# Master actions and calculations by tangshuming

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```									The Carbon Cutter Tool:
This spreadsheet is designed to provide an approximate value for the carbon savings associated with each of the Acti
the emissions savings sometimes include other greenhouse gases, as well as carbon dioxide, all the associated emissi
Warming Potential (GWP) of the other greenhouse gases. This unit is Carbon Dioxide Equivalent or CO

Going Carbon Neutral Stirling engages individuals, groups and businesses from many walks of life and so assumptions
the average individual, household or business. It is important to remember that, therefore, that whilst considerable
only ever be indicative of the savings achieved i.e. they will give a rough idea of how big or small the saving will be an

This workbook contains the following pages:

Introduction + How to Use:
how each value was evaluated .

Actions + Assumptions:
This page contains the actions listed by Action Code, giving the Action description in full as shown in the Carbon Cutt
kilograms CO2-e per week. As noted above, to make this tool as relevenat to as many differnet groups as possible, g
calculated; this page lists the assumptions used in the calculation of the savings for each Action.

Calculations:
This page contains the actions listed by Action Code, and sets out the workings behind every estimated saving. Every
possible so every variable used to calculate an emission saving appears in the relevant equation. This also allows th
publicly available. The emission savings are shown as both kilograms CO2-e per week and the aggregated figure of to

References:
This page contains a complete list of all the resources and sources used in calculating the savings for each Action. Ea
column on the Calculations sheet to link the assumptions and data used in each equation to their sources.

Standard Factors:
All the variables that are used in more than one equation are listed in this page. The Calculation page is linked to thi
becomes available.
arbon savings associated with each of the Actions outlined in the Going Carbon Neutral Stirling Carbon Cutter Plans. As
ell as carbon dioxide, all the associated emissions savings have been converted to a common unit based on the Global
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent or CO2-e.

es from many walks of life and so assumptions have had to be used in determining the average saving for each Action for
mber that, therefore, that whilst considerable research has gone into the development of these values , these values can
h idea of how big or small the saving will be and which Actions will produce the biggest savings.

ines the contents of each page within the workbook, and a brief summary of how to use the calculations page to review

escription in full as shown in the Carbon Cutter Plans, and details the associated carbon saving for each Action in
nat to as many differnet groups as possible, general assumptions have been made to enable an average saving to be
savings for each Action.

orkings behind every estimated saving. Every effort has been made to ensure each calculation is as transparent as
in the relevant equation. This also allows the equations to be updated as new data or more information becomes
e per week and the aggregated figure of tonnes CO2-e per year.

in calculating the savings for each Action. Each reference has a unique code; these codes are also used in the Reference
d in each equation to their sources.

his page. The Calculation page is linked to this page to allow these variables to be updated easily when new data
Action Code   Action                                                                                                   Assumptions
Savings per week (kg)
Switch off lights in rooms that aren’t being used (6-11 pm during week and 8                          This calculation assumes the household already uses energy efficient Compact Fluorescent Light bulbs (CFLs) and represents
am to 11pm on weekends).                                                                              the savings from switching off one 12 watt light bulb from the hours of 6-11 pm during the week, and from 8 am to 11pm on
E101                                                                                                          0.359 the weekends.
Switch off lights in offices that aren’t being used. (7pm-7am during the week                         This represents the savings from switching off office lights from 7 pm to 7 am during the week and for 24 hours at the
and 24hours at the weekend)                                                                           weekend. This assumes that an average office has 12 lamps and that they are 28 W TL5 fluorescent tube lamps.
E101(ii)                                                                                                     19.747
Change light bulbs to low energy bulbs                                                                This represents the savings from replacing 3 GE 60w bulbs with 3 compact fluorescent 12w energy efficient bulbs.
E102                                                                                                          4.388
If you'd like any free bulbs please write the number of people in the group in
E103          the box below                                                                                   0.000
Switch all electrical equipment off at the wall when not in use.                                         This is the combined saving of switching off the following devices: LCD TV, Digital TV Set Top Box, Sony Play station, and Home
Cinema. The calculation assumes that devices are off rather than on standby for 18hours per day during the week and 10
hours per day at the weekend.
E104                                                                                                          1.257
Unplug any chargers once they have finished charging.                                                    This represents the saving when a nokia charger is unplugged rather than being left plugged in between 7am and 10pm when it
is not charging, seven days per week.
E105                                                                                                          0.029
When boiling the kettle, use only the amount of water that you need.
This reflects the reduced electricity used from boiling one cup (350ml) rather than a full kettle and assumes the average person
makes tea 3 times per day, 7 days per week.

