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Preparing Children For Disasters

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					                                     Preparing Children For Disasters

This information will help you prepare and protect yourself and your children in case of a disaster. It will
help you provide for your children’s basic physical and emotional needs, before, during and after
disaster strikes.

Disasters can happen quickly and without warning. These events are frightening for adults, but they can
be traumatic for children. As a parent, you will need to cope with the disaster in a way that will prevent
your children from developing a sense of loss.

You know what’s best for your children, but consider using the suggestions listed below as a baseline.

What Parents Should know

        Children may have different reactions and feelings in response to a disaster. They may need
        special attention from you.
        The two most common signs of distress in children are changes in behavior and behavior
        regression. A behavioral change is any unusual behavior he/she exhibits. For example, an
        outgoing child may become very shy. When children demonstrate regressive behavior, they act
        younger than they are, such as thumb-sucking or baby-talking.
        Children may experience different reactions and feelings based on their age.
        Speak your child’s language
            o Children might not understand everything that’s going on, but they can pick up on your
                 worries. So explain things to your young children using works that they understand.
                 Don’t tell them any of the scary details though.
        Let your child ask questions
            o Letting your child ask questions and express their opinions is important. Answer all their
                 questions calmly and, again, don’t go into a lot of detail that might be scary or
                 traumatizing for them. Provide different opportunities for children to talk. They will
                 probably have more questions as time goes on.
        Let your children know they are safe
            o Tell them about policemen, firemen and other rescue personnel who are there to help
                 during a disaster, and not to be afraid of them.

Preparing Children For Disaster

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), involving children is the first step in
helping them know what to do in an emergency.

Children can help keep the family’s emergency supply kit up-to-date. They can make calendars and
mark the dates for checking emergency supplies, rotating the emergency food and water every six
months and replacing batteries.

Child might also enjoy preparing plans and disaster kits for their pets.
What Children Should Know

        How to call 911 and other emergency numbers – and when it is OK to do so
        Who to contact during/after a disaster if they cannot get in touch with you
        Where your family will meet in case you are not together
        Their first and last names, telephone number and address
        Your first and last names

Activity Survival Kits

You can have your children put together their own “Activity Survival Kits” so that they will have things to
do and share with other kids. They can keep it in a backpack or duffle bag; make sure it’s not too heavy
for them to carry. Some suggested items include:

        A few favorite books
        Crayons, pencils or markers and paper
        Scissors and glue
        Two favorite toys like a doll or action figure
        One or two board games
        A deck of cards
        A puzzle
        Small figures and vehicles – like an ambulance, fire truck, etc. – to play out what is happening
        during the exercise.
        Favorite stuffed animal
        Favorite blanket or pillow
        Pictures of the family and pet
        A box with a few treasures that make them feel special

Emergency Supply Kits For Children

Customize your emergency kit to meet your family’s basic survival needs for at least 72-96 hours.
Detailed lists of emergency supply kit contents can be at

        Department of Homeland Security: www.ready.gov/american
        FEMA: www.fema.gov/areyouready

In addition to the recommended items you’ll need in your family’s supply kit, you also have to think
about the special items you will need for your infants or young children.

Items for Infants

        Formula (bottled water to mix formula), liquid formula, powdered milk, baby food
        Clean bottles, pacifiers
        Diapers, disposable wipes, diaper rash ointment, plastic bags
        Clothing, jackets, socks AND shoes
        Bibs, blankets
        Medications not requiring refrigeration, such as infant Tylenol®, Advil®, Benadryl®
        Baby lotion, shampoo, soap and sunscreen
        Toys

Items for Children

        Books, board games, puzzles, dolls, action figures, stuffed animals
        MP3 player/iPod;
        Portable DVD player, DVDs
        Extra clothes and shoes
        Mittens, scarf, jacket
        Comfort food, hard candy, crackers, granola bars, dried fruit
        Paper with home address, phone number and parents’ names (emergency contact card)
        Toothbrush, toothpaste
        Small first-aid kit with bandages, children’s Tylenol®, Advil®, and Benadryl®
        Pictures of the family and pet

Make sure that you replace formula, food, medications and creams in your infant’s or children’s
emergency kits every six months. Check the expiration dates.

