 252 and Collon 1987, no.529 – Fig. 11).”(JMK –Jonathan Mark
Kenoyer, Professor of Anthropology, Universityof Wisconsin, Madison) (p.405)
miṇḍāl ‘markhor’ (Tōrwālī) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120); rebus: mẽṛhet, meḍ
‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)
Glyph ‘crookedness of horns’: Meṇḍa [dial., cp. Prk. m ṇṭha & miṇṭha: Pischel, Prk. Gr. § 293.
The Dhtm (156) gives a root meṇḍ (meḍ) in meaning of "koṭilla," i. e. crookedness. (Pali)
M. mẽḍhā m. ʻ crook or curved end (of a horn, stick, &c.) ʼ.
    Glyph: ‘ram with curling horns’: <menDa>(A) {N} ``^sheep''. *Des. <meNDa> (GM)
`sheep'. #21810.(Munda)H. mẽṛā, mẽḍā m. ʻ ram with curling horns ʼ, °ḍī f. ʻ she -- goat do. ʼ
(CDIAL 10120) Bi. mẽṛhwā ʻ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's ʼ; M. mẽḍhr n. ʻ sheep
ʼ.(CDIAL 10311).Glyph ‘ram’: ढ [ mēṇḍhā ] m (            S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup.
 ढ [ mēṇḍharūṃ ] n ( ढ ) A sheep Pr.             0                     ? (Marathi) mēṇḍha m. ʻ
ram ʼ, °aka -- , mēṇḍa -- 4, miṇḍha -- 2, °aka -- , mēṭha -- 2, mēṇḍhra -- , mēḍhra -- 2, °aka -- m.
lex. 2. *mēṇṭha- (mēṭha -- m. lex.). 3. *mējjha -- . [r -- forms (which are not attested in NIA.) are
due to further sanskritization of a loan -- word prob. of Austro -- as. origin (EWA ii 682 with lit.)
and perh. related to the group s.v. bhēḍra -- ] 1. Pa. meṇḍa -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, °aka -- ʻ made of a ram's
horn (e.g. a bow) ʼ; Pk. meḍḍha -- , meṁḍha -- (°ḍhī -- f.), °ṁḍa -- , miṁḍha -- (°dhiā --
f.), °aga -- m. ʻ ram ʼ, Dm. Gaw. miṇ Kal.rumb. amŕn/aŕə ʻ sheep ʼ (a -- ?); Bshk. mināˊl ʻ ram

ʼ; Tor. miṇḍ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍāˊl ʻ markhor ʼ; Chil.mindh*ll ʻ ram ʼ AO xviii 244 (dh!), Sv. yēṛo --
miṇ; Phal. miṇḍ, miṇ ʻ ram ʼ, miṇḍṓl m. ʻ yearling lamb, gimmer ʼ; P. mẽḍhā m., °ḍhī f.,
ludh.mīḍḍhā, mī˜ḍhā m.; N. meṛho, meṛo ʻ ram for sacrifice ʼ; A. mersāg ʻ ram ʼ ( -- sāg <
*chāgya -- ?), B. meṛā m., °ṛi f., Or. meṇḍhā, °ḍā m., °ḍhif., H. meṛh, meṛhā, mẽḍhā m.,
G. mẽḍhɔ, M. mẽḍhā m., Si. mäḍayā.2. Pk. meṁṭhī -- f. ʻ sheep ʼ; H. meṭhā m. ʻ ram ʼ. 3.
H. mejh kā m. ʻ ram ʼ. mēṇḍha -- 2: A. also mer (phonet. mer) ʻ ram ʼ AFD 235. (CDIAL
10310)       a ram L. (Monier-Williams, p. 832) Meṇḍa [dial., cp. Prk. m ṇṭha & miṇṭha:
Pischel, Prk. Gr. § 293. The Ved. (Sk.) word for ram is meṣa] 1. a ram D i.9; J iv.250, 353
(˚visāṇa -- dhanu, a bow consisting of a ram's horn). -- ˚pathaNpl. "ram's road" Nd1 155=415. --
˚yuddha ram fight D i.6. –Meṇḍaka (adj.) [fr. meṇḍa] 1. made of ram(s) horn, said of a (very
strong) bow J ii.88 (˚dhanu); v.128 (˚singadhanu). -- 2. belonging to a ram, inmeṇḍaka --
pañha "question about the ram" Miln 90 alluding to the story of a ram in the Ummagga -- jātaka
(J vi.353 -- 55), which is told in form of a question, so difficult & puzzling that nobody "from
hell to heaven" (J vi.354) can answer it except the Bodhisatta. Cp. Trenckner's remark Miln 422.
(Pali) ढ [ mēṇḍhā ] m (          S through H) A male sheep, a ram or tup. ढ         ढ [ mēṇḍharū
ñcēṇḍharūṃ ] n ( ढ by redup.) A sheep and suchlike. (Marathi) ढ                or     [ mēṇḍhakā or
kyā ] a ( ढ ) A shepherd (Marathi)                 [ meṇṭhamu ] menṭhamu. [Mahrati.] n. A

ram.         ."                                ,                               ,

         ,                                     ." Kasi Khand. vii. 139.             [ mēṇḍamu

] mēnḍamu. [Skt.] n. A ram,           .               mēṇṭam , n. < mēṇḍha. Ram;            .(       .