E106                                                                                                          1.486
Defrost your fridge and freezer                                                                          This assumes that the fridge-freezer will be 'regularly' defrosted throughout the year. The source does not specify what
'regular' constitutes.
E107                                                                                                          0.192
Clean the condenser coils at the back of your fridge                                                  This represents the savings from that cleaning the condenser coils of an average SMEG fridge every three months will decrease
E108                                                                                                          0.402 energy consumption of the fridge by 30%.
Use a single lamp to illuminate only the area you are using, rather than                              This calculation is based on replacing three overhead 60w lamps with one 40w desktop lamp.
E109          lighting up the whole room or office.                                                           4.190
Switch your computer/monitor off every night AND every time you are away                              This represents the savings from switching off one computer with an LCD monitor for 15 hours overnight, one hour at lunch, a
E110          for a long period of time                                                                       8.034 total of one hour for the rest of the day (meetings, etc.), and 24 hours at the weekend.
E111          Use the stairs instead of the lift at home and at work                                          4.144 If you'd like any free bulbs please write the number of people in the group in the box below
Change to: Get an energy monitor. Instead of: Consider getting an energy                              This assumes the average household in Scotland consumes 4800 kWh of electricity per year and that installing an energy
E112          monitor.                                                                                        2.512 monitor leads to a 5% savings of electricity consumption.
Switch off office equipment at night                                                                  This represents the savings from switching off 2 computers, 2 CRT monitors, and 1 laser printer. NB: this savings is not
E113                                                                                                         44.536 reflective of one person, but rather of an entire office.
Ensure your fridge/freezer are operating at the correct temperatures.                                 This represents the savings of increasing your fridge temperature by 1 degree Celsius which translates to a 7.8 % savings in
E114                                                                                                          0.367 energy efficiency.
Reduce the use of electric fans on hot days.                                                          This reflects the saving of reducing use of 12 inch pedestal electric fan (45w) by 4 hours and assumes there are 30 'hot days' on
E115                                                                                                          0.057 average per year.
Maximise the use of natural daylight. Relocate work surfaces, desks and                               Assumes a 60% reduction in energy use from using natural daylight and dimmers and reflects 60% savings required to have 12
E116          reading areas nearer to windows.                                                                4.388 38w office lights on.
Allow frozen food to defrost before you cook it, rather than cooking from                             This represents the savings from not using the microwave to defrost meet. Assumes the average person uses the microwave to
frozen.                                                                                               defrost meat for 5 minutes each, 3 times a week (.25 hours per week). Assumes the average microwave uses 700w of power.
E117                                                                                                          0.095
Only iron the clothes that really need ironing.                                                       This represents the savings of using an iron for one hour per week rather than two hours per week. This is based on a 'typical'
E118                                                                                                          0.599 iron that uses 1.1kw per hour.
Put lids on pans when boiling water                                                                   This represents a 25% energy savings from putting a lid on the pot when boiling vegetables for 20 minutes on a typical hob
with power consumption of 2.2kW. This assumes the average person cooks something on the hob 5 times a week.
E119                                                                                                          0.499
Turn your oven off ten minutes before your dinner is finished cooking.                                This represents the savings of turning an average 0.99kW oven off 10 minutes early. This assumes the average person cooks
E120                                                                                                          0.269 something in the oven 3 times per week.
Clean your windows to let in more natural light                                           This assumes that cleaning windows will allow in more light and thereby save 15% in lighting related energy consumption and
that an average room has 3 60w overhead bulbs that are turned on for eight hours per day, 7 days per week.
E121                                                                                     0.823
Make sure the escalator is only running when the shop is open                             Based on switching off the escalators for one extra hour per day, 7 days per week rather than switching them on unnecessarily
for 1/2 hour before opening and 1/2 hour after closing. Based on the average escalator which uses 7.45 kW of electricity per
E122                                                                                    28.379   hour.
E123   Ensure that energy saving features of your computers are activated.               0.290   This is based on the savings from powering down a desktop PC and monitor for one hour, 5 days a week.
Fix a timer to a vending machine turning it off out of working hours.                     This represents the savings from having a timer that turns off a drinks vending machine for 14 hours per day (6pm to 8 am) in a
E124                                                                                    46.663   normal office. An average drink vending machine uses 875w.
When replacing office equipment, buy a combination fax/copier/printer.                    This savings represents the power savings of replacing a separate photocopier, scanner, and printer with an all-in-one
photocopier, scanner, printer and fax machine. This is based on all devices running on maximum wattage for 8 hours 5 days per
E125                                                                                    27.078   week.
Consider using reduced lighting in the store while you are working and the                This savings represents the electricity saved by reducing the normal lighting of a small shop (2400 w per hour) by 50% for one
E126   shop is closed                                                                    9.142   hour in the morning and 1 hour in the evening, 7 days per week.
Check for damage to the door seal on your fridge / freezer                                When the seal of the fridge/freezer is damaged the fridge is essentially left open. This means the device must consume more
E127                                                                                     0.917   energy to maintain cool, we are assuming a 20% drop in efficiency for this fridge/freezer.
Keep fridges/freezers organised                                                           This assumes that keeping the fridge/freezer organised reduces the amount of time you need to have the door open by a total
of two minutes per day and that for each hour the door is open the fridge uses 0.009 kW of electricity.
E128                                                                                    0.0002
Turn dishwashers off at the wall when not in use                                        This savings reflects the electricity saved when switching off an average dishwasher for 22.5 hours per day, 7 days per week
E129                                                                                     0.086 rather than leaving it on standby (which consumes 1w per hour).
Reduce the brightness on your TV. If you have a LCD TV, you can usually turn            This represents the savings of switching a LCD TV from 'shop mode' to 'home mode.' It assumes that the average person in the
E130   down the backlight                                                                1.038 Up watches television for 3.633333 hours per day, 7 days per week.
Choose the right size pan for the size of the food that you are cooking                 This reflects the electricity savings of using a smaller pan (and thus a smaller burner which uses 1.2 kW of electricity) rather
E131                                                                                     1.905 than using a large pan (and the larger burner) for 30 minutes 7 days per week.
Place a saucepan on the cooking ring that best equals it in size                        This reflects the electricity savings of using a smaller pan (and thus a smaller burner) rather than using a large pan (and the
E132                                                                                     1.905 larger burner) for 30 minutes 7 days per week.
Use a toaster instead of the grill for toasting bread                                   This assumes that cooking one piece of toast in an average toaster will take 2.5 minutes and that the toaster uses 1.2 kW and
that cooking one piece of toast in the grill takes 5 minutes and uses 0.79 kW. This action is assumed to take place once per day,
E133                                                                                     0.061 7 days per week.
Chop vegetables/meats into smaller sizes when cooking                                   This is the saving when a chicken breast is chopped into pieces before being pan fried rather than cooked whole, once per
week. A whole chicken breast needs to be cooked for 8 minutes while chopped chicken takes 3 minutes to cook through. This is
doubled to account for a vegetable side and the entire calculation is multiplied by 7 to assume that this is done on a daily
E134                                                                                     0.759 basis.
Avoid temptation to open oven as food cooks                                             This reflects the electricity savings of not opening the oven whilst cooking. It is assumed that opening the door will result in
cooking time being increased by five minutes and that the average person cooks something in the oven 4 times per week.
E135                                                                                     0.135
Cook on several levels using a steamer on one cooker ring.                              This assumes that instead of cooking 4 dishes on 4 different burners that steamers are used to reduce the number of burners
used to 2. This reflects the electricity savings of switching from using all four burners (2 small and 2 large) to using two burners
(one small and 1 large). This assumes a cooking time of 20 minutes, 7 days per week.
E136                                                                                     4.317
CHANGE TO: Use LED Christmas lights instead of the standard equivalent.                 This represents the electrical savings from switching from standard Christmas lights (7w bulbs) to LED Christmas lights (2.4w
INSTEAD OF: If choosing Christmas lights, consider LEDs                                 bulbs. It is assumed that the average house has the Christmas lights turned on for 3 weeks a year. The carbon savings has been
E137                                                                                     0.607 divided by 52 to spread the savings over the entire year.
Use a power-down plug.                                                                  This plug is designed to turn off computer peripherals (such as printers, speakers, etc.) at the same time as the main
computer. When it is plugged into a computer with speakers and printer, it saves 0.24kWh per day and this is multiplied by 7
E138                                                                                     0.914 days to get the weekly total.
Open fridge/freezer door less often Instead of.: Close fridge/freezer doors as          This is based on opening the fridge door for two minutes less per day and that for each hour the door is open the fridge uses
E139   quickly as possible                                                              0.0002 0.009 kW of electricity.
Use the off switch on appliances instead of standby.                                    A 46" TV consumes 0.19w of power while on standby. Thus this savings represents the electricity savings of turning off the TV
E140                                                                                     0.007 at the switch (rather than leaving it on standby) for 9 hours per day, 7 days per week.
Long term action: When buying a new radio, buy an Energy Saving                           This savings is based on a Pure ONE Elite radio compared to the industry average, when powered on. Based on running for two hours a day,
Recommended digital one.                                                                  7 days a week.
E141                                                                                     0.023
Try to position your fridge freezer away from a heat source, e.g. oven or               This assumes a reduction in ambient temperature meaning that the fridge/freezer will not need to consume as much electricity
E201   radiator.                                                                         0.917 to maintain the appropriate temperature. It assumes a 20% energy saving.
Watch TV fewer nights per week, or less time each night - and do something              This reflects the electricity savings of NOT watching TV 3 nights per week and assumes the average person watches TV for
E202   active instead!                                                                   0.985 3.63333 hours per day.
Long term action: Switch your electricity supplier to one that supplies green              Based on a family with two parents and two children and electrical power coming from Ecotricity, 46% renewable versus
energy                                                                                     standard grid electricity. emissions from ecotricity is 0.2324 kgCO2e/kWh. Savings is per person per week.
E203                                                                                                       0.553
When buying a new Fridge/Freezer buy one with an A+ or A++ rating                        This figure is based on Energy Savings Trust figures for replacing a fridge/freezer bought in 1998 with a new energy efficient
E204 (fridge/freezer)                                                                                      2.692 appliance. The annual savings is divided by 52 to spread the savings out over the year.
When buying a new freezer buy one with an A+ or A++ rating.                              This figure is based on Energy Savings Trust figures for replacing a freezer bought in 1998 with a new energy efficient
E204 (freezer)                                                                                             1.538 appliance. The annual savings is divided by 52 to spread the savings out over the year.
When buying a new dishwasher buy one with an A rating                                    This figure is based on Energy Savings Trust figures for replacing a dishwasher bought in 1998 with a new energy efficient
E204 (dishwasher)                                                                                          0.923 appliance. The annual savings is divided by 52 to spread the savings out over the year.
When buying a new Fridge buy one with an A+ or A++ rating                                This figure is based on Energy Savings Trust figures for replacing a fridge bought in 1998 with a new energy efficient appliance.
E204 (Refrigerator)                                                                                        0.865 The annual savings is divided by 52 to spread the savings out over the year.
'Long term action: Consider buying an induction hob when replacing an                    Induction hobs are significantly more energy efficient than traditional electric cast iron coil based hobs. The source of this
electric hob                                                                             action is taken from a product specification sheet which assumed that the energy wasted per week using an electric hob is
16.25 kWh versus a value of 2.375 kWh for an induction hob. The calculation is the difference multiplied by the electricity
E205                                                                                                       7.550 emissions factor.
Long term action: Paint your walls and ceilings a light colour next time you             This assumes that light colour paint will reduce the energy consumption for lighting by 15% and that a room containing two
decorate                                                                                 11watt bulbs would normally have the lights on for eight hours per day for seven days per week
E206                                                                                                       0.101
Long term action: Install occupancy sensors which turn lights on or off                  Assumes that installing an occupancy sensor in an average office will result in the lights being turned off for 2 hours per day, 7
depending on whether there is someone in the room                                        days per week when they were previously left on for that time. This assumes that an average office has 12 lamps and that
E207                                                                                                       2.560 they are 28 W TL5 fluorescent tube lamps.
Long term action: When buying a new TV, buy a small one                                  This reflects the reduced electricity consumption from watching a 22 inch LCD TV for 3.633 hours per day, 7 days per week,
E208                                                                                                       1.785 rather than watching a 46 inch LCD TV for the same amount of time.
Long term action: Buy a pressure cooker                                                  Using a pressure cooker can save around 70% of the energy needed to cook a meal on the stove in a conventional pot. This
assumes that the average person cooks something on the stove for 30 minutes per day for 7 days a week on a large ring that
E209                                                                                                       0.838 uses 2.2 kw of electricity per hour.
Long term action: Buy a slow cooker                                                      This assumes that a casserole will be cooked in a slow cooker/Crockpot for seven hours rather than in an electric oven for one
hour. Cooking it in the oven uses 2.0 kWh, while cooking it an electric Crockpot uses only 0.70 kWh.
E210                                                                                                       0.707
Try to buy food that is grown or produced locally                                        This represents the savings of reducing consumption of imported foods (all modes) by 50%, in effect consuming 50% local
F101                                                                                                       1.452 food.
F102                    Consider reducing the amount of meat that you eat by 50%                           6.923 This represents the savings of reducing your meat consumption by 50% (eating a 50% vegetarian diet).
Consider reducing the amount of dairy products you eat by 25%                            This represents the savings of reducing your consumption of dairy products by 25% and thus represents 25% of the total
F103                                                                                                       5.000 savings acquired by eating a 100% vegan diet.
Cook a vegetarian meal                                                                   This represents the savings of eating one vegetarian meal. This is calculated by taking the annual total emissions savings from
eating a vegetarian diet rather than a meat diet and dividing it by an annual figure of 1,095 meals (based on 3 meals per day,
F105                                                                                                       1.151 365 days of the year).
Cook a vegan meal                                                                        This represents the savings realised by eating one vegan meal. This is calculated by taking the annual total emissions savings
from eating a vegan diet rather than a meat diet and dividing it by an annual figure of 1,095 meals (based on 3 meals per day,
F107                                                                                                       1.443 365 days of the year).
Make use of the work canteen                                                             This is the saving when macaroni cheese is bought for the work canteen rather than making it for you alone. It assumes that
F108                                                                                                       0.582 the canteen is making 50 portions of macaroni.
F109                    Include some (20%) local organic food in your weekly shop.                         0.885 This represents the savings of eating partially (20%) organic food.
Avoid pre-prepared fruit and vegetables                                                  Assumes waste only as data on comparative values for industrial versus domestic processing not clearly defined at an academic
level. This represents the savings from a reduction in packaging and assumes that there will be a reduction of waste going to
landfill of quarter of a kilo of paper waste and another quarter of kilo of plastic waste.
F110                                                                                                       0.148
Try to remember all the low carbon food rules when shopping.                             This calculation is based on doing all of the following: 1) Eating a 50% vegetarian diet, eating 20% organic food, reducing
F111                                                                                                       9.346 consumption of imported food (all modes) by 50%.
Long term action: Investigate local food co-ops                                          Assumes that three plastic bags and an egg box are not used each week as a result of buying fruit and eggs through a local food
F201                                                                                                       0.031 co-op.
Long term action: If hiring catering for events or meetings, consider asking for         This represents the savings of eating a meal that has been sourced 100% locally. The figure is based on 100 people at one
low carbon catering. E.g. seasonal fruit and vegetables that are in season and           conference per year.
F202                    grown locally.                                                                     0.465
Long term action: Change to: Become self sufficient in Fruit and Vegetable.              This represents the savings realised by a 'standard 200 square metre allotment with a less experienced grower' according to A
Instead of: Grow fruit if you have space in your garden & Start growing your             Low Carbon Route Map: Food
F203 & F204             own vegetables                                                                     2.308
Put on warmer clothes instead of turning up the heating                                This assumes that by putting on warmer clothes the heating can be turned down by 1 degree. A reduction of 1 degree results in
a 10% savings in heating energy consumption. This is based on the average Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas
H101                                                                                    7.539 per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
Turn the heat off in rooms that you are not using                                      This assumes that turning off the heat in rooms you are not using will result in a 1/6 reduction in heating needs. This saving is
based on the average Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used
H102                                                                                   12.564 for heating.
Shut the doors between rooms                                                           Assumes that shutting doors between rooms will result in a 25% savings in gas consumption for heating and is based on the
average Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that 100% of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H103                                                                                   18.846
Turn heating down to minimal (or off) when away from home                              This savings reflects the heating being turned off while you are away from home and assumes the average person is away from
the home from 8 am to 6 pm every week day on average, 4 hours each on Saturday and Sunday, and for one full week (while
on holiday) per year. This calculation is based on the average Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas per year and
H104                                                                                   26.901 that 100% of their gas consumption is used for heating.
Place insulation panels behind your radiators                                          This reflects the saving of placing a reflective panel behind 8 radiators. Each reflective panel saves 15 kg of CO2 per year.
H105                                                                                    2.308
Draw all your curtains at nightfall                                                    Closing heavy curtains on a single glazed sash window results in a 14% reduction in heat loss resulting in a savings of 14% of
heating needs. This calculation is based on the average Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that
H106                                                                                   10.554 100% of their gas consumption is used for heating.
If your heating is set above the comfortable room temperature of 18-21oC,              Turning down the heat by 1 degree results in a 10% savings in heating energy consumption. This is based on the average
turn it down.                                                                          Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H107                                                                                    7.539
Check that radiators are working properly                                              Maintaining and cleaning a home central heating system (radiators) improves efficiency by 15%. This assumes that the average
Scottish household consumes 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H108                                                                                   11.308
Make sure there is no furniture in front of your radiators                             This assumes a 20% reduction in heating energy consumption when furniture is moved away from being in front of radiators
and that the average Scottish household consumes 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for
H109                                                                                   15.077 heating.
Switch off heating during the night - use an extra blanket or thicker duvet.           This assumes a 50% reduction in heating energy consumption when thick covers are used at night and that the average Scottish
household consumes 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H110                                                                                   37.822
Only use air conditioning when it's really necessary.                                  This action is primarily for offices and represents the electricity savings of turning off the air conditioner for 3 hours per day, 5
days per week for 13 weeks per year. It is assumed that the air conditioner is normally on for 8 hours per day 5 days a week for
13 weeks per year. The calculation is based on one air conditioning unit that consumes 2.3 kW of electricity per hour.
H111                                                                                    4.694
Try to use open windows and doors to cool workspaces, rather than use air              This action is primarily for offices and reflects the electricity savings from NOT using the air conditioner for 8 hours per day, 5
conditioning.                                                                          days per week for 13 weeks per year. The calculation is based on one air conditioning unit that consumes 2.3 kW of electricity
H112                                                                                   12.516 per hour.
If you are using air conditioning, keep the windows and doors closed.                  This action is primarily for offices and assumes that keeping the windows and doors closed while running the air conditioning
unit will improve efficiency by 50%. It is assumed that the air conditioner is normally used for 8 hours per day 5 days a week
for 13 weeks per year. The calculation is based on one air conditioning unit that consumes 2.3 kW of electricity per hour.
H113                                                                                    6.258
Set the air conditioning thermostat at the highest temperature with which you          This action is primarily for offices. Each degree below 25 degrees Celsius results in a 4% increase in energy consumption. This
are comfortable.                                                                       savings reflects the savings of turning the AC up from 22 degrees to 25 degrees. It is assumed that the air conditioner is
normally on for 8 hours per day 5 days a week for 13 weeks per year. The calculation is based on one air conditioning unit that
H114                                                                                    1.502 consumes 2.3 kW of electricity per hour.
Change to: Change your air conditioning filters every month Instead of: Clean          This action is primarily for offices and assumes the unit is running for 8 hours per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks per year.
your air conditioning filters                                                          Changing the air filters results in 1% reduction in electricity consumption. This calculation is based on one air conditioning unit
H115                                                                                    6.508 that consumes 2.3 kW of electricity per hour.
Switch the heating off 1 hour before bedtime                                           This reflects the savings of having the heat on for one less hour per day for 7 days per week and assumes heat is typically on for
8 hours per day, 7 days per week. This also assumes that the average Scottish household consumes 19,200 kWh of gas per year
H116                                                                                    9.423 and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
Experiment with altering heating and cooling thermostats. As a guide, try              This assumes a 10% reduction in heating energy consumption as a result of turning the temperature down or up by one
setting no higher than 19OC for heating and no lower than 24oC for cooling.            degree, and that the average Scottish household consumes 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is
H117                                                                                    7.539 used for heating.
Long term action: Put draught proofing around doors and windows                        According to the Energy Saving Trust, draught proofing windows results in an annual CO2 savings of 130 kg and is divided by 52
H201                                                                                    2.500 weeks to calculate the weekly savings.
Find out if you have the recommended 270mm depth of loft insulation. If not,                 This represents the savings of installing 270 mm of loft insulation where there was previously none before. Annual CO2 savings
consider fitting it.                                                                         are provided by the Energy savings trust and 'are estimated figures based on insulating a gas-heated, semi-detached home
with three bedrooms.' The annual figure has been divided by 52 weeks to calculate a weekly savings.
H202                                                                                       15.385
Put cavity insulation in your walls                                                          This represents the savings of installing cavity wall insulation with a U-value of 0.45 W/m2k. Annual CO2 savings for insulating
a home are provided by the Energy savings trust and 'are estimated figures based on insulating a gas-heated, semi-detached
home with three bedrooms.' The annual figure has been divided by 52 weeks to calculate a weekly savings.
H203                                                                                       11.731
Insulate your hot water tank and pipes.                                                    This represents the combined savings of putting a hot water tank jacket on a water heater and putting insulation around visible
hot water pipes. Annual CO2 savings for insulating a home are provided by the Energy savings trust and 'are estimated figures
based on insulating a gas-heated, semi-detached home with three bedrooms.' The annual figure has been divided by 52 weeks
H204                                                                                        4.808 to calculate a weekly savings.
Find out if your boiler needs replacing and if there are grants available to help          Replacing a 10 year old boiler with an efficient new one can reduce energy consumption by a third. This assumes the average
you.                                                                                       Scottish household consumes 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H205                                                                                       24.877
Long term action: Install radiator thermometers                                            This assumes that installing a radiator thermostat will reduce your gas consumption for heating by 17% because the heating
will be turned off when a chosen temperature is reached. This saving is based on the average Scottish household consuming
19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H206                                                                                       12.816
Automatic doors - make sure they only open when they are meant to.                         This is calculated based on a retail shop that has two electric heating units (2.74kW each) running for 10 hours per day, 7 days
per week for 26 weeks per year (October-March) and that using revolving doors reduces energy consumption for heating by
74%. Saving is then divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
H207                                                                                       77.237
If you are a tenant, ask for a boiler maintenance certificate from your landlord           Proper broiler maintenance results in a 10% savings on gas consumption for heating. This calculation is based on the average
or estate agent.                                                                           Scottish household consuming 19,200 kWh of gas per year and that all of their gas consumption is used for heating.
H208                                                                                        7.539
Long term action: If you use plastic cups, plates, cutlery etc at a party, picnic          This is based on the emissions associated with water supply & treatment for washing the cutlery and plates in an 8 litre
or BBQ, wash them and reuse them - don't throw them away!                                  washbasin; it assumes that 12 knives, forks and plates are used on 6 outings per year. The figure is then divided by 52 to
R102                                                                                       -1.359 provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
Could you make a Christmas or Birthday card or present instead of buying                   According to the Stockholm Environment Institute, the average person can save 80kg CO2e by avoiding the purchase of
something?                                                                                 unwanted gifts at Christmas time. Though this is a one off savings during the holidays it is divided by 52 to provide a weekly
R104                                                                                        1.538 figure that is spread throughout the year.
'If you have large gardens could your family mow some parts a bit less,                    This is based on the weekly petrol usage to maintain a half acre/2000 square metre garden which comprises 70% lawn;
R105   encourage tall grasses & more wildlife.                                              0.583 assumes half the lawn is mown, and half is left for tall grasses/wildlife.
Use recycled or Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified paper                           Based on the saving from using recycled (there is currently no comparative savings figure for FSC products), assuming that a
household uses the equivalent of 2 reams of paper annually. Saving is then divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the
R106                                                                                        0.127 entire year.
Send celebration e-cards or texts.                                                         This assumes that a household will send 100 cards annually and represents the avoidance of 2 x A4 sheets of 120gm2
R107                                                                                        0.027 cardboard (1 for card, 1 for envelope) per card.
Avoid the use of patio heaters.                                                            This is based on the emissions saved from not using an average free standing 8kW rated patio heater for 3 hours twice a wk
for 4 months of the year. Saving is then divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
R108                                                                                        8.707
Do you really need another computer, laptop, blackberry, printer, scanner etc              This savings represents the avoided (LCA) embodied energy for 1 laptop (5247 MJ) (converted to kWh (1457.5 kWh) and
in your household?                                                                         assumes 64% of energy occurs in the construction (cf operational). It assumes all LCA emissions are associated with the one
year of participation in the project. Saving is then divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
R109                                                                                        9.762
Do you really need to get a new computer?                                                  This savings represents the avoided (LCA) embodied energy for 1 desktop PC (7826MJ) (converted to kWh (2173.9 kWh) and
assumes 81% of energy occurs in the construction (cf operational). It assumes all LCA emissions are associated with the one
year of participation in the project. Saving is then divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
R110                                                                                       18.427
Long term action: Organise a clothes swapping night                                        Based on 6.5 kg CO2 embodied in one man's typical white T-shirt and assumes 2 items swapped per session and 2 sessions held
R201                                                                                        0.750 per year.
Make your own lunch instead of buying sandwiches                                             This figure is based on the emissions savings from food waste not biodegrading in landfill sites and the WRAP estimation of 2.1
million tonnes of food that could be eaten which is sent to landfill by 24.7 million households each year. This gives an average
per household of 85 kg food waste per year. Packaging is not included here as it is covered in Action W112.
R202                                                                                        0.597
Long term action: When eating out, can you find a restaurant that uses local               This assumes that 6 meals per year use this action, and is based on the 151 kg CO2 saved per person if all meals used only local
R203   produce?                                                                             0.016 produce.
Long term action: If you are buying new furniture, ensure that any wood used               This assumes one 14 kg bench made from reclaimed timber rather than virgin wood (there is currently no comparative savings
comes from forests that have been sustainably managed. Look for the Forest                 figure for FSC products). It assumes all LCA emissions are associated with the one year of participation in the project. Saving is
Stewardship Council (FSC) logo on products.                                                then divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
R204                                                                                        0.135
'Long term action: When buying new equipment check lifespan, guarantee
R205   and if it can be easily repaired.                                                    0.000
Long term action: When doing home DIY use timber that is reclaimed, or that                This is based on the comparative saving from using reclaimed rather than virgin softwood timber flooring for an average-sized
is Forest Stewardship Council certified (FSC).                                             room of 4m X 5m. It assumes all LCA emissions are associated with the one year of participation in the project. Saving is then
R206                                                                                        1.654 divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
Can you use public transport to get to work? Find out about bus and train                  This calculation reflects the emissions savings of 120 km (5 round trip journeys of 24 km each, per week) in train versus 120 km
times.                                                                                     by car. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T101                                                                                       17.249
Use public transport instead of driving to work - even if it's just for one day a          This is based on one roundtrip journey of 24 km per week (the average commute) and thus reflects the emissions of travelling
week.                                                                                      24 km by bus rather than travelling 24 km by car. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for