School Emergency Plans

It may not be safe to pick up your child from school or daycare during a disaster. Know what your child’s
daycare or school’s emergency plan is.

Know the situations for which they stay in place or go somewhere else.

Find out if they are prepared to shelter-in-place (stay indoors until the emergency passes) and where
they plan to go if they must get away. Know how to contact them in an emergency.

Do they store enough food, water and other emergency supplies?

If you have children enrolled in daycare or school, you need to know what will happen if they experience
a:

        Shelter-in-place situation
        Facility evacuation
        Lock-down because of an outside threat
        Power Outage
        Hazardous materials emergency
        Water or heat loss
        Bomb threat or receive a suspicious article or message
        Missing child Relocation to another site
Questions to Ask

                How will parents be notified in an emergency situation?
                What is the evacuation process?
                Do they have an emergency e-mail notification system?

Make sure the school and daycare have your current contact information, and know the best way to
reach you or other people authorized to pick up your child in case you can’t get there.

Information to Provide

        Work, cell, home, pager and fax numbers
        E-mail address(es)
        Authorization cards for other adults to pick up your child
        Name of the person(s) permitted to contact your child if you can’t

Tell your child that if an emergency happens while they are at daycare/school that it is important for
them to stay calm and listen to their teachers.

If your child takes prescription medication, ask if several does may be stored in the nurse’s office and
about the procedure to ensure that your child will get his/her medication during an emergency.

Infant Care

Caring for infants during a disaster can be difficult because you might lack access to the safe drinking
water needed to prepare formula and to clean bottles. Other basic supplies might be hard to come by.

During a Disaster

Keep a copy of your baby’s medical and immunization records with you. Also have the contact
information for your health care providers. Infants should continue to receive their scheduled vaccines.

Packing Checklist

        Several pacifiers and bottles
        Diapers, disposable wipes, diaper rash ointment, plastic bags
        Bibs, blankets, extra clothing
        Toys
        Baby lotion, shampoo, soap, sunscreen
        Food/formula
        Rectal thermometer and lubricant
        Non-aspirin liquid pain reliever

Feeding During a Disaster

Breastfeeding is the best feeding option. Even when experiencing diarrhea, food-borne illness or
extreme stress, breastfeeding mothers will produce enough milk.
If the baby is formula-fed, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend the
following after a natural disaster or power outage:

        Use ready-to-feed formula if possible.
        Use bottled water to prepared powdered or liquid concentrated infant formula.
        If bottled water is not available, use boiled water. Use treated water (treated with chlorine or
        iodine to disinfect it per manufactures’ directions) to prepare infant formula only if bottled or
        boiled water is not available.

After a Disaster

During emergencies, babies have a greater need for the immunizing qualities and comfort provided by
breastfeeding.

If you cannot breastfeed:

        Pre-prepared formula is recommended because of concerns about water safety.
        Have a supply of single-serving, ready-to-feed formula on-hand. Remember to throw away the
        formula that the baby does not drink if you cannot refrigerate it.

For more information on breastfeeding during/after disasters, visit the La Leche League website:
www.illi.org

Parent Stress

Caring for an infant during an emergency situation can be very stressful. To help calm yourself:

        Find someone to talk to a few times a day.
        Find a quiet spot to clear your mind of worries.
        Take deep breaths from your belly.
        If you’re a woman, breastfeed. When you breastfeed, your body creates calming hormones.

Pregnant Women

If you’re pregnant, being prepared can help you avoid stress and put you in a better position to handle
emergencies.

        Talk to your health care provider about:
            o What you should do in any emergency.
            o Where you will get prenatal care.
            o Where you will deliver your baby if your hospital is closed.
        Make a backup plan for getting to the hospital or health care center.
        Pack any medication or prenatal vitamins you have been taking during the course of your
        pregnancy.
        Keep your health insurance identification card with you.
Being Displaced

If you’re staying in a shelter or in temporary housing:

        Tell the staff at the shelter or temporary housing that you are pregnant or if you think you might
        be pregnant.
        Continue your prenatal care – even with a different provider.
        Tell the health care providers about any special needs or health problems that you have, as well
        as any medicines you might be taking (both over-the-counter and prescription).
        If you don’t have your prescription medicines with you, ask the shelter’s staff for assistance in
        getting them.