அக.)           க    mēṭakam< mēḍaka.                  mēṭam , n. < mēṣa. 1. Sheep, ram;          .
(      .) 2. Aries of the zodiac;                                         .(        .) 3. The first solar
month. See               ¹, 2.                 (க            .            . 110).

Glyph ‘fig, ficus racemosa’:         [ mēḍi ] mēḍi. [Tel.]       ,         .              the fruit of

this tree. 5090 Ka. mēḍi glomerous fig tree, Ficus racemosa; opposite-leaved fig tree, F.
oppositifolia. Te. mēḍi F. glomerata. Kol. (Kin.) mēṛi id. [F. glomerata Roxb. = F.
                   racemosa Wall.](DEDR 5090).
                   Banawali 23 Seal impression. This uses an assemblage of glyphs: a person
                   standing with raised arm, a ram, a one-horned heifer, two glyphs: fish and
                   arrow. Eache of these glyphs can be read rebus to complete the reading of the
                   message conveyed by the inscription, as a bill of lading on a consignment, a
                   trade package. Decoding: meḍ ‘body’(Mu.); rebus: ‘iron’ (Ho.) eṛaka ‘upraised

arm’ (Ta.); rebus: eraka = copper (Ka.) Glyph: kaṇḍa ‘arrow’ (Skt.) rebus: kaṇḍa ‘fire-altar,
furnace’. Glyph: aya ‘fish’; rebus: aya ‘metal’ (G.) ayaskāṇḍa ‘excellent quantity of iron’ (Pāṇ.)
koḍiyum ‘heifer’(G.) koḍe ‘heifer’ (Telugu)                   [ khōṇḍa ] m A young bull, a bullcalf. Rebus:
         [ kōṇḍaṇa ] f A fold or pen. (Marathi) koḍ ‘workshop’ (G.)Glyph: miṇḍāl markhor
(Tor.wali) meḍho a ram, a sheep (G.)(CDIAL 10120) kunda ‘turner’ kundār turner (A.); kũdār,
kũdāri (B.); kundāru (Or.); kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; kundau dhiri = a hewn
stone; kundau murhut = a graven image (Santali) kunda a turner’s lathe (Skt.)(CDIAL 3295)
Rebus: meḍ iron (Ho.) meṛed-bica = iron stone ore, in contrast to bali-bica, iron sand ore
Thus, the Banawali seal impression connotes an assemblage of categories of copper (smelted
metal); iron (native metal); iron (smelted metal); (turner’s) workshop. The load prepared in
package decribes these categories of products.
Allograph: meḍ ‘body ‘ (Mu.)
               mẽḍha ‘antelope’; rebus: meḍ ‘iron’ (Ho.)

                   ढ      [ mēṇḍhasara ] m A bracelet of gold thread (Marathi)

mẽṛhẽt, meḍ ‘iron’ (Mu.Ho.)            ढ ‘merchant’s helper’; m. an elephant-keeper Gal. (cf.                      ). Cf.
      [ bēṇḍā ] m An appellation of respect for a seafaring man. Ta. mēṭṭi haughtiness, excellence,
chief, head, land granted free of tax to the headman of a village; mēṭṭimai haughtiness;
leadership, excellence. Ka. mēṭi loftiness, greatness, excellence, a big man, a chief, a head, head
servant. Te. mēṭari, mēṭi chief, head, leader, lord; (prob. mēṭi < *mēl-ti [cf. 5086]; Ka. Ta. <
Te.; Burrow 1969, p. 277) (DEDR 5091).                          mēṭṭi, n. Assistant house-servant; waiting-
boy.                   +. Headman of the Toṭṭiya caste;                                        . (E. T. vii, 185.)
        [ mēṭi ] mēti. n. Lit: a helper. A servant, a cook, a menial who cleans plates, dishes, lamps

and shoes, &c. (Eng. ‘mate’)                [ mēṭi ] or         mēṭi [Tel.] n. A chief, leader, head man,

lord,          ,             . adj. Chief, excellent, noble.           .             a noble man, lord. Bilh. ii.