T102                                                                                        2.406 average car with unknown fuel source.
Walk or cycle to work instead of using your car                                            This is based on walking/cycling to work 1 day per week, thus avoiding one 24 km round trip commute by car per week.
Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T103                                                                                        4.917
Long term action: Use lift sharing when travelling to work.                                This assumes that 2 people will ride in 1 car instead of 2 people in 2 cars which results in 50% reduction in the total km
travelled per week. The total km travelled per week is 120 km (5 round trips of 24 km each, per week). Emissions' savings are
calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T104                                                                                       12.292
Turn off the engine when you are not driving (e.g., if you are waiting for                 Represents the saving of turning vehicle off instead of letting vehicle idle for a total of 10 minutes each week. Idling uses 0.60
T105   someone or stuck in traffic)                                                         0.240 litres of fuel per hour and each litre of fuel consumed generates 2.4kg of CO2e emissions.
Take part in or set up a walking bus group for your children's school.                     This assumes the average return journey to school will be no greater than 3.22 km and that the child is walking to school 5 days
per week rather than being driven to school. Thus the savings represents the emissions savings from avoiding driving those km
per week. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T106                                                                                        3.298
For short journeys, try not to use the car. Walk or cycle instead.                         This is based on walking rather than driving for one 3.22 km journey per week. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009
T107                                                                                        0.660 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
Change to: Ensure tyres at correct pressure. Instead of: Check your tyre                   Assumes an average of 10,000 miles driven per annum. This savings reflects the information that keeping your tyres properly
pressure                                                                                   inflated improves gas mileage by up to 3%. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average
T108                                                                                        1.902 petrol car.
Plan your journeys to avoid congestion. Use SatNav or similar IT applications              This is based on the assumption that the average person drives 10,0000 miles per year and that that people using a satnav
to avoid traffic congestion and reduce the amount of wasted journey time.                  drive 16% fewer miles by avoiding being stuck in congestion. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions
T109                                                                                       10.145 factor for average petrol car.
Long term action: If you don't have a bike, consider buying one under the                  This is based on riding a bike to work one day per week (one 24 km round trip commute) rather than using a car. Emissions'
cycle to work scheme. Or buy a second hand one.                                            savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T110                                                                                        4.917
Remove roof racks / boxes and cycle racks from your car. Clear out any heavy               This savings is based on a 5% improved fuel efficiency from having no loaded roof rack plus 1% improved efficiency from de-
clutter you might have in your car.                                                        cluttered boot. This assumes an average of 10,000 miles driven per annum. Emissions' savings are calculated using 2009 Defra
T111                                                                                        3.804 emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
Accelerate slowly and smoothly, maintain a steady speed (within the speed                  This is based on the assumption that the average person drives 10,000 miles per year and according to Energy Saving Trust,
limit!) and anticipate your stops and starts.                                              'smarter driving' techniques can improve fuel consumption by 15%. Improved fuel efficiency leads to reduced fuel
T112                                                                                        9.511 consumption and, thus reduced emissions.
Long term action: If you are buying a car, think about the energy and carbon               This is based on driving a blue motion 1.6 Tdi Golf (.099 kgCO2e/km) as compared to a standard 1.6 Tdi Golf (.119 kgCO2
used to produce it, as well as it's fuel efficiency when you are using it.                 e/km). This assumes an average of 10,000 miles (16093 km) driven per annum.
T113                                                                                        6.190
Find out what speed you should drive your car at for maximum efficiency.                   This is based on the assumption that the average person drives 10,000 miles per year and according to Energy Saving Trust,
'smarter driving' techniques can improve fuel consumption by 15%. Improved fuel efficiency leads to reduced fuel
T114                                                                                        9.511 consumption and, thus reduced emissions.
Stick to the most efficient speed of your car to minimise fuel consumption.              This is based on the assumption that the average person drives 10,000 miles per year and according to Energy Saving Trust,
'smarter driving' techniques can improve fuel consumption by 15%. Improved fuel efficiency leads to reduced fuel
T115                                                                                      9.511 consumption and, thus reduced emissions.
If you live near a supermarket, can you walk or cycle there to do your                   This is based on walking the average distance of 1.86 miles (YouGov survey, 2007) to the nearest supermarket rather than
shopping?                                                                                driving to the supermarket twice per week. According to a YouGov Survey in 2007, the average distance to a person's nearest
supermarket is just 1.86 miles and two thirds of people live within 1 mile of their nearest supermarket. Emissions' savings are
calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T116                                                                                      2.453
If you drive to the supermarket consider doing your weekly supermarket shop              Assumes one shopping trip per week and is based on the fact that the average delivery van emits 181 gCO2 and the average car
online                                                                                   trip to the shops emits 4,274 gCO2 (according to a 2009 report from Logistics Research Centre at Heriot Watt).
T117                                                                                      4.093
Investigate Ecodriving techniques.                                                       This is based on the assumption that the average person drives 10,000 miles per year and according to Energy Saving Trust,
'smarter driving' techniques can improve fuel consumption by 15%. Improved fuel efficiency leads to reduced fuel
T118                                                                                      9.511 consumption and, thus reduced emissions.
Reduce your car trips to the supermarket - do one big weekly shop, or                    Based on the average distance to nearest supermarket and that one trip by car will be saved per week. The emissions factor is
T119   combine your shopping trip with another car journey.                               1.226 based on Defra's emission factor for average car with unknown fuel.
Could your employer provide a shuttle bus service for employees?                         This is based on the reduced emissions of travelling by bus rather than car 5 days a week, with each roundtrip being 24km.
T201                                                                                     12.030 Savings are calculated based on DEFRA emissions factors.
Lobby your employer to provide a bike pool for short work journeys                       This assumes a bike will be used for 2 x 12km round trips per week, rather than driving a car for the equivalent mileage. The
T202                                                                                      4.917 emissions factor is based on 2009 Defra's emission factor for average car with unknown fuel.
Talk to your employer about organising lower carbon travel to work options               This is based on the reduced emissions of travelling by bus rather than car 5 days a week, with each roundtrip being 24km.
T203                                                                                     12.030 Savings are calculated based on Defra emissions factors.
Long term action: Reduce the amount of meetings you travel to by using tele              This is calculated based on the energy consumption of 2 computers and monitors being use for two hours as compared to the
and video conferencing.                                                                  emissions from taking a flight from Edinburgh to London. This action is assumed to occur once per year.
T204                                                                                      3.627
'Contact your local MSPs and councillors and campaign for improved
T205   transport and cycling infrastructure                                               0.000
Long term action: Provide advanced driver training and/ or ecodriving training           This assumes an annual mileage of 10, 000 (as there is no data available for average business travel as it is highly trade specific)
to all those who drive company vehicles.                                                 and that 'smarter driving' techniques can improve fuel consumption by 15%. This calculation is based on two drivers.
T206                                                                                     24.944 Emissions savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factors.
Ensure vehicles are correctly maintained.                                                Based on a 9% improvement in fuel efficiency when the following actions are undertaken together: inflate tyres correctly =3%,
tune up = 4%, and select correct oil 1-2%. Assumes an average of 10,000 miles driven per year. Emissions' savings are
calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factor for average car with unknown fuel source.
T207                                                                                      5.389
Long term action: Reduce the amount of business flights you take, try to travel          Represents the emissions saved from taking a return trip from Edinburgh to London by train as compared to a return flight
by public transport or lift share to get to a meeting.                                   from Edinburgh to London and is calculated based on taking 6 trips per year. Emissions savings are calculated using 2009 Defra
T208                                                                                     12.519 emissions factors.
Long term action: Try to reduce the number of flights you take a year                    This reflects the emissions saved by NOT taking two return flights from Edinburgh to London each year and is calculated based
T209                                                                                      7.264 on 2009 DEFRA emissions factors.
Long term action: Plan a UK based holiday rather than flying abroad                      This calculation is based on a family of four taking one trip by taxi to Blackpool per year rather than a trip to Euro Disney by
plane per year. Emissions savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factors. This action results in a total emissions
savings of 866.06 kgCO2e per family, but is assumed to happen only once a year; to be able to spread the savings across the
year the total is divided by 52, thus providing a weekly savings figure of 16.6kg kgCO2e per family.
T210                                                                                     16.655
Long term action: As well as deciding to holiday in the UK, choose                       Represents the emissions saved from a family of four taking a Holiday to Blackpool by train rather than by taxi twice per year.
T211   destinations reached by coach or train                                            10.422 Emissions savings are calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factors.
Long term action: If you are travelling to Europe for holiday or work, consider          Represents the emissions saved from taking one holiday from Edinburgh to Paris per year by rail (Eurotunnel AA auto route
using public transport or driving                                                        Stirling-Edinburgh-London-Dover-Calais-Paris) rather than a flight from Edinburgh to Paris. Emissions savings are calculated
T212                                                                                      3.509 using 2009 Defra emissions factors.
Long term action: Convert to lpg fuel                                                    Based on a 12.5% reduction in CO2 emissions of LPG/CNG as compared to petrol (there are little savings realised from
switching from a diesel car to LPG/CNG) and assumes an average of 10,000 miles driven per year.
T213                                                                                      8.040
Get your food shopping delivery at the same time as your neighbours.                     Based on the fact that the average delivery van emits 181 gCO2 and the average car trip to the shops emits 4,274 gCO2
(according to a 2009 report from Logistics Research Centre at Herriot Watt). Assumes that 2 car trips are saved for every 1 van
T214                                                                                      8.367 delivery; assumes 1 shopping trip replaced per week.
This is based on the packaging of blocks of soap compared to bottles of soap and assumes that three blocks of soap are
equivalent to one bottle of liquid soap. This calculation assumes that one block of soap comes packaged in a cardboard box
that weighs 8 gm and that a plastic bottle weighs 141.7 gm. This calculation also assumes that you will purchase soap 5 times
per year. The emissions factor used for both packaging types represents the CO2e saved by avoiding the production, use and
disposal of the material.
Assumes the average person flushes the toilet 7 times per day and that a reduced flush can be used for 6 of those 7 flushes.
Using a reduced flush saves 2 litres of water per flush as compared to a full flush. Emissions saved are inclusive of water
W&W102   If you have a dual flushing toilet, make sure you use the right flush!          0.030 supply and water treatment.
Assumes that wearing slippers will reduce the need to hoover from twice per week for 20 minutes each time to once per week
for 20 minutes. Emissions savings are calculated based on a 1.8 kW hoover being used for 20 minutes.
W&W103   Wear slippers instead of outdoor shoes in the house.                            0.327
Assumes that wearing clothes for longer will save one load of washing per week and that the average washer uses 1.19kW of
electricity and that the average wash cycle is 1.5 hours long. Emissions savings reflects the electricity saved by doing one less
W&W104   Try to wear clothes for longer and reduce the amount of washes you do.          1.295 load of laundry per week.
Washing clothes at 40 degree water uses 0.56kWh per cycle in A-rated machine, while washing clothes in 60 degree water
uses 0.94kWh per cycle in an A-rated machine. The emissions saved is based on the reduced electricity consumption as a
W&W105   Use a lower temperature wash on your washing machine.                           0.212 result of lower temp wash and is based on one wash per week.
Calculated based on doing 2 less loads of laundry per week and that the average washer uses 1.19kW of electricity and that the
W&W106   Try to reduce the number of times you use the washing machine each week.        1.943 average wash cycle is 1.5 hours long.
Assumes that waiting until the loads are full will save 2 loads of washing per week and that the average washer uses 1.19kW of
If you live in shared accommodation, consider filling the washing machine up          electricity and that the average wash cycle is 1.5 hours long. Emissions savings reflects the electricity saved by doing two less
W&W107   with several peoples clothes rather than doing half loads.                      1.943 load of laundry per week.
Running taps uses 6 litres of water a minute. Calculation is based on turning the water off while you brush your teeth for 2
minutes each time and assumes that average person brushes their teeth twice a day, seven days per week.
W&W108   Don't leave the taps or shower running when you are not using it.               0.363
Assumes that re-using dishes will save one load of dishwashing per week and that the average dishwasher uses 1.05kW of
Where appropriate, re-use any cups, glasses or dishes rather than taking a            electricity and the average wash cycle is 1 hour. Emissions savings reflects the electricity saved by doing one less load of dishes
W&W109   clean one every time.                                                           0.571 in the dishwasher per week.
Reduce water use when washing pots by washing the cleaner things first                Assumes a savings of one load of hand washing per day, seven days per week and that the average hand washing of dishes
W&W110   (glasses, cups), then moving on to the greasy things.                           0.121 uses 8 litres of water. Emissions savings reflects the reduced water supply and treatment.
Based on the emissions saved from reduced water consumption and reduced gas consumption (for heating the water) from
taking a shower rather than a bath, 7 days per week. A typical bath uses 110 litres of water and 5 kWh of energy for heating,
while a typical shower uses 30 litres of water and only 1.4 kWh of energy for heating.
W&W111   Have a the shower instead of a bath                                             6.355
This is based on reducing your shower time from 8.8 minutes to 4.4 minutes per shower and that the average person showers
7 days per week. Emissions saved are inclusive of reduced electricity consumption as well as reduced water consumption.
Assumes the average shower uses 9.5 kW of power and 480 litres of water per hour. Emissions saved are inclusive of reducing
W&W112   Reduce the time you spend in the shower.                                        3.186 electricity consumption and water consumption by 50%.
W&W113   Use reusable dishcloths instead of disposable ones.                             0.000
Based on savings from using concentrated laundry detergent rather than tablets for 3 washes per week. Emissions factors of
W&W114   Switch to environmentally friendly cleaning products                            0.750 each product are inclusive of LCA emissions according to Tesco.
One tap that leaks 2 drips/second wastes 10,000 litre/yr (Envirowise). This calculation is based on fixing tap that is leaking 1
drip/second (thereby saving 5,000 litres per year). Emissions saved are inclusive of water supply and treatment and annual
W&W115   Fix leaky taps                                                                  0.208 savings are divided by 52 to find a weekly figure.
Assumes a child is in nappies for 2.5 years. According to Defra Report SC010018/SR2, "Combining three of the beneficial
scenarios (washing nappies in a fuller load, outdoor line drying all of the time, and reusing nappies on a second child) would
lower the global warming impact by 40 per cent from the baseline scenario, or some 200kg of carbon dioxide equivalents over
If you have a child in nappies, consider using reusable or semi-biodegradable         the two and a half years." Thus assumes that reusable diapers produce 40% less emissions than disposable diapers over the 2.5
W&W116   nappies instead of disposable ones.                                             1.538 year period.
Assumes that pre-soaking clothes results in washing clothes at 40 degree wash (using 0.56kWh per cycle in A-rated machine)
instead of 60 degree wash (using 0.94kWh per cycle in an A-rated machine) The emissions saved is based on the reduced
Pre soak heavily soiled clothes to decrease necessity to wash at high                 electricity consumption as a result of lower temp wash and is based on one wash per week.
W&W117   temperatures                                                                    0.212
Non-recycled toilet paper = 1.8g CO2/sheet, while recycled toilet paper = 1.1 g CO2/sheet. Assumes the average roll of toilet
W&W118   Use recycled or Forest Stewardship Council Certified (FSC) toilet paper         0.336 paper has 240 sheets and that 2 rolls are used per person per week.
Assumes that waiting until the loads are full will save 2 loads of washing per week and that the average washer uses 1.19kW of
electricity and that the average wash cycle is 1.5 hours long. Emissions savings reflects the electricity saved by doing two less
W&W119   Wait for a full load before washing clothes.                                 1.943   load of laundry per week.
Bottled water = 150 g CO2 per litre, while tap water = 0.17 kg/1000 litre (according to Scottish Water). Calculation is based on
W&W120   Try to exchange bottled water for tap water                                  0.449   consuming 3 litres of water per week.
At work, do you need cleaners every day? Redeploy them to other areas of             Savings based on energy and water saved by not having cleaning done for two days day per week and assumes a 'typical'
W&W201   work, such as recycling                                                      8.759   cleaner uses a 1 kW hoover for 2 hours per day and 20 litres water to clean per day.
Set up a water butt and use the water in it to water the garden and                  Assumes that a water butt holding 20 litres is used rather than getting 20 litres from the tap each week. Emissions saved is
W&W202   houseplants.                                                                 0.003   calculated using 2009 Defra emissions factors guidelines.
Based on two people sharing a bath, 3 times per week and includes emissions saved from electrical consumption savings and
water consumption savings. Based on assumption that heating the water for a bath requires 5kWh and that 50 litres of water
W&W203   Share a bath                                                                 2.883   will be used.
Assumes the average tumble dryer cycle runs for 1 hour and is normally used twice per week. Emissions saved reflects the
electricity consumption saved by not using a dryer twice a week and assumes that a tumble dryer uses 2.73 kW of electricity
W&W204   Dry your clothes outside instead of using a tumble dryer                     2.971   per hour.
Assumes the average tumble dryer cycle runs for 1 hour and is normally used twice per week and that using a dryer ball results
in a 25% savings in energy consumption of the dryer. The calculation is based on tumble dryer that uses 2.73 kW of electricity
W&W205   Long term action: If you use a tumble drier, use dryer balls                 0.743   per hour.
Switching from a regular shower to a low-power shower head could save as much as 150kg of CO2 per year. It assumes you
would switch to a low-power shower one time during the course of participating in the project. Saving is then divided by 52 to
W&W206   Long term action: Purchase the most energy efficient shower you could.       2.885   provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
Assumes average water consumption of 146 litres per person per week supplied and treated, 2.27 people per household.
W&W301   Long term action: Install a water meter                                      0.107   Calculation is based on a 15% reduction in water consumption as a result of installing water meter.
W101     them.                                                                        0.000
W102     Find out what you can recycle at home                                        0.000
This calculation is based on mean kg CO2 saving from diverting recyclate from residual waste from statistical analysis of Local
W103     Recycle your waste                                                           1.560 Authority returns of kg/hh/wk by material (CEC 2010)
W104     Put up the waste collection calendar, available from Stirling Council        0.000
W105     Recycle drinks cans                                                          0.540 This reflects the carbon savings from recycling 6 aluminium cans (each weighing 10 grams) per week.
This savings is based on an office using 5 mono-toner printer cartridges per and that using a remanufactured printer cartridge
W106     Reuse or recycle your ink cartridges                                         0.240 rather than a new cartridges saves 2.5 kg CO2.
This calculation represents the CO2e savings of preventing food waste from ending up in landfill and assumes that the average
W107     Plan your meals in advance to help you avoid food waste                      1.679 household in Scotland throws away 4.6 kg of food waste per week.
This CO2 savings is based on the average household recycling 50% of the 10.6 kg of glass they produce per week on average.
W108     Recycle all glass bottles                                                    1.670
This assumes 1 kg of paper and 1 kg of plastic is thrown away per week and this figure represents the CO2 savings of
W110     Be aware of food packaging when buying food this week                        3.450 preventing that waste from going to landfill.
Based on average battery power of 6.6 kWh, average household using 21 batteries a year. Using rechargeable rather than new
W111     When conventional batteries wear out, replace them with rechargeable ones    1.392 batteries results in a 96% savings. CO2e savings is calculated on a per household basis.
This figure represents the emissions avoided by using a reusable Tupperware dish rather than Clingfilm for packed lunch each
day and assumes that a 50cm length of this cling film would normally be used five days per week, but is no longer used. The
emission savings reflects the savings realised by avoiding the production of the cling wrap (the embodied carbon of producing
W112     Use reusable items instead of disposable ones                                0.017 it).
Assumes waste packaging will be used instead of one packet of A4 recycled paper containing 500 sheets weighing 2.5kg on an
annual basis. The CO2e savings reflects the savings realised by not producing or disposing of 2.5 kg of paper.
W113     Use waste packaging for kids craft activities                                0.046
Donate unwanted items to charity shops or community projects instead of            This saving is calculated based on donating 3 men's shirts per year that each have 6.5 kg of embodied CO2.
W114     binning them                                                                 0.375
Label your waste and recycling bins so everyone knows what should go in
W115     them                                                                         0.000
This savings represents the emission savings of composting 1 kg of paper per week rather than it going to landfill.
W116     Re-use shredded paper, e.g. when packing products. Or compost it.            0.493
This calculation assumes 500 A5 90gsm envelopes weigh 3.873kg or 7.75g/envelope and that a typical company uses 1000
envelopes per year. According to WRAP "on average, when comparing
the manufacture of 100% recycled content paper to virgin paper, 1 tonne of recycled paper can save 1.32 tonnes of CO2
equivalent. This considers the complete life cycle and takes in to account that the recovered fibre may otherwise be landfilled
W117              Buy envelopes from recycled materials whenever possible                         0.197 or incinerated."
Do you have staff / company executive names on your headed paper?                     This calculation assumes that 500 sheets of paper weighing 2.5 kg are wasted per year. The CO2e savings reflects the savings
Change to a system where the relevant names are put in automatically by               realised by not producing the paper (i.e. the embodied carbon of producing the paper).
W118              individual computers                                                            0.046
It is assumed that by switching to double sided printing a company will use half as much paper as usual and that a 'typical'
Change computer / printer / photocopier settings so that double sided                 company uses 500 sheets of paper (weighing 5 kg) each week. Thus, the CO2e savings is reflective of not producing 2.5 kg of
W119 - Business   printing happens automatically.                                                 2.375 paper.
It is assumed that by switching to double sided printing a typical household will use half as much paper as usual and that a
Change computer / printer / photocopier settings so that double sided                 'typical' company uses 500 sheets of paper (weighing 5 kg) each year. Thus, the CO2e savings is reflective of not producing 2.5
W119 - Home       printing happens automatically.                                                 0.046 kg of paper.
Assumes that by printing on the back of one sided paper a business will use one rather than two 500 sheet packets of recycled
Fax machine cover sheets - Print or photocopy fax machine cover sheets onto           paper (weighing 2.5kg each) per week. Thus, the CO2e savings is reflective of not producing 2.5 kg of paper.
W120              the back of one sided used paper until no one sided paper remaining.            2.375
Assumes that by printing on the back of one sided paper a business will use one rather than two 500 sheet packets of recycled
Print or photocopy internal forms and notices onto the back of one sided used         paper (weighing 2.5kg each) per week. Thus, the CO2e savings is reflective of not producing 2.5 kg of paper.
W121              paper, until no one sided paper left.                                           2.375
This assumes that the average household uses 12 ink cartridges per year (1 colour, 1 black every 2 months) and that each
W122              Buy refilled printer cartridges                                                 0.462 refilled cartridge saves 2 kg of CO2e.
Remove disposable cups from your drinking water dispenser. Use glasses                Assuming a plastic cup weighs 3g and that this action prevents ten cups per day 5 days per week from going to landfill.
This calculation is based on the fact that 1 litre of bottled water results in 0.15 kg of CO2e, and that 1 litre of tap water results
in 0.00016 kg of CO2e, and is based on one person drinking 3 litres of water per week (while at work).
W124              Replace bottled drinking water dispensers with a water cooler / filter          0.450
This is based on buying one used desk weighing 107 kg per year. The CO2 e savings reflects the savings of preventing virgin
materials being used to make a new desk and according to the source, LCRN: "CO2 saved by reuse is through avoidance of
When you buy new desks etc for the office, consider getting good quality              replacement manufacturing. These figures are not inclusive of CO2 release from the landfilling process and any emission from
W125              second hand ones                                                                6.148 transport.
This calculation is based on switching from using 60 pieces of plastic cutlery 5 days per week to using 60 pieces of
If you still use disposable cups and plates in your workplace, replace these          compostable cutlery 5 days per week (assuming each piece weighs 2.5 g). The saving reflects the reduced emissions from
W126              with biodegradable alternatives, or join a local plastic cup recycling scheme   0.008 composting 0.9 kg of biodegradable waste rather landfilling 0.9kg of plastic.
Assumes a business will use two 500 sheet packets of recycled paper weighing 2.5kg each per week and according to WRAP
Buy recycled paper stationery and filing products. Most large stationery              one tonne of recycled paper saves 1.32 tonnes of CO2e as compared to using non-recycled paper.
W127 - Business   companies now stock these products                                              6.600
Assumes the average household will use two 500 sheet packets of recycled paper weighing 2.5kg each per year and according
Buy recycled paper stationery and filing products. Most large stationery              to WRAP one tonne of recycled paper saves 1.32 tonnes of CO2e as compared to using non-recycled paper.
W127 - Home       companies now stock these products                                              0.127
Assumes an aluminium bike weighing 12 kg will not go to landfill. This is not inclusive of the embodied energy of producing or
not producing the bike in the first instance, but rather represents the savings of recycling the bike frame rather than consigning
it going to landfill. It assumes all LCA emissions are associated with the one year of participation in the project. Saving is then
divided by 52 to provide a weekly figure across the entire year.
W128              Long term action: Recycle your old bike                                         2.077
Assumes that as a result of using scrap paper, a household will use one rather than two packets of A4 recycled paper
containing 500 sheets (weighing 2.5kg) on an annual basis. The CO2e savings reflects the savings realised by not producing 2.5
W129              Make notebooks from scrap paper                                                 0.046 kg of paper.
According to Sony Ericsson, a 3g mobile phone has a life-cycle emissions output of 29 kg CO2e. Thus, calculation is based on
Make sure your old mobile phones and other gadgets don’t end up in the bin.           avoiding the manufacture, use and disposal of one phone per year (divided by 52 to get a weekly savings figure.
W130              Take them to a charity shop or recycle them.                                    0.558
W131              'Ensure that recycling bins have been put out on correct days                   0.000
This calculation is based on buying a product with 255grams of paper packaging rather than 290grams of paper packaging, thus
avoiding the 35 grams of paper going to landfill. These were the average amounts of paper packaging of HP products sold in
W132              Buy items with less packaging                                                   0.038 2007 and 2005 respectively.
This assumes that there is the equivalent of 1.5 pieces of A4 paper in each piece of junk mail and that the average household
receives 650 pieces of junk mail per year, which equals 1000 A4 sheets per year. This results in 5kg of paper going to landfill
each year (500 sheets = 2.5 kg). This action results in a 95% reduction in junk mail per year and the emissions savings are
based on the avoidance of manufacturing and disposing of the paper.
W133   Write to organisations to stop them sending junk mail to you.                    0.087
This assumes that there is the equivalent of 1.5 pieces of A4 paper in each piece of junk mail and that the average household
receives 650 pieces of junk mail per year, which equals 1000 A4 sheets per year. This results in 5kg of paper going to landfill
each year (500 sheets = 2.5 kg). This action results in a 95% reduction in junk mail per year and the emissions savings are
based on the avoidance of manufacturing and disposing of the paper.
W134   Register with the Mailing Preference Service to reduce junk mail                 0.087
This assumes that there is the equivalent of 1.5 pieces of A4 paper in each piece of junk mail and that the average household
receives 650 pieces of junk mail per year, which equals 1000 A4 sheets per year. This results in 5kg of paper going to landfill
each year (500 sheets = 2.5 kg). This action results in a 25% reduction in junk mail per year and the emissions savings are
based on the avoidance of manufacturing and disposing of the paper.
W135   Register to opt out of the post office's Door to Door service                    0.023
This is based on receiving monthly bank statements online and assumes that each bank statement has 4 sheets of paper. The
calculation is based on the emissions saved by not producing or landfilling that amount of paper per year (but adjusted to
W136   Use online services                                                              0.004 represent a weekly savings).
This assumes that there is the equivalent of 1.5 pieces of A4 paper in each piece of junk mail and that the average household
receives 650 pieces of junk mail per year, which equals 1000 A4 sheets per year. This results in 5kg of paper going to landfill
each year (500 sheets = 2.5 kg). This action results in a 16% reduction in junk mail per year and the emissions savings are
based on the avoidance of manufacturing and disposing of the paper.
W137   Opt out of the edited version of the electoral register                          0.015
This assumes that there is the equivalent of 1.5 pieces of A4 paper in each piece of junk mail and that the average household
receives 650 pieces of junk mail per year, which equals 1000 A4 sheets per year. This results in 5kg of paper going to landfill
each year (500 sheets = 2.5 kg). This action results in a 50% reduction in junk mail per year and the emissions savings are
Go through the mail being sent to you/your business and think about whether            based on the avoidance of manufacturing and disposing of the paper.
W138   you need to receive it                                                           0.046
Assumes that the average home would compost 139kg of food/kitchen waste per annum (according to SEPA 2007 waste data
digest, 342,713 of waste was composted by Scottish households in 2007 and that there were 2,458,966 Scottish households in
Scotland. The emission saving is based on that waste being composted rather than sent to landfill.
W202   Consider starting a home, school or work composting scheme                       0.974
This reflects the saving of avoiding purchasing of three men's t-shirts per year which each have an embodied 6.5 kgCO2e .
W203   Long term action: Try to get clothes repaired instead of buying new ones         0.375
This calculation is based on swapping 1kg of Lego bricks (which equates to 400 bricks. The saving reflects the LCA saving of not
W204   Long term action: Swap or recycle children’s toys                                0.060 manufacturing, purchasing, or landfilling 1 kg of dense plastic.
This calculation is based on 1kg of paper being recycled each week rather than it going to landfill. Paper is the most commonly
Increase the amount of waste that gets recycled in your business by ensuring           used and recycled material in a 'typical' office setting.
that employees are trained, valued, recognised and rewarded. Start changing
W205   the perception of this activity as being crucial and integral to the business.   0.713
Action Code   Action
Value pre [kW or
kWh (energy ) OR
kg (CO2 or other) ]
E101          Switch off lights in rooms that aren’t
being used (6-11 pm during week and 8
am to 11pm on weekends).
0.012
E101(ii)      Switch off lights in offices that aren’t
being used. (7pm-7am during the week
and 24hours at the weekend)
0.028
E102          Change light bulbs to low energy bulbs
0.060
E103          If you'd like any free bulbs please write
the number of people in the group in
the box below
E104          Switch all electrical equipment off at
the wall when not in use.                                   0.021
E105          Unplug any chargers once they have
finished charging.                                          0.001
E106          When boiling the kettle, use only the
amount of water that you need.
0.160
E107          Defrost your fridge and freezer
E108          Clean the condenser coils at the back of
E109          Use a single lamp to illuminate only the
area you are using, rather than lighting
up the whole room or office.
0.180
every night AND every time you are
away for a long period of time                              0.114
E111          Use the stairs instead of the lift at home
and at work                                                 0.272
E112          Change to: Get an energy monitor.
Instead of: Consider getting an energy
monitor.                                                4800.000
E113          Switch off office equipment at night
0.880
operating at the correct temperatures.
438.000
E115          Reduce the use of electric fans on hot
days.                                                       0.045
E116   Maximise the use of natural daylight.
Relocate work surfaces, desks and
0.028
E117   Allow frozen food to defrost before you
cook it, rather than cooking from
frozen.                                       0.700
E118   Only iron the clothes that really need
ironing.                                      1.100
E119   Put lids on pans when boiling water
2.200
E120   Turn your oven off ten minutes before
0.990
E121   Clean your windows to let in more
natural light                                 0.060
E122   Make sure the escalator is only running
when the shop is open                         7.450
E123   Ensure that energy saving features of
0.078
E124   Fix a timer to a vending machine
turning it off out of working hours.          0.875
E125   When replacing office equipment, buy a
combination fax/copier/printer.
1.286
E126   Consider using reduced lighting in the
store while you are working and the
shop is closed
2.400
E127   Check for damage to the door seal on
E128   Keep fridges/freezers organised
0.009
E129   Turn dishwashers off at the wall when
not in use                                    0.001
E130   Reduce the brightness on your TV. If
you have a LCD TV, you can usually turn
down the backlight                            0.241
E131   Choose the right size pan for the size of
the food that you are cooking
2.200
E132   Place a saucepan on the cooking ring
that best equals it in size                   2.200
E133   Use a toaster instead of the grill for
E134   Chop vegetables/meats into smaller
sizes when cooking                            1.200
E135   Avoid temptation to open oven as food
cooks                                         0.990
E136                    Cook on several levels using a steamer
on one cooker ring.                            6.800
E137                    CHANGE TO: Use LED Christmas lights
lights, consider LEDs
0.007
E138                    Use a power-down plug.
0.240
E139                    Open fridge/freezer door less often
as quickly as possible
0.009
E140                    Use the off switch on appliances instead
of standby.                                   0.0002
E141                    Long term action: When buying a new
Recommended digital one.                       0.005
E201                    Try to position your fridge freezer away
from a heat source, e.g. oven or
E202                    Watch TV fewer nights per week, or less
time each night - and do something
E203                    Long term action: Switch your electricity
supplier to one that supplies green
energy                                      4800.000
one with an A+ or A++ rating

