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Galtung's Center-Periphery Model


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									  Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model
                   center     cities; rich, elites, multi-nationals
                                      Richest 10 % in the First World take 29% of

                                      total national incomes. USA, the richest 20%
                                      consume 60%; the poorest 20% consume 3%.

 First world      periphery       rural areas; workers, farmers, poor
                                        Poorest 10% in the First World get
                                        2.5 % of total national incomes.
                   center     cities; rich, elites, companies
                                       Richest 10% of Latin Americans

                                       take 48% of total national
                                       incomes. Brazil: 3% of pop (190
                                       million) own 66% of arable land.
Third world,      periphery            35,000 families control 50% of
& since 1990,                          farmland.

Second world                    rural areas; workers, farmers, poor
countries                        Poorest 10% of Latin Americans get
                                 1.6% of total national incomes.
       Galtung’s Center-Periphery
            Model Examples
Center-center: all of the US intelligence budget & 40 % of the
defense budget is secret. CIA devoted $28 billion to study the
Soviet Union (USSR), yet in the 1980s they never noticed the
economic collapse of the USSR.
Center-center: US budget for international affairs: 93% to
Pentagon; 7% to State Department.
Center-center: 1.4 million US military people around the world in
725 military bases from Iceland to Japan.
Center-center: British empire on the eve of the World War I had a
trade surplus of 7% of GDP; USA, for the last 15 years, has had a
trade deficit of 5% every year – imperial overreach?center
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model

Three Stages of Imperialism
  1) plunder
  2) barter                                     In 2008, 72 % of Americans haggled compared
                                                with 56 % in 2007. They were successful about
  3) monetary exchange:                         80 % of the time.

  Since World War II, the USA has dominated world
  financial institutions, such as the World Bank and
  Internal Monetary Fund (IMF), world trade
  organizations (GATT and WTO), and regional trade
  associations (NAFTA and FTAA).

  Meanwhile, illegal, or underground, economies play important
  roles: 8% of GDP in USA; 25% in Greece; 22% in Italy
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model
Five Types of Imperialism
1) economic:
  A) U.S. blockades of Cuba and Nicaragua in violation of
  United Nation resolutions
  B) U.S. security inspections in major ports around the world
  (Would the U.S. allow other countries to inspects its ports?)
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model
Five Types of Imperialism
2) political: Chile, 1973 – 400 USA CIA agents assisted
  Augusto Pinochet, commander-in-chief of the army, to kill
  President Salvador Allende and overthrow his freely elected
  socialist government. U.S. Secretary of State Henry
  Kissinger said: “Chilean people were irresponsible in voting
  for Allende”!
3) military: U.S. invasions of Vietnam ($500 billion),
  Panama (3,000 killed), Grenada, Afghanistan and Iraq
  ($1 trillion)

          over 730 military bases around the world
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model
Five Types of Imperialism
4) communication, e.g., U.S. computer expertise, air travel
  are all in English (heritage of the British empire)
5) cultural, e.g., movies, music:
 U.S. movies 83% of global cinema box-office revenues
 U.S. software is so popular that much of it is illegally
  copied in countries like China, India, Russia, and Brazil.
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model
Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model
Summary of US Imperialism in Latin America
Mexico lost about half its territory to the United States in the war of
 1846-48. Only 11% of the Mexicans have mainly a favorable view
 USA. Cubans resent the United States ever since 1898, when their
 hard- and long-fought war of independence against Spain was stolen
 from them by the yanquis in the Spanish-American War.

The United States had made some 30 military interventions in and
 around the Caribbean by the early 20th century, many of them under
 Smedley Butler, a marine corps general, who summed up his career
 and the attitude of the USA government:
 “I helped make Honduras “right” for American fruit companies in
 1903. I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914.
 I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City
 Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a
 dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I
 helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of
 Brown Brothers in 1909-12. I brought light to the Dominican
 Republic for American sugar interests in 1916.”

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