50.                                                       ,                ,          ,             ,       large

bushes. "                               ,                           ." Misc. iii. 22.           =              .

          mētill . v. n. To excel.                  . Medinī (f.) [Vedic medin an associate or companion

fr. mid in meaning to be friendly]              1 U. (         - ) 1 To associate with;                 ind.
Together, mutually (             );                                            Bhāg.11.6.14.      To love, feel
affection (Apte. Lexicon) Mettāyati [Denom. fr. mettā] to feel friendly, to show love, to be
benevolent A iv.151; DhsA 194; VbhA 75. With loc. to show friendship or be affectionate
towards J i.365; iii.96; Dāvs iii.34. Metta (adj. nt.) [cp. Vedic maitra "belonging to Mitra"; Epic
Sk. maitra "friendly," fr. mitra] friendly, benevolent, kind as adj. at D iii.191 (mettena kāya --
kammena etc.), 245 (˚ŋ vacī -- kammaŋ); as nt. for mettā in cpds. of mettā (cp. mettaŋsa) and by
itself at D i.227 (mettaŋ+cittaŋ), perhaps also at Sn 507. (Pali)
                       This glyhph on line 1 of the inscription on DK 8164 seal impression,
                       could be a phonetic determinant: kwal.el ‘smithy, temple in Kota village’
                       (Ko.); kwala.l Kota smithy (To.)(DEDR 2133). Vikalpa: mēṛsa = v.a. toss,
                       kick with the foot, hit with the tail (Santali.lex.) Rebus: mẽṛh t iron; ispat
                       m. = steel; dul m. = cast iron (Mu.); meḍ (Ho.) The glyptic scene is
                       decoded rebus: meḍ kol sal ‘iron, metal workshop’
sal ‘the Indian gaur, gaveus gaurus’; sal sakwa ‘a horn made from a horn of the gaur’ (Santali)
rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali)
Text 2279 Person throwing a spear at a buffalo and placing one foot on the head of the buffalo.
2279 seal impression, Mohenjo-daro (DK 8165); after Mackay 1938: pl.88, no.279 kolsa = to
kick the foot forward, the foot to come into contact with anything when walking or running;
kolsa pasirkedan = I kicked it over (Santali.lex.) kola = killing, e.g. āḍukola = woman-slaying
(Te.) Thus, homa kola = bison slaying. Rebus: hom = gold (Ka.) kol =metal (Ta.) kol sal ‘iron
Hamito-Semitic: *karr- ‘lamb’ > Bibl. Heb. kar ‘young ram’, Ugaritic kr ‘lamb’, Old Akkadian
kerru ‘ram’, Mari Akkadian karru ‘ram’, Akkad. Kirru ‘a breed of sheep’, Berber *-kVrar- >
Ahaggar e-krer, Nefusi a-krar ‘billy-goat’. (Aharon B. Dolgoposky, ‘Etymology of some
Hamito-Semitic (Afroasiatic) animal names’ in: Gabor Takacs, ed., 2003, Egyptian and Semito-
Hamitic (Afro-Asiatic) Studies: In Memoriam W. Vycichl, Leiden, Koninklijke Brill NV, p.429)
 Ta. ayil iron. Ma. ayir, ayiram any ore. Ka. aduru native metal. Tu. ajirda karba very hard
iron. (DEDR 192). áyas n. ʻ metal, iron ʼ RV. Pa. ayō nom. sg. n. and m., aya -- n. ʻ iron ʼ,
Pk. aya -- n., Si. Ya; Md. da ʻ iron ʼ, dafat ʻ piece of iron ʼ. (CDIAL 590). ayaskāṇḍa m.n. ʻ a
quantity of iron, excellent iron ʼ Pāṇ. gaṇ. [áyas -- , kāˊṇḍa -- ] Si. yakaḍa ʻ iron ʼ. (CDIAL 591).
ayo ‘iron’ (Ho.Mu.)
ayo ‘fish’ (G.Mu.) Ta. ayirai, acarai, acalai loach, sandy colour, Cobitis thermalis; ayilai a kind
of fish. Ma. ayala a fish, mackerel, scomber; aila, ayila a fish; ayira a kind of small fish,
loach.(DEDR 191).

Strong’s concordance: ayil: ram.
Original Word: Part of Speech: Noun Masculine Transliteration: ayil Phonetic Spelling: (ah'-
yil) Short Definition: ram

Brown-Driver-Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon:
156noun masculineGenesis 22:13 ram (as leader of flock, Late Hebrew & Aramaic id.,
Assyrian ailuDlW, Phoenician , =          rather than , compare CISl. p. 231) — ( ) Genesis
15:9 +; construct Exodus 29:22 +; plural            (    ,    ) Genesis 32:15 +;
construct     Genesis 31:38; Isaiah 60:7. —ram, http://concordances.org/hebrew/352.htm

Original Word: Lya Transliterated word: ‘ayil. Phonetic
spelling: ah’-yil

It is possible that the goat-fish composite hieroglyph on Susa ritual basin connoted ayo ‘metal’
by representing the sound aya, lya in Munda and Phoenician.

Sarasvati Research Center
April 18, 2012 kalyan97@gmail.com

 Most of the hieroglyphs of this note are discussed in S. Kalyanaraman, 2012, Indian
Hieroglyphs, Herndon, VA. http://tinyurl.com/cnelreb


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