with an A+ or A++ rating.
one with an A rating
an A+ or A++ rating
E205                    'Long term action: Consider buying an
induction hob when replacing an
electric hob
16.250
E206                    Long term action: Paint your walls and
ceilings a light colour next time you
decorate                                       0.022
E207                    Long term action: Install occupancy
sensors which turn lights on or off
depending on whether there is
someone in the room                            0.028
E208                    Long term action: When buying a new
TV, buy a small one                            0.166
E209          Long term action: Buy a pressure cooker
2.200
E210          Long term action: Buy a slow cooker
2.000
F101          Try to buy food that is grown or
produced locally                             151.000
F102          Consider reducing the amount of meat
that you eat by 50%                          720.000
F103          Consider reducing the amount of dairy
products you eat by 25%                     1040.000
F105          Cook a vegetarian meal                      1260.000
F107          Cook a vegan meal                           1580.000
F108          Make use of the work canteen                   1.500
F109          Include some (20%) local organic food
F110          Avoid pre-prepared fruit and vegetables
0.250
F111          Try to remember all the low carbon
food rules when shopping.                    486.000
F201          Long term action: Investigate local food
co-ops                                         0.055
F202          Long term action: If hiring catering for
events or meetings, consider asking for
low carbon catering. E.g. seasonal fruit
and vegetables that are in season and
grown locally.
151.000
F203 & F204   Long term action: Change to: Become
self sufficient in Fruit and Vegetable.
Instead of: Grow fruit if you have space
in your garden & Start growing your
own vegetables                               120.000
H101          Put on warmer clothes instead of
turning up the heating                     19200.000
H102          Turn the heat off in rooms that you are
not using
19200.000
H103          Shut the doors between rooms               19200.000
H104          Turn heating down to minimal (or off)
when away from home                        19200.000
H105          Place insulation panels behind your
H106          Draw all your curtains at nightfall
19200.000
H107          If your heating is set above the
comfortable room temperature of 18-
21oC, turn it down.                        19200.000
H108          Check that radiators are working
properly                                   19200.000
H109   Make sure there is no furniture in front
H110   Switch off heating during the night - use
an extra blanket or thicker duvet.
19200.000
H111   Only use air conditioning when it's
really necessary.                               2.300
H112   Try to use open windows and doors to
cool workspaces, rather than use air
conditioning.                                   2.300
H113   If you are using air conditioning, keep
the windows and doors closed.
2.300
H114   Set the air conditioning thermostat at
the highest temperature with which you
are comfortable.
2.300
H115   Change to: Change your air conditioning
filters every month Instead of: Clean
2.300
H116   Switch the heating off 1 hour before
bedtime                                     19200.000
H117   Experiment with altering heating and
cooling thermostats. As a guide, try
setting no higher than 19OC for heating
and no lower than 24oC for cooling.
19200.000
H201   Long term action: Put draught proofing
around doors and windows
130.000
H202   Find out if you have the recommended
270mm depth of loft insulation. If not,
consider fitting it.
800.000
H203   Put cavity insulation in your walls           610.000
H204   Insulate your hot water tank and pipes.
250.000
H205   Find out if your boiler needs replacing
and if there are grants available to help
you.                                        19200.000
H206   Long term action: Install radiator
thermometers                                19200.000
H207   Automatic doors - make sure they only
open when they are meant to.
2.740
H208   If you are a tenant, ask for a boiler
maintenance certificate from your
landlord or estate agent.                   19200.000
R102   Long term action: If you use plastic
cups, plates, cutlery etc at a party,
picnic or BBQ, wash them and reuse
them - don't throw them away!

