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                                 COLLECTOR WELLS

                                          PART 9


          These methods involve boring into the earth using an
auger that is rotated by hand or machine. When the hole is
finished, it is typically cased with plastic, steel or concrete
pipe. The bore hole ranges in diameter from 2 to 30 inches and
can be up to 300 meters deep.


          In this method, the well is constructed by driving
assembled lengths of pipe into the ground by force of hammer or
machine. They can only be used in locations possessing
relatively loose soils, such as sand or gravel. The diameter is
typically not more than 5 cm and a depth of less than 8 meters
is expected. Although this is a simple and economical method,
the nature of the substrate means that the well is easily
contaminated from nearby surface sources.


          In this method, the well is constructed by rotary-
drilling or percussive machines in areas where aquifers are
capable of supplying water as quickly as it is pumped. This
means that the substrate can be more solid than for the Driven-
Point method, the diameter can be wider (10-15 cm), and the
depth can be up to 300 m. If casing is used, water can be
prevented from draining from the surface thus minimizing
contamination. Advanced well drills do not necessarily need to
be at 90 degrees to the surface and allow for flexible resource
location (Fig 12).
Figure 12: Drilling using a flexible resource location method.

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Description: Energy and water are central to sustainable development and poverty reduction efforts globally. They affect all aspects of development, whether social, economic, or environmental. Sustainable energy and water are core business in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in most developing countries. The eight goals that comprise the MDGs build on agreements made at United Nations conferences during the 1990s.1 They represent commitments by countries around the World to reduce poverty and hunger, and to tackle ill-health, gender inequality, lack of education, lack of access to clean water and environmental degradation.