During and After a Disaster

        Drink plenty of water and rest often.
        Seek prenatal care, even if it is not with your usual provider.
        If you don’t have your prescription medicines with you, ask the shelter’s staff for assistance in
        getting them.
        If you are pregnant or might be pregnant, be especially careful to avoid infections or toxins that
        may be in the environment. You can lessen the chance of getting an infection by washing your
        hands often and encouraging others to cover their coughs.
        Preparing for and recovering from a disaster can be stressful. You may be taking care of loved
        ones, but it is especially important for pregnant women to find healthy ways to reduce the
        stress they feel.
        If you are feeling stressed or sad because of the disaster, talk to others and share your thoughts
        and feelings. You are not alone.

If you have any signs of preterm labor, call your health care provider or 911, or go to the hospital
immediately.

Children’s Reactions to Emergencies

Disasters can leave children feeling frightened, confused and insecure. Whether a child has personally
experienced trauma, has seen the event on television or has heard it discussed by adults, it is important
for parents and teachers to be informed and ready to help if reactions to stress occur.

Children may respond to disaster by showing fear, sadness or behavioral problems. Younger children
may display regressive behavior, such as bedwetting, sleep problems or separation anxiety. Older
children may display anger or aggression and experience school problems or withdrawal.

Who is at Risk?

For many children, reactions to disasters are brief and normal considering the “abnormal events.” A few
children can be at risk for more serious psychological problems if they have experienced one or more of
the following:
    1. Direct exposure to the disaster, such as being evacuated, seeing injuries or deaths of others or
       experiencing injury or fearing for their life.
    2. The death or serious injury of a family member or friend.
    3. Stress from the secondary effects of a disaster, such as temporarily living elsewhere and losing
       friends and social networks.

                                         Age-Specific Reactions

Birth through    Infants may react to trauma by being irritable, crying more than usually or wanting to
2 years          be held and cuddled.
Preschool – 3    Preschool children often feel helpless and powerless during an overwhelming event.
through 6        As a result, they feel fear and insecurity about being separated from caregivers.
years            Preschoolers cannot understand the idea of permanent loss.

                 In the weeks following a traumatic event, preschoolers’ play activities may reenact the
                 incident or the disaster over and over again.
School age – 7   The school-age child has the ability to understand the permanence of loss. Some
through 10       children become intensely preoccupied with the details of a traumatic event and want
years            to talk about it continually.

                 They may display a wide range of reactions: sadness, generalized fear or specific fears
                 of the disaster happening again, guilt over action or inaction during the disaster, anger
                 that the event was not prevented or fantasies of playing rescuer.
Pre-adoles-      As children grow older, they develop a more sophisticated understanding of the
cence to         disaster event. Their responses are more similar to adults.
adolescence
11 through 18    Teenagers may become involved in dangerous, risk-taking behaviors, such as reckless
years            driving, or alcohol or drug use. Others can become fearful of leaving home and avoid
                 previous levels of activities. A teenager may feel overwhelmed by intense emotions
                 and yet feel unable to discuss them with others.


Meeting the child’s emotional needs

Children’s reactions are influenced by the behavior, thoughts and feelings of adults. Adults should:

        Encourage children and adolescents to share their thoughts and feelings about the incident.
        Clarify misunderstandings about risk and danger by listening to children’s concerns and
        answering questions.
        Maintain a sense of calm by validating children’s concerns and perceptions, and with discussion
        of concrete plans for safety.

Listen to what the child is saying. If a young child is asking questions about the event, answer them
simply without going into the detail needed for an older child or adult. Some children are comforted by
knowing more or less information than others; decide what level of information your particular child
needs. If a child has difficulty expressing feelings, allow the child to draw a picture or tell a story of what
happened.

Why are they scared?

Try to understand what is causing anxieties and fears. Be aware that following a disaster, children are
most afraid that:

        The event will happen again.
        Someone close to them will be killed or injured.
        They will be left alone or separated from their family.

Reassuring Children After a Disaster

        Personal contact is reassuring. Hug your children.
        Calmly provide factual information about the recent disaster and current plans for ensuring their
        safety. Include them in the recovery plans.
        Encourage your children to talk about their feelings.
        Spend extra time with your children, such as at bedtime.
        Reestablish your daily routine for work, school, play, meals and rest.
        Involve your children by giving them specific chores to encourage them to feel they are helping
        to restore family and community life.
        Praise and recognize responsible behavior.
        Understand that your children will have a range of reactions to disasters.
        Encourage your children to help update your family disaster plan.