10.646
R103   Long term action: Buy music online and
CDs.                                          3.200
R104   Could you make a Christmas or Birthday
something?
R105   'If you have large gardens could your
family mow some parts a bit less,
encourage tall grasses & more wildlife.
1.000
R106   Use recycled or Forest Stewardship
Council (FSC) certified paper
2.500
R107   Send celebration e-cards or texts.            0.015
R108   Avoid the use of patio heaters.               8.000
R109   Do you really need another computer,
laptop, blackberry, printer, scanner etc

1457.512
R110   Do you really need to get a new
computer?                                  2173.906
R201   Long term action: Organise a clothes
swapping night                                6.500
sandwiches                                   85.020
R203   Long term action: When eating out, can
you find a restaurant that uses local
produce?                                      0.138
R204   Long term action: If you are buying new
furniture, ensure that any wood used
comes from forests that have been
sustainably managed. Look for the
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) logo
on products.
14.000
R205   'Long term action: When buying new
equipment check lifespan, guarantee
and if it can be easily repaired.
R206   Long term action: When doing home
DIY use timber that is reclaimed, or that
is Forest Stewardship Council certified
(FSC).
4.300
T101   Can you use public transport to get to
work? Find out about bus and train
times.                                         24.000
T102   Use public transport instead of driving
to work - even if it's just for one day a
week.                                          24.000
T103   Walk or cycle to work instead of using
T104   Long term action: Use lift sharing when
travelling to work.                            24.000
T105   Turn off the engine when you are not
driving (e.g., if you are waiting for
someone or stuck in traffic)                    0.600
T106   Take part in or set up a walking bus
group for your children's school.               3.220
T107   For short journeys, try not to use the
car. Walk or cycle instead.                     3.220
T108   Change to: Ensure tyres at correct
pressure                                    10000.000
T109   Plan your journeys to avoid congestion.
Use SatNav or similar IT applications to
avoid traffic congestion and reduce the
amount of wasted journey time.
10000.000
T110   Long term action: If you don't have a
bike, consider buying one under the
cycle to work scheme. Or buy a second
hand one.
24.000
T111   Remove roof racks / boxes and cycle
racks from your car. Clear out any
heavy clutter you might have in your
car.                                        10000.000
T112   Accelerate slowly and smoothly,
maintain a steady speed (within the
speed limit!) and anticipate your stops
and starts.                                 10000.000
T113   Long term action: If you are buying a
car, think about the energy and carbon
used to produce it, as well as it's fuel
efficiency when you are using it.
16093.400
T114   Find out what speed you should drive
your car at for maximum efficiency.
10000.000
T115   Stick to the most efficient speed of your
car to minimise fuel consumption.
10000.000
T116   If you live near a supermarket, can you
walk or cycle there to do your
shopping?                                         3.720
T117   If you drive to the supermarket consider
online                                            4.274
T118   Investigate Ecodriving techniques.

