Bilingual Education (PowerPoint)

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					¡Capacitación Bilingüe Para
    Todos Los Niños!

Dr. Leo Gómez, Associate Professor/Assistant Dean
College of Education, The University of Texas Pan American

Dr. Richard Gómez Jr., State Director
Migrant & Bilingual Education, OSPI, State of Washington

Dr. José Agustin Ruiz-Escalante, Associate Professor
College of Education, The University of Texas-Permian Basin

                         February 23, 2001
                    Phoenix, Arizona - NABE 2001
    Equality of Educational Opportunity

   Eng. Speaker: PK       K 1     2   3   4   5
     – (Communicative Base)

   Span. Speaker: PK      K 1     2   3   4   5
     – (Communicative Base)

 Academic Content-Areas
 Language Development (L1 & L2)
 Cultural Relevance, Experiences, etc.
 Standardized Testing---TAAS
Three Perspectives on Language

   Language as a Problem
           not valid, associated with poverty, deficient
           underachievement, negative perception
           educational/societal problem, no social value

   Language as a Resource
           co-existence of national and linguistic diversity
           economic benefit/upward mobility

   Language as a Right
           right to freedom of expression, self-identity
           preservation of cultural & linguistic heritage
           equal educational & societal opportunity
      Purpose of Bilingual Education

 Instruction in the Learner’s L1 to Promote:
   – conceptual development in all subjects (keep up w/peers)
   – the communicative proficiency which underlies both 1st and 2nd
     language development

 Two Types of Language Proficiency:
   – BICS: Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (2-3)
        basic commands, social conversation, communicative fluency

   – CALP: Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (5-7)
        reading, writing, content-based, sophisticated language
 Transitional Early Exit Models

 TBE  is a Deficit Model
 Early Transition from L1 to L2
  (2-3 years of L1 instruction)
 Development of BICS within two years
  prompts educators to transition early.
  However, still no development of CALP
 Concurrent translation commonly used due to
  push for early English acquisition
 Transitional Late Exit Models

 Late Transition from L1 to L2
  (4-5 years of L1 instruction)
 Assures the development of CALP
  proficiency for language transfer
 Conceptual development in L1 for
  acquisition of L2
 Emphasis is placed on valuing and
  developing the native language and culture
     Goal of Transitional Model

   Transitional models of bilingual education practice
    subtractive bilingualism
 Deficit model encourages remediation
 Children are asked to set aside or subtract their
  native language and assimilate to the more
  prestigious/dominant English language
 Children’s native language not valued and not
  academically developed
  Goal of Two-Way Model

 Two-Way    Models of bilingual education are
 Additive Models-Develop Biliteracy
 Additive model encourages enrichment,
  challenging curriculum and high expectations
 Children are provided the opportunity to add
  one or more languages (CALP level)
 Children’s native language valued &
  academically developed (CALP)
     Interdependence Hypothesis

A  learner who has mastered the basics of
 reading, writing and thinking in the L1 will
 transfer these skills and knowledge and
 perform well in the L2.
  Threshold #1: Limited Bilinguals

 At this level, learners exhibit low levels of
  competence in both languages, with
  negative cognitive effects on academic
 Early Exit TBE models typically produce
  students at this level
Threshold #2: Less Balanced Bilinguals

 At this level, learners exhibit age-
  appropriate competence in one, but not
  two languages, with no positive or
  negative cognitive consequences on
 Late Exit TBE models typically produce
  students at this level
Threshold #3: Balanced Bilinguals

 At this level, learners exhibit age-
  appropriate competence in both languages,
  with positive cognitive effects on learning
 Two-Way models typically produce
  students at this level
Consistency in Language

 Effective   language development in any
 language requires consistency in that
 language in order to move the learner
 from communicative proficiency to
 academic proficiency.
 Two-Way Model Characteristics

 Program       must be implemented at least
  4-6 years
 Extensive exposure and use of the two
 Language development must focus on
  academic subjects (learn specific content-areas in English
  or Spanish)

 Integration  of content-areas with language
  arts curriculum
  Two-Way Model Characteristics (Continued)

 Separation   of languages for instruction
 Equal   consistency in the use of each language
 Total school climate must reflect a bilingual/
  biliterate atmosphere
 Close balance of two language groups in each
  classroom is ideal, but not necessary
    Two-Way Model Characteristics             (Continued)

 Students provided with ample opportunities to use
  both languages (listening, speaking, reading &
 Administrative support (campus/district)
 Instruction should challenge and empower
  students (high expectations-gifted program)
 High quality bilingually proficient teachers, or ESL
  certified teachers
 Active home school collaboration/ support (parents
  actively involved)
  Two-Way Model Benefits

 Native   Language & Cultural Development as
  a Right
 Both Spanish and English Valued Equally
 Bilingualism for Both the Spanish and
  English Speaker
 Not Remedial, but Enrichment and
  Challenging, Additive
 High Levels of Language & Cultural
  Proficiency (Balanced)
   Two-Way Model Benefits                 (Continued)

 Cognitive Advantages        for Future Learning
  (Future Academic Success)

             and Respect of one's own
 Appreciation
 Language & Culture
 Valueand Respect of one's Language &
 Culture by Others
 Economic   Advantages (Job Opportunities, NAFTA)
    Two-Way Model Research

   For language minority students schooled in the U. S.
    from kindergarten through 5th grade, the Two-Way
    Developmental Bilingual Education Model is the
    most successful, as measured by standardized tests
    across all subject areas

   When students schooled bilingually (two-way),
    rather than focus on L2, there is greater academic
    achievement (Virginia Collier & Wayne Thomas, 1997)

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