Stabilized Anthocyanin Compositions - PDF

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Stabilized Anthocyanin Compositions - PDF Powered By Docstoc
Description: The invention relates generally to methods and compositions useful to stabilize anthocyanins and anthocyanidins.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments which are responsible for the attractive colors of many flowers, fruit and leaves. Generally, they can be extracted from plants by acidified alcoholic solvents and many are available commercially as foodcolorants. They are often supplied with malto dextrin as a diluent in a concentration suitable for inclusion in beverages or other foods such as cereals. Anthocyanidines, the aglyconic component of anthocyanins, have a basic structure as shown in Formula I. ##STR00001## Typical examples are: cyanidin (hydroxylated at positions 3, 5, 7, 3', 4'), delphinidin (hydroxylated at positions 3, 5, 7, 4', 5') and pelargonidin (hydroxylated at positions 3, 5, 7, 3'). The hydroxyl groups are usually glycosylated (e.g., ananthocyanin) and/or methoxylated (e.g. malvidin is substituted at the 3' and 5' hydroxyl groups and paeonidin and petunidin are substituted at the 3' hydroxyl group). Anthocyanins are water-soluble glycosides of polyhydroxyl and polymethoxyl derivatives of 2-phenylbenzopyrylium or flavylium salts. Individual anthocyanins differ in the number of hydroxyl groups present in the molecule, the degree ofmethylation of these hydroxyl groups, the nature, number and location of sugars attached to the molecule and the number and the nature of aliphatic or aromatic acids attached to the sugars in the molecule. Hundreds of anthocyanins have been isolated andchemically characterized by spectrometric tools. Cyanidins and their derivatives are the most common anthocyanins present in vegetables, fruits and flowers. Anthocyanins share a basic carbon skeleton in which hydrogen, hydroxyl or methoxyl groups can be found in six different positions as noted above. In fruits and vegetables, six basic anthocyanin compounds predominate, differing both in thenumber of hydroxyl groups present on the carb