10000.000
T119   Reduce your car trips to the
supermarket - do one big weekly shop,
or combine your shopping trip with
another car journey.
3.720
T201   Could your employer provide a shuttle
bus service for employees?
24.000
T202   Lobby your employer to provide a bike
pool for short work journeys                     12.000
lower carbon travel to work options
24.000
T204   Long term action: Reduce the amount
of meetings you travel to by using tele
and video conferencing.
1092.812
T206   Long term action: Provide advanced
driver training and/ or ecodriving
training to all those who drive company
vehicles.                                     10000.000
T207   Ensure vehicles are correctly
maintained.                                   10000.000
T208   Long term action: Reduce the amount
of business flights you take, try to travel
by public transport or lift share to get to
a meeting.
1092.812
T209   Long term action: Try to reduce the
number of flights you take a year
1092.812
T210   Long term action: Plan a UK based
1887.902
T211     Long term action: As well as deciding to
holiday in the UK, choose destinations
reached by coach or train
687.600
T212     Long term action: If you are travelling to
Europe for holiday or work, consider
using public transport or driving
1887.902
T213     Long term action: Convert to lpg fuel
10000.000
T214     Get your food shopping delivery at the
4.274
soap                                             0.142
W&W102   If you have a dual flushing toilet, make
sure you use the right flush!                    2.000
W&W103   Wear slippers instead of outdoor shoes
in the house.                                    1.800
W&W104   Try to wear clothes for longer and
reduce the amount of washes you do.
1.190
W&W105   Use a lower temperature wash on your
washing machine.
0.950
W&W106   Try to reduce the number of times you
use the washing machine each week.
1.190
W&W107   If you live in shared accommodation,
consider filling the washing machine up
with several peoples clothes rather than
1.190
W&W108   Don't leave the taps or shower running
when you are not using it.
0.006
W&W109   Where appropriate, re-use any cups,
glasses or dishes rather than taking a
clean one every time.                            1.050
W&W110   Reduce water use when washing pots
by washing the cleaner things first
(glasses, cups), then moving on to the
greasy things.                                   0.008
W&W111   Have a the shower instead of a bath
3.600
W&W112   Reduce the time you spend in the
shower.                                          9.500
W&W113   Use reusable dishcloths instead of
disposable ones.
W&W114   Switch to environmentally friendly
cleaning products                             0.850
W&W115   Fix leaky taps                                5.000
W&W116   If you have a child in nappies, consider
200.000
W&W117   Pre soak heavily soiled clothes to
decrease necessity to wash at high
temperatures                                  0.950
W&W118   Use recycled or Forest Stewardship
Council Certified (FSC) toilet paper
0.432
W&W119   Wait for a full load before washing
clothes.                                      1.190
W&W120   Try to exchange bottled water for tap
water                                         1.000
W&W201   At work, do you need cleaners every
day? Redeploy them to other areas of
work, such as recycling
1.800
W&W202   Set up a water butt and use the water in
it to water the garden and houseplants.
20.000
W&W203   Share a bath                                  5.000
using a tumble dryer                          2.730
W&W205   Long term action: If you use a tumble
drier, use dryer balls                        2.730
W&W206   Long term action: Purchase the most
energy efficient shower you could.

W&W301   Long term action: Install a water meter
331.420

W101     if not ask them what is stopping them.

W102     'Find out what you can recycle at home

Put up the waste collection calendar,
W104     available from Stirling Council
W105     Recycle drinks cans                           0.010
W106     Reuse or recycle your ink cartridges
2.500
avoid food waste                              4.600
W108     Recycle all glass bottles                    10.600
W110              Be aware of food packaging when
W111              When conventional batteries wear out,
replace them with rechargeable ones
6.600
W112              Use reusable items instead of
disposable ones                           0.839
W113              Use waste packaging for kids craft
activities                                2.500
W114              Donate unwanted items to charity
shops or community projects instead of
binning them                              6.500
'Label your waste and recycling bins so
everyone knows what should go in
W115              them
W116              Re-use shredded paper, e.g. when
packing products. Or compost it.          1.000
W117              Buy envelopes from recycled materials
whenever possible                         7.750
W118              Do you have staff / company executive
to a system where the relevant names
are put in automatically by individual
computers
2.500
W119 - Business   Change computer / printer /
photocopier settings so that double
sided printing happens automatically.
2.500
W119 - Home       Change computer / printer /
photocopier settings so that double
sided printing happens automatically.
2.500
W120              Fax machine cover sheets - Print or
photocopy fax machine cover sheets
onto the back of one sided used paper
until no one sided paper remaining.
2.500
W121              Print or photocopy internal forms and
notices onto the back of one sided used
paper, until no one sided paper left.
2.500
W122              Buy refilled printer cartridges           2.000
W123              Remove disposable cups from your
drinking water dispenser. Use glasses
W124              Replace bottled drinking water
dispensers with a water cooler / filter
1.000
W125              When you buy new desks etc for the
office, consider getting good quality
second hand ones                           107.000
W126              If you still use disposable cups and
plates in your workplace, replace these
a local plastic cup recycling scheme

0.003
products. Most large stationery
companies now stock these products
2.500
W127 - Home       Buy recycled paper stationery and filing
products. Most large stationery
companies now stock these products
2.500
W128              Long term action: Recycle your old bike
12.000
W129              Make notebooks from scrap paper              2.500
W130              Make sure your old mobile phones and
other gadgets don’t end up in the bin.
Take them to a charity shop or recycle
them.                                       29.000

'Ensure that recycling bins have been
W131              put out on correct days
W132              Buy items with less packaging                0.290
W133              Write to organisations to stop them
sending junk mail to you.                    0.096
W134              Register with the Mailing Preference
Service to reduce junk mail
0.096
W135              Register to opt out of the post office's
Door to Door service                         0.096
W136              Use online services

2.500
W137              Opt out of the edited version of the
electoral register                           0.096
W138              Go through the mail being sent to
whether you need to receive it               0.096
W202              Consider starting a home, school or
work composting scheme                     139.000
W203              Long term action: Try to get clothes
6.500
W204              Long term action: Swap or recycle
children’s toys                              0.019
W205   Increase the amount of waste that gets
that employees are trained, valued,
recognised and rewarded. Start
changing the perception of this activity
as being crucial and integral to the
1.000
Value post [kW or                  Time (hrs) or
kWh (energy ) OR                   times (no.) per Reduction         Emissions           Emissions
kg (CO2 or other) ] Number (units) week            factor            Factor 1            Factor 2

1              55                                0.544

12             108                                0.544

0.012               3              56              80%               0.544

110                                0.544

1             105                                0.544

0.030               3               7              81%               0.544

30%               0.544

0.040               1              55              78%               0.544

0.003               1             133              97%               0.544

28                                0.544

1                              5%                0.544

93                                0.544

8%                0.544

1             120                                0.544
12     40    60%    0.544

1    0.25          0.544

1      1           0.544

1.67   25%    0.544

0.500          0.544

3     56    15%    0.544

1      7           0.544

0.029           5           0.544

98           0.544

0.042          40           0.544

14    50%    0.544

20%    0.544

1   0.033          0.544

1   157.5          0.544

0.166    1   25.43          0.544

1.200    1    3.50          0.544

1.200    1    3.50          0.544

0.050           7    0.02   0.544

1.162          0.544

0.250          0.544
3.400        2.333            0.544

0.002   25   9.692            0.544

1      7             0.544

1   0.033            0.544

1     63             0.544

0.002    1     14    55.19%   0.544

350.400    1             20%    0.544

1   10.90            0.544

0.544   0.23

2.375                         0.544

56      15%    0.544

12     14             0.544

0.037    1   25.43            0.544
1    3.5   70%   0.544

0.700            1          0.544

50%

50%

25%
1095
1095
0.200          0.75         0.544   0.20

20%

0.250                       0.550   0.04

0.025                       0.550   0.04

624   100

10%   0.204

17%   0.204
25%   0.204

36%   0.204

8

14%   0.204

10%   0.204

15%   0.204
20%   0.204

50%   0.205

195         0.544

520         0.544

520   50%   0.544

520   12%   0.544

520   1%    0.544

13%   0.204

10%   0.204

33%   0.204

17%   0.204

2   1820   74%   0.544

10%   0.204
8.000          6          3.100   2.16

0.400         0.5

0.5   26          2.331

2               1.320
100               0.950
6          0.544

1         64%   0.544

1         81%   0.544

6

0.365

6

1               0.500
20

5                 0.205    0.06

1                 0.205    0.10

1                 0.205

5           50%   0.205

0.167         2.400

1      5          0.205

1      1          0.205

10300.000    1                 0.330

16%   0.330

1          0.205

6%    0.330

15%   0.330

0.119   0.099
15%   0.330

15%   0.330

2         0.330

0.181       1

15%   0.330

1         0.330

5         0.205    0.10

2         0.205

5         0.205    0.10

0.228   1   2         0.173    0.54

2       15%   0.432

9%    0.330

1314.800       6         0.173   0.061

2         0.173

687.600   4   1         0.173    0.16
687.600   4      2            0.160   0.06

2352.600   1      1            0.173   0.06

12.5%   0.334

0.181   2      1

0.024        5.00            3.10   0.95

7.00            2.16

1    0.33           0.544

1      2            0.544

0.560          1            0.544

2     1.5           0.544

2     1.5           0.544

28            2.160

1      1            0.544

1      7            2.160

0.080          7            0.204   2.16

0.480       0.513           0.544   2.16
0.600        3
1               2.160

0.560        1          0.544

0.264   2

2   1.5         0.544

3               0.150   0.00017

20.000        2          0.544      0.17

0.170
50.000        3    50%   0.544      2.16

2          0.544

2    25%   0.544

15%   2.160

6               9.000

5

0.365
50%   0.315
1.000                      0.950      2.50

21.000       96%   0.544

0.0017   5         2.500

0.950

3

0.550      0.06

1.320

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950

0.950
12

50              3.100

3              0.150   0.00000
1          2.988

300          0.040     0.03

2          1.320

2          1.320

9.000
0.950

0.250      1          0.950

95%   0.950

95%   0.950

25%   0.950

0.096         0.950

16%   0.950

50%   0.950

0.365   0.0005

3

1          3.100
0.713
Savings per      Savings per
week (kg CO2-    year (tonnes
e)               CO2-e)         Reference