If you have tried to create a reassuring environment by following the steps above, but your child
continues to show signs of stress, if the reactions worsen over time or if they cause interference with
daily behavior at schools, at home or with other relationships, you may need to talk to a professional.
You can get professional help from the child’s primary care physician, a mental health provider
specializing in children’s needs or a member of the clergy.

Transitioning to a New School

Depending on how serious the disaster was, it is common for families to be moved away (displaced)
from their homes for a period of time. When this is the case, it is important for children to experience
some degree of normalcy by going back to their regular school-day routine as soon as possible.

The importance of school after a disaster

After a disaster, school is more than just about learning. It’s a place where children can feel safe, play
with friends and return to how life was before the disaster. It can provide them with a sense of comfort
and stability during time of transition.
School is also a place where parents can find support and get information on their new community, if
they’ve been displaced.

What if we’ve been displaced to a different community?

No matter where you’re staying for the time being, your children can be enrolled in school.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act states that children and youth who are living in
temporary housing can go to school. This includes public preschools.

Every district has a Local Homeless Education Liaison (also known as a McKinney-Vento Project
Coordinator) who can help enroll your children.

A staff member at the school can put you in touch with a Project Coordinator or you can call the
National Center for Homeless Education at 1-800-308-2145.

Helping Children adjust to relocation

Relocating after a disaster creates unique challenges for the children in any family. Children are
impacted by the reactions of their parents and other family members, how long they have to relocate
and their ability to stay in touch with friends and other familiar people.

To help your child(ren) cope with your family’s relocation, you should:

                Give your child the opportunity to meet new friends.
                Bring along personal items that your child values.
                Establish some daily routines (like returning to school as soon as possible).
                Be sensitive to the disruption that relocation may cause and respond to your child’s
                needs.
                Encourage your child to talk about his/her concerns and fears.

Parent Self-Care

The ways children cope with disasters or emergencies are often tied to the ways their parents cope.
They can pick up on adults’ fears and sadness. Parents are always the best source of support for
children in disasters. Parents can make disasters less traumatic for children by taking steps to manage
their own feeling and plans for coping.

Easing Disaster-Related Stress

Here are some ways to ease your disaster-related stress:

        Talk with someone about your feelings – anger, sorrow and other emotions – even though it
        may be difficult.
        Get help from professional counselors who deal with post-disaster stress.
        Do not hold yourself responsible for the disastrous event or be frustrated because you feel you
        cannot help directly in the rescue work.
        Take steps to promote your own physical and emotional healing by healthy eating, rest,
        exercise, relaxation and medication.
        Maintain a normal family and daily routine, limiting demanding responsibilities on yourself and
        your family.
        Spend time with family and friends.
        Ensure you are ready for future events by restocking your disaster supply kits and updating your
        family disaster plan.

Doing these positive actions can be comforting.

Use Support Networks

Parents help their children when they take steps to understand and manage their own feelings and ways
of coping. They can do this by building and using social support systems of family, friends, community
organizations and agencies, faith-based institutions, or other resources that work for that family. As a
result, parents will be more available to their children and better able to support them.

Preparing for disaster helps everyone in the family accept the fact that disasters do happen, and gives
you the chance to collect the resources you need to meet your basic needs after a disaster. Preparation
helps: When people feel prepared the cope better – and so do children.

Additional Resources

You and your family are not alone when disaster strikes. Refer to the following resources for additional
information and support

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
www.fema.gov

Ready America
www.ready.gov

Ready Kids
www.ready.gov/kids

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Emergency Preparedness and Response
http://emergency.cdc.gov

American Red Cross
www.redcross.org

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
http://phe.gov/preparedness

National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) 1-800-308-2145
http://center.serve.org/nche
Disclaimer: The information provided above is derived from original Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) material and recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The text is an edited and abridged version of
multiple disaster recovery publications.

Ogle County Emergency Management Agency is not liable for any accidents, injuries, material or
moral damages that may occur from using the information contained in this above information, or
from any omissions in disaster recovery information.

				
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