How to write a business plan

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					How to write a business plan?

                Jianfeng Wu

         Guanghua School of Management
               Peking University
What is a business plan?

   A document that describes a new venture’s
    internal and external environment, and its
    –   Marketing plan;
    –   Financial plan;
    –   Manufacturing plan;
    –   Human resource plan;
    –   Etc.
        Who writes a business plan?

           The entrepreneur (yourself).
           Consultant.
                              Excellent   Good   Average   Poor

Accounting and tax

Marketing research

Human resources

Product design

Legal issues

Who will read a business plan?

   Potential employees
   Investors

   Banks

   Venture capitals

   Suppliers
   Customers
Three perspectives

1. Entrepreneur:
   - What I am going to do step by step?

2. Customer:
   - Is this product/service worth buying?

3. Investors:
   - Is this business worth investing?
Outline of a business plan
   Cover page
   Executive summary
   Environment & industry analysis
   Company summary
   Production plan
   Marketing plan
   Organizational plan
   Risk evaluation
   Financial plan
   Supporting documents
Cover Page

   Name and address of the new venture
   Name, phone, fax, email, website, and mail
    address of the entrepreneur
   Summary of the business
   Investment required
   Secrecy issue
Executive summary

   Last step in writing a plan
   Motivate investor’s interest
   2-3 pages
   Key issues:
    –   Business description
    –   All useful data to support this business idea
Environment and industry analysis
    Key questions:
    1.    Major trends in the economic, technological, legal, and public policy
    2.    Sales per year in the target industry (5-year data);
    3.    The growth potential of the target industry;
    4.    No. of new ventures in the target industry in the past 3 years;
    5.    New products in the target industry;
    6.    Who are your direct competitors?
    7.    How to compete with your competitors?
    8.    How are your competitors doing in terms of performance?
    9.    What are the (dis)advantages of your competitors?
    10.   How about the future trend in your target niche market?
    11.   How about your potential customers?
    12.   Any differences between your customers and your rivals’?
Company summary
   Mission
   Why do you want to enter this industry?
   Why do you think you will succeed?
   What are your products and services?
   Where is your company located?
   How to find your office building?
   Is the location effective for your business?
   What kind of equipments do you need? Buy or rent?
   What kind of experiences do you have?
   Production plan
   Marketing plan (4Ps)
    –   Target customers
   Organizational plan
    –   Organizational form (China-specific)
    –   Ownership structure
    –   Organizational structure
    –   Top management team and compensation
Risk evaluation

   What are the potential risks?
   If happen, what kind of negative outcomes?
   How to cope with these risks?
Financial plan

   Sales and expenses forecasting in the first
    three years;
   Cash flow
    –   For the first year, use monthly data;
   Income statement, balance sheet

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