0.359            0.019 E1

19.747            1.027 E2

4.388            0.228 E3, E1

1.257            0.065 E4

0.029            0.001 E4

1.486            0.077 E5
0.192            0.010 E6

0.402            0.021 E6, E7, E8

4.190            0.218 E9, E10

8.034            0.418 E4

4.144            0.216 E47

2.512            0.131 E11, E12

44.536            2.316 E4

0.367            0.019 E13,E14

0.057            0.003 E15
4.388     0.228 E16, E2

0.095     0.005 E17

0.599     0.031 E18

0.499     0.026 E19, E20, E21

0.269     0.014 E22

0.823     0.043 E3, E23

28.379     1.476 E48

0.290     0.015 E49

46.663     2.426 E24

27.078     1.408 E25,E26, E27, E28

9.142     0.475 E46

0.917     0.048 E13,E14, E29

0.0002   0.00001 E29

0.086     0.004 E30

1.038     0.054 E31, E32

1.905     0.099 E21

1.905     0.099 E21

0.061     0.003 E33, E34

0.759     0.039 E35, E21

0.135     0.007 E22
4.317     0.224 E21

0.607     0.032 E36, E37

0.914     0.048 E38

0.0002   0.00001 E29

0.007    0.0003 E31

0.023     0.001 E39

0.917     0.048 E29, E13

0.985     0.051 E31, E32

0.553     0.029 E11, E40

2.692     0.140 E41

1.538     0.080 E41

0.923     0.048 E41

0.865     0.045 E41

7.550     0.393 E50

0.101     0.005 E42, E43

2.560     0.133 E2

1.785     0.093 E31, E44
0.838   0.044 E20, E21

0.707   0.037 E45

1.452   0.076 F1

6.923   0.360 F1

5.000   0.260   F1
1.151   0.060   F1
1.443   0.075   F1
0.582   0.030   F2, F3, F4, F5

0.885   0.046 F1

0.148   0.008 F6

9.346   0.486 F1

0.031   0.002 F7, F8

0.465   0.024 F1

2.308   0.120 F1

7.539   0.392 H1, H2

12.564   0.653 H1, H3
18.846   0.980 H1, H3

26.901   1.399 H1

2.308   0.120 H4

10.554   0.549 H1, H5

7.539   0.392 H1, H2

11.308   0.588 H1, H6
15.077   0.784 H1, H3

37.822   1.967 H1, H3

4.694   0.244 H7

12.516   0.651 H7

6.258   0.325 H7, H8

1.502   0.078 H7, H9

6.508   0.338 H7, H10

9.423   0.490 H1

7.539   0.392 H1, H2

2.500   0.130 H11

15.385   0.800 H12
11.731   0.610 H11

4.808   0.250 H11

24.877   1.294 H1, H2

12.816   0.666 H3, H13

77.237   4.016 H7

7.539   0.392 H13
-1.359   -0.071 R2, R3

1.400   0.073 R4

1.538   0.080 R12

0.583   0.030 R1

0.127   0.007 R5
0.027   0.001 R6
8.707   0.453 R7

9.762   0.508 R8

18.427   0.958 R8

0.750   0.039 W11

0.597   0.031 R9

0.016   0.001 F1

0.135   0.007 R10, R11
1.654   0.086 R11

17.249   0.897 T1

2.406   0.125 T1

4.917   0.256 T1

12.292   0.639 T1

0.240   0.012 T2

3.298   0.172 T3

0.660   0.034 T3

1.902   0.099 T4, T5

10.145   0.528 T4, T6

4.917   0.256 T1

3.804   0.198 T4, T7

9.511   0.495 T4, T8

6.190   0.322 T4, T9
9.511   0.495 T4, T8

9.511   0.495 T4, T8

2.453   0.128 T10

4.093   0.213 T10, T11

9.511   0.495 T4, T8

1.226   0.064 T10

12.030   0.626 T1

4.917   0.256 T1

12.030   0.626 T1

3.627   0.189 T12, T13, T16

24.944   1.297 T8, T13

5.389   0.280 T5

12.519   0.651 T13, T16

7.26   0.378 T13, T16

16.655   0.866 T13, T16
10.422   0.542 T13, T16

3.509   0.182 T13, T16

8.040   0.418 T4, T14

8.367   0.435 T11

0.040   0.0021 WW1

0.030   0.0016 WW20

0.327   0.017 WW2

1.295   0.067 WW3

0.212   0.011 WW10

1.943   0.101 WW3

1.943   0.101 WW3

0.363   0.019 WW21

0.571   0.030 WW4

0.121   0.006 WW1

6.355   0.330 WW5

3.186   0.166 WW5, WW6
0.750    0.039 WW7
0.208    0.011 WW8

1.538    0.080 WW9

0.212    0.011 WW10

0.336    0.017 WW11, WW12, WW13

1.943    0.101 WW3

0.449    0.023 WW14. WW15

8.759   0.4555 WW2, WW15

0.003   0.0002 WW15
2.883    0.150 WW5, WW15

2.971    0.155 WW16

0.743    0.039 WW16, WW17

2.885    0.150 WW22

0.107   0.0056 WW18, WW19

1.560   0.0811 W1

0.540    0.028 W2

0.240    0.087 W3

1.679    0.087 W4
1.670    0.087 W5
3.450   0.179 W6

1.392   0.072 W7, W8, W9

0.0175   0.001 W10

0.046   0.002 W6

0.375   0.020 W11

0.493   0.026 W6

0.197   0.010 W12

0.046   0.002 W6

2.375   0.124 W6

0.046   0.002 W6

2.375   0.124 W6

2.375   0.124 W6
0.462   0.024 W13

0.023   0.001 W14

0.450   0.023 W15,W16
6.148     0.320 W17, W18

0.008    0.0004 W19, W20

6.600     0.343 W12

0.127     0.007 W12

2.077     0.108 W6
0.046     0.002 W6

0.558     0.029 W21

0.038     0.002 W22

0.087     0.005 W23

0.087     0.005 W23

0.023     0.001 W23

0.004    0.0002 W6

0.015   0.00076 W23

0.046   0.00238 W23

0.974   0.05067 W24

0.375     0.020 W11

0.060   0.00310 W25
0.713   0.037 W6
Electricty References

E1

E2
E3

E4

E5
E6
E7

E8

E9

E10
E11

E12

E13
E14
E15

E16
E17
E18
E19

E20

E21

E22

E23

E24
E25
E26

E27
E28

E29

E30

E31

E32
E33

E34

E35

E36

E37

E38

E39

E40
E41
E42

E43

E44
E45
E46

E47

E48

E49

E50
Food References

F1

F2

F3
F4
F5

F6

F7
F8

Heating References
H1

H2

H3

H4

H5
H6

H7

H8

H9

H10

H11

H12

H13
H14

Recreation References

R1
R2
R3

R4
R5
R6
R7

R8
R9
R10
R11

R12

Transportation References

T1

T2
T3

T4

T5
T6

T7

T8
T9
T10

T11

T12
T13

T15
T16
Water & Wastewaster References

WW1

WW2

WW3

WW4

WW5

WW6

WW7

WW8

WW9

WW10

WW11

WW12

WW13

WW14

WW15

WW16

WW17

WW18

WW19
WW20
WW21

WW22

Waste References

W1
W2

W3
W4

W5
W6
W7
W8

W9

W10

W11

W12
W13

W14

W15

W16
W17
W18
W19

W20

W21
W22
W23
W24

W25
Source

Philips energy saving lightbulb: Philips/energy-saving lamps/tornado spiral/specifications
Philips flourescent tube lightbulb: Philips/catalogue/Master TL% HE 28W/830
UNP/product specs:
GE Lighting/41206-60A/Technical specifications
MacKay, D. J.C., 2008. Sustainable Energy--without the hot air. [e-book] UIT Cambridge,
Available at: www.withouthotair.com.
Eco Kettle: The Energy Saving Blog/How much electricity does a Russell Hobbs Kettle
Use?/the Eco Kettle
BBC Bloom/Keep your fridge-freezer clean and ice-free
Refrigerator: smeg/FR220APL7/refrigerator

Ge Lighting/Home/Products/General Purpose/Standard, A15/Technical specifications

Ge Lighting/Home/Products/General Purpose/Standard, A19/Technical specifications
BERR, 2007. Energy Trends December 2007. National Statistics Publication
Darby, S., 2006. The effectiveness of feedback on energy consumption: A review for defra
of the literature on metering, billing, and direct displays. Environmental Change Institute,
University of Oxford (page 3.
Fridge/Freezer: Whirpool/cooling/fridge-freezers/product details/Total No Frost fridge
freezer ARC 8140/1 IX
Consumer Energy Center/Refrigerators and freezers/It's your money
Air & Water Centre/12inch Mini Pedestal Fan/Technical Data

Ihm, P.Nemri, A., Krarti, M., 2008. Estimation of lighting energy savings from daylighting.
Building and Environment ( 44). pp 509-514. www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv
Microwave: Tesco direct/Tesco MT08 Touch Microwave/Features
Iron: Philips/consumer products/dry iron GC148/Technical specifications
BBC Get Cooking/Vegetables/Steaming and Boiling

European Environment Agency/green tips/put a lid on your pots when cooking
Whirpool/products/cooking/hobs/product details/60cm Touch Control induction hob
ACM 702/NE/technical specifications
Whirlpool/products/cooking/single ovens/product details/Fusion pyrolytic multi function
oven AKZM

Energy Saving Trust/Spring clean your energy habits/get light and warmth for less

Vending machine: Vendo/Narrowstack/performance data/max. power consumption
Photocopier: eStudio2330c/Environmental Data Sheet/power level/copy max
Scanner: HP Scanner G3110 Photo Scanner-Specifications
Printer/photocopier: HP Officejet Printer/Products/color inkjet printers/office color inkjet
printers/HP Officejet Pro 8000 Printer series-Specifications/power and operating
requirements
All-in-one: HP all-in-one printer/hp/color multifunction and all-in-one printers/photo and
document all-in-one/HP photosmart premium fax all-in-one printer-specifications/power
and operating requirements

Saidur, R., Masjuki, H.H., Choudhury, I.A., 2002. Role of ambient temperature, door
opening, thermostat setting position and their combined effect on refrigerator-freezer
energy consumption. Energy Conversation and Management , 43. pp. 845-854.
Dishwashers (sb200310-dishwashers.pdf).
46" LCD TV: Sony/Home/All Sony Products/TV & Home Cinema/Bravia TV/KDL-
46Z5500/Technical Specifications/general data/power consumption

Wray, R., 2008. How we watch now: tune in, log on, call up. The Guardian. 14 August.
oven/AKZ 551/product features

Channel 4/Food/Recipes/Chefs/Gordon Ramsay/Chicken and vegetable stir-fry/step 5
Standard x-mas light bulbs: 1000Bulbs.com/Red C7 Christmas Light Bubs/Catalog Code:
HLS-C7TWKRED/Wattage
LED x-mas light bulbs: 1000Bulbs.com/warm white LED C& Replacement Christmas
Lights/Catalog Code: SSL-C7E12WW/wattage

Energy Saving Intelli Plug: Ethical superstore.com/home/electronics & appliances/standby
solutions/energy saving intelli plug dsk 105/product description
One Elite 'eco-friendly' radio: www.pure.com/products/ONE Elite/Specs/Power
consumption.
Ecotricity Emissions: ecotricity/our fuel mx/fuel mix history in detail/environmental
impact table
Energy Saving Trust UK/Scotland: At home/energy saving assumptions
NSW Government/Industry & Investment/Saving Energy/Living Areas

Connor, S., 2009. Obama's clmate guru: Paint your roof white! The Independent, 27 May.
22" LCD TV: Sony/Home/All Sony Products/TV & Home Cinema/Bravia TV/KDL-
22E5300/Technical Specifications/general data/power consumption
Consumer Energy Center/Stoves, ranges, and ovens/cost of cooking
Estimated based on assumptions for the 'typical' circumstance

Hobsbawm, A. 2008. Carbon saved by taking the stairs instead of a lift./Dashboard/wiki
thing/transport - actions-travel options/take the stairs not a lift
de Almeida, A., Patrao, C., Ferreira, F., Fong, J. 2008. Characterization and Energy
Performance of Elevator and Escalator Technologies. ISR-university of Coimbra, Portugal.
E4 Project: European Commission, EACI.
Enbysk, M. 2007. Do you need to turn off your PC at night? Microsoft Small Business
Center.
Induction Hobs Commercial and Domestic - product comparison "Induction Hob -
Source

Footprint Consulting Ltd; Environmental And Resource Economics Limited; Alan Speedie
Associates Ltd for Climate Challenge Fund, 2009. A Low Carbon Route Map: Food.

CD Kitchen, Macaroni and Cheese for a Crowd Recipe, Servings and Directions
CD Kitchen, Macaroni and Cheese for a Crowd Recipe (Scaled down to 1 serving), Servings
and Directions
Consumer Energy Center/Stoves Ranges and Ovens/Cost of Cooking
Buy Catering/IR-G Imperial 6 Burner Gas Oven Range/oven features
Personal Communication with Dr. Charles Russell, estimated based on prior knowlegdge
and research
Scottish Government, 2005. Proposed Plastic Bag Levy-Extended Impact Assessment:
Volume 1 Main Report/Table 2.1
Alibaba/egg carton AS-EC009/Product Details/Weight

Source
BERR, 2007. Energy Trends December 2007. National Statistics Publication
DirectGov/Environment and greener living/top tips on saving energy/simple energy saving
tips/heating and hot water
Savings factor was agreed upon between Charles Russell and Sarah Wiseman as part of
the assumptions.

Baker, P., 2008. Improving the thermal performance of traditional widows: Prepared for
Historic Scotland, Glasgow Caledonian University.
Sentinel Water & Energy Solutions, page 5.

Air Conditioning: Racs/LG Air Conditoning LG-UV24-NBD/Universal Convertible Heat Pump
Personal Communication with Dr. Charles Russell, estimated based on prior knowlegdge
and research

Saving Electricity/ 32 super tips for saving money on cooling and air conditioning
costs/Making do with less air conditioning/1. Raise the temperature
Consumer Energy Center/consumer tips/summer energy-saving tips/Inexpensive energy
solutions/replace air conditioner filters
Energy Saving Trust UK/Scotland: At home/energy saving assumptions/insulation
assumptions tables
Energy Saving Trust UK/Scotland: Home Improvements and products/home insulation and
glazing/loft insulation/table: what could you save?
Energy saving trust:/home improvements and products/heating and hot water/frequently
Sustainability at MIT/Revolving Doors/How much energy does using the revolving door
save?

Source
Personal Communication with Dr. Charles Russell, estimated based on prior knowlegdge
and research
Taizhou Huangyan Haipu Industry & trading Co. Ltd. (plastic plates)
Taizhou Huangyan Haipu Industry & trading Co. Ltd. (plastic cutlery)

Weber, C.L et al 2009 The Energy and Climate Change Impacts of Different Musical
Delivery Methods. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Stanford University
WRAP Environmental Benefits of recycling Paper
Assumption based on typical circumstances and practical knowledge
Deng, R. Et al Hybrid Assessment of the Life Cycle Energy Intensity of a Laptop Computer.
Arizona State University/Rochester Institute of Technology
WRAP corporate news release 'Buying Lunch Costs'
Shop.com 'Derwent' two seater wooden garden/patio bench
WRAP Reclaimed building products guide
Haq, G. Owen, A, Dawkins, E, and Barret, J. 2007. The carbon cost of Christmas. Stockholm
Environment Institute, Climate Talk.

Source
Scottish Government, 2006. Chapter 4, Long distance commuting in Scotland. [Scottish
Government/publications/2006/july/long distance commuting in Scotland/part 6.
Vehicle Idling: West Lothian Council/law and licensing/environment and pollution
regulations/vehicle emissions.
Assumption based on practical knowledge

Annual mileage: AA/motoring advice/motoring costs/quick reference guide/depreciation
Loa, K. 2008. Save money at the pump, be a 'steward of the earth' with alliance to save
energy's driver smarter challenge. Alliance to Save Energy
Sat Nav: AA/travel/satellite navigation guide/satnav keeps you moving

Fuel economy: Fuel Economy.gov/gas mileage tips/planning & combining trips/travelling

Volkswagen/New cars/Which Model?/Engines & Performance/CO2 emissions.
Future Foundation, 2007. Chapter 4-shopping miles. Future Foundation.
Edwards, J.B., McKinnon, A.C., Cullinane, S.L., 2009. Carbon auditing the 'last mile':
modelling the environmental impacts of conventional and online non-food shopping.
Logisitcs Research Centre at Heriot Watt University.
MacKay, D. J.C., 2008. Sustainable Energy--without the hot air. [e-book] UIT Cambridge,
Available at: www.withouthotair.com.
AA/Travel/Route Planner
Defra, 2009. Guidelines to Defra/DECC'S GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting.
AEA, pp. 17 of 47.
Air timetable.com Air Miles Calculator
Source

Assumption based on 'typical' circumstances and common product information.
Electrolux Hoover: Sam Stores/Home appliances/vacuum cleaners/hoover/product
description/features.
Washer: Comet/Kitchen & Bath/Laundry & Dishwashers/Washing Machings/Beko
WME7267W/Product Information
Dishwasher: Comet/Kitchen & Home/Laundry & Dishwashers/Dishwashers/Haier Dw12-
PFE2MEU
MacKay, D. J.C., 2008. Sustainable Energy--without the hot air. [e-book] UIT Cambridge,
Available at: www.withouthotair.com.
Environwise, 2009. Reducing water use: showers. Publication number: EN663.
[environwise/ our services/ publications/ reducing water us: showers/EN663.

Tesco, 2009. Our Carbon Label Findings. Tesco: Greener Living Everyday

Envirowise/get started with envirowise/top tips/(first tip)

Aumonier, S., Collins, M., Garret, P. 2008. Updated lifecycle assessment study for
disposable and reusable nappies. Science Report: SC010018/SR2. Environment Agency,
Defra, WRAP.
National Energy Foundation/energy advice/saving energy/washing machines/Energy
efficient washing machines/Do A-rated washing machines save you money?
Tesco plc/Media press releases/press releases/tesco carbon labels toilet paper/01 May
2009.
Waterfield, B. 2007. Britons lead the way in toilet paper use. Telegrap. [accessed 3rd

240 sheets per roll: mysupermarket/image
Bottled water: Natural hydration council/environmental focus/a small carbon
footprint/bottled water's carbon footprint

Scottish Water, 2008. Scottish water carbon footprint report 2007-2008, Scottish Water.
Tumble Dryer: Currys/household appliances/laundry & dishwashers/tumble
dryers/Hotpoint V3D00p Vented Tumble Dryer/technical details
Dryer balls: wind trap/save energy/household/dryer balls/energy saving tumble dryer
balls/how it works.

Environment Agency/planning & research/data & statistics/environmental facts &
figures/corporate strategy evidence/water/household water use/household water use in
England and Wales 1998/99 to 2008/09.

BBC. 2009. Increase in water meters use urged by review. Business, 8 December 2009.
[Accessed 24 February 2010] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8400788.stm.
Toilet Flushing: Waterwise/save water/water saving devices/toilet flushing
Waterise/the facts/why save water?- The figures
BBC Bloom: Climate Change/Bloom/Taking Showers/How will it make a difference? 21 July
2008.

Source
Caledonian Environment Centre 2010: calculation using Local Authority household
recycling data submitted for other project work
Aluminium Can Weight: Ball Packaging Europe/Weitght Reduction
Center for Remanufacturing & Reuse, 2008. The carbon footprint of remanufactured
versus new mono-toner printer cartridges
WRAP, 2008. The food we waste: Food waste report v2, Wrap, pp. 19.
Burnley, S.J., Ellis, J.C., Flowerdew, R., Poll, A.J., Prosser, H., 2007. Assessing the
composition of municipal solid waste in Wales. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 49
(3). pp. 264-283.
Assumption based on 'typical' circumstances
Part IA Linear Circuits and Devices/The Environmental Issues.
My Climate/Climate tip week 10.
Bio Intelligent Service, 2007. Ditch the disposable lifestyle. Uniroos Study on the
Environmental Impact of Batteries
Carbon Trust, 2008. Working with continental clothing: product carbon footprinting in
practice. The Carbon Trust, Case Study CTS056.

