Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne by jennyyingdi


									Conditions of Learning - Robert Gagne
Susan Wall
University of Phoenix
CUR 558
August 13, 2005
Robert Gagne (1916-2002)
 • PhD in Psychology – Brown University (1940)
 • Professor, Connecticut College (1940-49)
 • Professor, Penn State University (1945-46)
 • Director, US Air Force Perceptual and Motor Skills
   Laboratory (1949-58)
 • Professor, Dept of Education Research, Florida
   State University (1969-2002)
 • Conditions of Learning (1965-1985)
 • Co-Developer of ISD
Conditions of Learning Overview
 • Several levels of learning
 • Instructional events and corresponding cognitive
 • Different types of learning require different types
   of instruction
 • Theory focuses on intellectual skills
    – Hierarchy of learning tasks
 • Classified as a Cognitivist Theory:
    – Uses internal mental processes
    – Student develops capacity and skills to learn better
    – Teacher structures the content of the learning activity
Levels of Learning

 • Gagne identified 5 learning outcomes or
 • Levels determine how learning is
   –   Verbal Information
   –   Intellectual Skills
   –   Cognitive Strategies
   –   Motor Skills
   –   Attitudes
Hierarchy of Intellectual Skills
 • Learning tasks for intellectual skills are organized
   in a hierarchy based on complexity:
    –   Stimulus recognition
    –   Response generation
    –   Procedure following
    –   Use of terminology
    –   Discriminations
    –   Concept formation
    –   Rule application
    –   Problem solving
 • Aids in identifying prerequisites and proper
   sequence of instructional events
 • Requires task analysis
Instructional Events

 • Basis for instructional design and media
 • Gagne’s events are similar to Skinner’s
   idea of sequential learning
 • Sequence provides logical progression of
   – Engages learners
   – Keeps learners focused
 • Corresponding cognitive process
Instructional Events (Cognitive Process)

 1. Gaining attention (reception)
 2. Providing the objective (expectancy)
 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning
 4. Presenting the stimulus (selective
 5. Providing guidance (semantic encoding)

                                     Slide 1 of 2
Instructional Events (Cognitive Process)

 6.   Eliciting performance (responding)
 7.   Providing feedback (reinforcement)
 8.   Assessing performance (retrieval)
 9.   Enhancing retention and transfer

                                           Slide 2 of 2
Impact to Curriculum Design

 • Applied in all domains
 • Sequencing events makes design simpler
   and logical
 • Instructional events provide guidance to
 • Corresponding cognitive processes create
   event expectations
 • Sequence is adaptive and flexible
Applications to Adult Learning

 • Helps learners learn how to learn
 • Adults are more intellectually prepared to
   engage perception, insight, and meaning
 • Professional learning environments often
   require sequential learning
 • Classroom learning and hands-on
 • Instructional events are applicable to the
   ISD process


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