WRAP, 2007. Environmental benefits of recycling paper. Wrap Information Sheet.
Plastic cups: Alibaba/products/home & garden/tableware/drinkware/cups &
saucers/disposable plasticcup/product details.
Bottled water: Natural hydration council/environmental focus/a small carbon
footprint/bottled water's carbon footprint

Scottish Water, 2008. Scottish water carbon footprint report 2007-2008, Scottish Water.
Desk: Amazon/mobile instructor's desk; weight: (107kg).
LCRN, 2008. Carbon Impacts of Reuse. London Community Recycling Network.
Disposable cutlery weight: Alibaba/products/home & garden/tableware/other
tableware/disposable cutlery/product details.
Sony Ericcson 3G phone: Ericson/corporate responsibility/climate change and energy/life-
cycle assessment.
HP Packaging: Global citizenship/eco solutions/product design/packaging.
Leicestershire County Council/No Junk Mail
Sepa, 2009. Waste data digest 9: key facts and trends, SEPA.

Lego bricks: measurement/lego brick measurements/height, width, and weight.

http://www.prismaecat.lighting.philips.com/ecat/Light/Details.aspx?fh_eds=ß&fh_location=//prof/en_GB/categories<{fepplg}/countries>{en_GB}/status>{act}/

http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/book/tex/cft.pdf

http://www.energy.gs/2008/08/how-much-electricity-does-russel-hobbs.html
http://www.bbc.co.uk/bloom/actions/fridgefreezertips.shtml
http://www.smeguk.com/Catalogue/Product/FR220APL7.aspx?SID=1197780%20http://www.homeenergy.org/archive/hem.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930109.html

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Resources/Features/Features-archive/Spring-clean-your-energy-habits

http://genet.gelighting.com/LightProducts/Dispatcher?REQUEST=RESULTPAGE&CHANNEL=Consumer&FILTER=FT0010:General+Purpose_Standard&CATEGORY=

http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file43304.pdf

http://www.whirlpool.co.uk/app.cnt/whr/en_GB/pageid/pgwpproddtl001/catid/2/subcatid/7/prodid/24871
http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/appliances/refrigerators.html
http://www.airandwatercentre.com/12inch-mini-pedestal-fan-517-details/

www.elsevier.com/locate/buildenv
http://direct.tesco.com/q/R.204-5670.aspx
http://www.consumer.philips.com/c/irons/gc148_02/prd/gb/?t=specifications
http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/get_cooking/cooks_guide/vegetables.shtml#steaming_and_boiling

http://www.eea.europa.eu/green-tips/put-a-lid-on-your-pots-when-cooking

http://www.whirlpool.co.uk/app.cnt/whr/en_GB/pageid/pgwpproddtl001/catid/1/subcatid/3/prodid/29738

http://www.whirlpool.co.uk/app.cnt/whr/en_GB/pageid/pgwpproddtl001/catid/1/subcatid/1/prodid/32495

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Resources/Features/Features-archive/Spring-clean-your-energy-habits

http://www.intelligentvending.co.uk/vendo-vdi-550-8-soft-cold-drinks-vending-machines.pdf
http://h10010.www1.hp.com/wwpc/uk/en/ho/WF06a/15179-15179-64195-3445112-3445112-3723463.html

http://h10010.www1.hp.com/wwpc/uk/en/sm/WF06a/18972-18972-236251-3328074-3328074-3760400.html
http://h10010.www1.hp.com/wwpc/uk/en/ho/WF06a/18972-18972-238444-410635-410635-3737192.html

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V2P-452D5VM-8-1T&_cdi=5708&_user=128597&_orig=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F200

http://www.energyrating.gov.au/library/detailssb200310-dishwashers.html

http://www.sony.co.uk/product/t46-z-series/kdl-46z5500#pageType=TechnicalSpecs

http://www.dualit.com/products/2-slice-newgen/tech-specs

http://www.whirlpool.eu/app.cnt/whr/en_GB/pageid/pgwpproddtl001/catid/1/subcatid/2/prodid/24938

http://www.channel4.com/food/recipes/chefs/gordon-ramsay/chicken-vegetable-stir-fry-recipe_p_1.html

http://www.1000bulbs.com/Red-C7-Christmas-Light-Bulbs/35865/

http://www.1000bulbs.com/Warm-White-LED-C7-Replacement-Christmas-Lights/

http://www.ethicalsuperstore.com/products/oneclick/energy-saving-intelli-plug-dsk-105/

http://www.pure.com/products/product.asp?Product=VL-61035&PageType=Specification&Category=

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Energy-saving-assumptions

http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/obamas-climate-guru-paint-your-roof-white-1691209.html

http://www.sony.co.uk/product/t15-e-series/kdl-22e5300#pageType=TechnicalSpecs
http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/appliances/ranges.html
M/A

http://www.dothegreenthing.com/wiki/display/WIKI/Take+the+stairs+(not+a+lift)

http://www1.cetim.fr/eemods09/pages/programme/074-Patrao-final.pdf

http://www.controlinduction.co.uk/induction-hob-efficiency/induction-hob-running-costs/induction-hob-versus-single-electric-hob.html?Itemid=86

http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/data/files/food_route_map.pdf

http://www.cdkitchen.com/recipes/recs/12/Macaroni_and_Cheese_for_a_Crowd51839.shtml

http://www.cdkitchen.com/recipes/recipetemplate.php?scale=1&mid=7122
http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/home/appliances/ranges.html

N/A

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/08/1993154/31585
http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/250132800/egg_carton_AS_EC009.html

http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file43304.pdf

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Environmentandgreenerliving/Energyandwatersaving/DG_064371

N/A

http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/thermal-windows.pdf

http://www.ryanairconspares.com/conditioning-lguv24nbd-70kw-indoor-floorceiling-p-1438.html

N/A

http://michaelbluejay.com/electricity/cooling.html

http://www.consumerenergycenter.org/tips/summer.html

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Energy-saving-assumptions

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/Home-improvements-and-products/Home-insulation-glazing/Loft-insulation

http://sustainability.mit.edu/projects/revolving-door

N/A
http://tzhaipu.en.alibaba.com/product/209936341-200236281/plate.html
http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/210160200/disposable_cutlery.html

http://www.wrap.org.uk/document.rm?id=3143
N/A

http://www.lcacenter.org/LCA9/presentations/120.pdf
http://www.shop-com.co.uk/Trueshopping_'Derwent'_Two_seater_Wooden_Garden_Patio_Bench-132251721-161050066-p+.xhtml?sourceid=309

http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2006/07/31141549/6

http://www.westlothian.gov.uk/law-licensing/1101/47
N/A

http://ase.org/content/news/detail/4785
http://www.theaa.com/travel/sat-nav.html

http://www.fueleconomy.gov/Feg/planning.shtml

http://www.volkswagen.co.uk/#/new/golf-vi/which-model/engines/emissions/
http://www.fcrn.org.uk/researchLib/PDFs/Somerfield%20-%20Shopping%20Miles%20(Chapter%204).pdf

http://www.imrg.org/80257418006E81C9/(httpInfoFiles)/484AE15036BC4CF18025757D00344948/\$file/Online-Conventional%20Comparison%20Heriot%20Watt

http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/book/tex/cft.pdf
www.theaa.com/route-planner/index.jsp

http://www.airtimetable.com/Air_mile_calculator.htm

N/A

https://www.samstores.com/details.asp?ProdID=11208

http://www.comet.co.uk/shopcomet/product/540420/BEKO-WME7267W/tab/specification

http://www.comet.co.uk/shopcomet/product/377244/HAIER-DW12-PFE2ME-U/tab/specification

http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/sustainable/book/tex/cft.pdf

http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/uk/Our-Services/Publications/EN663-Reducing-water-use-showers.html

http://www.tesco.com/assets/greenerliving/content/documents/pdfs/carbon_label_findings.pdf

http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/uk/Top-tips.html

http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=WR0705_7589_FRP.pdf

http://www.nef.org.uk/energysaving/labels.htm

http://www.tescoplc.com/plc/media/pr/pr2009/2009-05-01/

http://www.mysupermarket.co.uk/Images/ExternalImages/ProductsDetailed/69/071469.jpg

http://www.naturalhydrationcouncil.org.uk/Article/Display/16

http://www.currys.co.uk/gbuk/hotpoint-v3d00p-vented-tumble-dryer-white-00778571-pdt.html

http://www.windtrap.co.uk/energy-saving-devices/household/dryer-balls/

http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/research/library/data/112180.aspx

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8400788.stm
http://www.waterwise.org.uk/reducing_water_wastage_in_the_uk/house_and_garden/toilet_flushing.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bloom/actions/shower.shtml

N/A
http://www.ball-europe.com/382_1666_ENG_PHP.html

http://www.remanufacturing.org.uk/pdf/story/1p159.pdf

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VDX-4JVSWRT-2&_user=128597&_coverDate=01/31/2007&_alid=1286880936&_rdoc=1&_fmt
N/A
http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/ptialcd/battery/index.htm
http://www.myclimate.org/en/information-climate-tips/climate-tips/week-10-which-item-requires-50-times-more-energy-to-produce-than-it-yields.html

http://www.remanufacturing.org.uk/pdf/story/1p85.pdf

http://www.carbon-label.com/casestudies/ContinentalClothing.pdf

http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/225131180/disposable_cup.html

http://www.naturalhydrationcouncil.org.uk/Article/Display/16

http://www.amazon.com/Mobile-Instructors-Desk-Weight-107kg/dp/B0017Y2ZZG
http://www.lcrn.org.uk/sites/default/files/bookFiles/carbon_impacts.pdf
http://www.vegware.com/catalogue/cutlery/cat_1.html

http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/210160200/disposable_cutlery.html

http://www.ericsson.com/ericsson/corporate_responsibility/climate_change_energy/lifecycle_assessment/
http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/environment/productdesign/packaging.html
http://www.leics.gov.uk/index/environment/waste/no_junk_mail.htm
http://www.sepa.org.uk/waste/waste_data/waste_data_digest.aspx

http://mapageweb.umontreal.ca/cousined/lego/3-Physics/Measurement/index.htm
epplg}/countries>{en_GB}/status>{act}/categories<{c_0002fepplg_75_ep01}/categories<{c_0012fepplg_1148_ep01lflu}/categories<{c_0012fepplg_1149_ep01ltl5}/categories<{f_0042fep

em.dis.anl.gov/eehem/93/930109.html

CrumbValues=General%20Purpose_Standard_,A19&ModelSelectionFilter=FT0010:General%20Purpose_Standard

g=search&_coverDate=04%2F30%2F2002&_sk=999569993&view=c&wchp=dGLzVzz-zSkWz&_valck=1&md5=6e82f22e3468e1e0f97aa2cc7bff0a28&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

/saving-energy+energy+savings+from+light+coloured+paint&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=uk

lectric-hob.html?Itemid=86

ncy/ee-consumer-leaflet.pdf
66-p+.xhtml?sourceid=309

onal%20Comparison%20Heriot%20Watt%20180309.pdf
tish%20Water%20carbon%20footprint%20report%20final%202007-2008_0.pdf
007&_alid=1286880936&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_cdi=5994&_sort=r&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=1&_acct=C000010621&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=128597&md5=

gy-to-produce-than-it-yields.html

010213-102756621&totalCount=4&currentID=102814652

tish%20Water%20carbon%20footprint%20report%20final%202007-2008_0.pdf
es<{c_0012fepplg_1149_ep01ltl5}/categories<{f_0042fepplg_1149_phl_tl5he8}&fh_reftheme=promo_75141014,seeall,//prof/en_GB/categories<{fepplg}/countries>{en_GB}/status>{act
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ep01lflu}/categories<{c_0012fepplg_1149_ep01ltl5}&fh_refview=lister&fh_secondid=927926583018_2&fh_sort_by=_rated_lamp_wattage_lister&fh_view_size=10000&left_nav=gb_en
p_wattage_lister&fh_view_size=10000&left_nav=gb_en&tab=specs
EF (in kg Per Unit            Category
CO2-e)

0.54418     kWh              electricity
0.20417     kWh              gas
0.20487
0.11153
0.2324     kWh              EF from Eco-tricity for Green electricity
2.3307                      petrol
4.5461                      convert gallons to litres
1.60934                      convert miles to km
0.27778                      convert MJ to kWh
0.3297     mile             ave car unknown fuel/mile
0.20487     km               ave car unknown fuel/km
0.43237     mile             ave van up to 3.5 tonne/mile
0.31921     mile             ave car diesel/mile
0.19835     km               ave car diesel/km
0.33445     mile             ave car petrol/mile
0.15965     pkm              regular taxi /passenger km
0.10462     pkm              ave bus (local; London)/passenger km
0.06113     pkm              ave train unknown fuel/passenger km
0.13322     pkm              passenger ferry for car passenger
0.17283     pkm              air flight domestic average
19200     kWh              annual gas per household
4800     kWh              annual electricity per household
0.713    kg/kg saved      paper closed loop recycling
0.04    kg/kg saved      plastic (dense) recycling
0.365    kg/kg emitted    food waste to landfill
0.00045     kg/kg emitted    home composting
0.55    kg/kg emitted    paper/card to landfill
0.95    kg/kg saved      paper/card avoided production
9.00    kg/kg saved      aluminium recycling
0.04    kg/kg emitted    plastic (dense) to landfill
0.035    kg/kg emitted    plastic (film) to landfill
0.03    kg/kg emitted    food waste (composting)
3.1   kg/kg saved      plastics (dense) waste avoided production (virgin)
1.32    kg/kg saved      recycled paper rather than virgin

0.057     kg/kg emitted    paper/card waste (composting)
2.5    kg/kg saved      plastic (film) avoided production (virgin)
0.01     kg/kg emitted    glass to landfill
0.315     kg/kg saved      glass recycled
0.17     kg/1000 litres   water supply
2.16     kg/1000 litres   water supply & water treatment
2.4 kg/litre   idling engine
0.5 kg/kg      using reclaimed timber rather than virgin
Source

2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting

2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
kWh gas usage per week based on actual data; gas used for CH & cooking
http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file43304.pdf
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
2009 Guidelines to Defra/DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting
WRAP Environmental benefits of recycling paper: WRAP: