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The Meaning of Citizenship

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					       Chapter 3:
The Meaning of Citizenship
    “ I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United
     States of America, and to the Republic, for
      which it stands, one nation, under God,
     indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”
    History of the Pledge of Allegiance
   First appeared in 1892 in a        1924 “my Flag”
    magazine called The Youth’s         changed to “the Flag of
    Companion. Original
    attributed to Francis Bellamy       the United States of
    who organized a program for         America”
    public schools to celebrate        Officially recognized by
    the 400th Anniversary of            FDR & Congress in 1942
    Columbus Day.
   Originally stated: “I pledge       On Flag Day June 14,
    allegiance to my Flag and the       1954 President Dwight
    Republic for which it stands;       D. Eisenhower added
    one Nation indivisible with         “under God” (pg 55).
    liberty and justice for all.”
                                           In order to separate the
                                            US from atheistic
                                            communist nations
        The Pledge of Allegiance
   Do you have to say                   Right hand over
    the pledge?                           your heart
       Can not force you to                 Bellamy salute was
        say it                                changed by FDR in
            Will be disciplined if           1942 because it was
             disrespectful                    too similar to Hitler’s
       Controversy in the                    salute
        state courts over
        whether students
        must stand during
        the pledge
Taking God out of the pledge?
   Taking God out of the pledge?
       2004
       A Californian father said that he and his
        daughter were offended that she had to
        listen to the word God everyday because
        they are atheists
            Separation of church and state
       Lost in the Supreme Court because he did
        not have full custody of his daughter
Chapter Overview
   “ Being a citizen of the United States by birth
    or naturalization, involves rights, duties, and
    responsibilities. Fulfilling these responsibilities
    helps to contribute to the common good.
    Throughout life, each individual plays many
    social roles that change, overlap and even
    conflict. It is important for students to
    understand that civic responsibility supports
    the basic values that unite American society”
    (pg. 54)
                       Key Terms
   Citizen                    Gradual tax
   Naturalization             Flat tax
   Aliens                     Contempt of court
   Right                      Rule of law
   Duties                     Laws
   Responsibilities           Constitution
   IRS                        Supreme Court
   Truancy                    Selective service
   Common good                Draft dodger
   Sales tax                  Conscientious objector
   Income tax                 Jury of peers
   Civil trial                Witness
   Criminal trial             Defendant
   Plaintiff                  Prosecution
                               subpoena
           Who is a Citizen?
   Our Constitution says that a citizen of
    the United States is a person who, by
    birth or by choice, owes allegiance to
    this nation
You are legally an American citizen if any
of the following statements are true:
                                        At least one of your
   You were born in the                 parents was an
    United States or one of              American citizen when
    its territories (U.S.                you were born
    Virgin Islands, Guam,                   As long as one of your
    Puerto Rico, American                    parents is a citizen, it
                                             does not matter where
    Soma)                                    you were born
        This is even true if your
    
        parents are not American
                                        You have been
        citizens, unless they were       naturalized, which
        living in the US as a            means you have gone
        representative of a              through the process of
        foreign nation                   becoming a citizen
                                            If you were younger than
                                             18 when your parents
                                             became citizens
The Naturalization Process
                                    Step 2: Examination
                                         18 or older
   Aliens (a citizen of one         

                                         Legal residence in the
    country that lives in            
                                         country for at least 5
    another) must go                     years; in state for at
    through the                          least 3 months
    naturalization process in           Good moral character
    order to become a                    (not having been
    citizen of the United                convicted of certain
                                         crimes)
    States
                                        Loyalty to the principles
   Step 1: Application &                of the U.S. Constitution
    Fee                                 Ability to read, write, and
       Submitted through U.S.           speak English
        Citizenship and                 Knowledge of US history
        Immigration Services             and government
       $ 675.00 as of 2008
           Citizenship Test
   Do you have what it takes to become a
    citizen?
        The Naturalization Process
        (cont’d)
   Step 3: Final Hearing
       Applicant appears before a citizenship
        court
            Review of the application
            Judge asks applicant to take an oath of loyalty
             to the United States
            The applicant receives a certificate of
             citizenship
Naturalized Citizens
   Have all the same rights as duties of
    citizens by birth except the right to be
    President or Vice President
   Once a citizen you will always be a
    citizen except:
       Give up citizenship to be a citizen of
        another country
       May be taken away if convicted of trying to
        overthrow the US Government
Illegal Aliens
              The Office of Citizen
   “ Government of the people, by the people,
    and for the people” ~ Abraham Lincoln
       Government has the right to make laws, build
        roads, collect taxes, and make agreements with
        other countries only if the citizens want it to
       Power of government is based on “the consent of
        the people”
            Citizens have the right to decide what government will
             and will not do
The Office of Citizen
   Impossible for each citizen represent
    themselves in government
       Elect Representatives
            People who are elected to speak and act for their fellow
             citizens in government (many different offices: governor,
             mayor, members of congress, President of the United
             States)
            Representatives only hold office only as long as we want
             them to (we delegate/lend our power to elected officials)
            Office of citizen is a life long position
              Rights, Duties, &
               Responsibilities
   Being a citizen is much like having a
    driver’s license
       Right: to drive on public roads and park in
        authorized parking places
       Duties: required by law such as observing
        traffic signals (red light, stop sign) and
        speed limits
       Responsibilities: expected to drive in a way
        that does not endanger others
             Rights of Citizens
   The right to hold office      These rights, and our
    and vote                       other rights as citizens,
   The right to say what          are based on the
    you think in speech or         fundamental beliefs and
    writing (as long as it         values Americans share:
    does not infringe on the       equal respect, freedom,
    rights of others               equality, and justice
   The right to practice         Our rights are
    your own religion              guaranteed by the
   The right to have a fair       Constitution and
    trial                          protected by the
                                   Supreme Court
           Duties of Citizens
   Obeying the laws
   Defending the nation
   Serving on a jury or as a witness in
    court
   Paying taxes
   Attending school
             Obeying the Laws
   Obeying the laws
       Society’s formal rules are called laws
       Some laws are intended to keep us from
        hurting each other (from traffic lights to
        laws against armed robbery)
       Other laws established for making and
        settling disagreements
       Must obey laws that protect other citizens’
        rights
             The Rule of Law
   In a democracy, no individual is above the
    law, not even the President
   The concept of a government of laws, rather
    than of men and women, is called the rule of
    law.
   Officials must base their decisions off of the
    law, not personal opinion.
   If an official breaks the law, they must be
    treated the same as any other citizen
   Our laws are public; citizens know the basic
    laws of the land
          Defending our Nation
                             Men must register with
   The United States
    maintains armed           the selective service
    services even during      when they turn 18
    peacetime so that we        Registration does not mean

    can defend ourselves in      they will be called to serve,
    case of an attack and        but they can be called to serve
    help other countries         in a national emergency
    protect themselves          What if moral beliefs prohibit a

   When 18 years old            man from fighting? They may
                                 request to be registered as a
    you may volunteer to         conscientious objector. If
    serve in the Army,           request is approved they may
    Navy, Air Force, or          be placed in an army hospital
    Marines                      etc.
What if someone dodges the draft or
doesn’t register with the selective to
               service?
   Selective Service                      Draft Dodging
       Fast Facts                             US went to full volunteer
            All men ages 18-26                 military in 1973
             required to register              Prison time and a fine for
            $250,000 fine                      dodging the draft,
            5 years in prison                  followed by enlistment
            Not eligible for Federal          Vietnam draft dodgers
             Financial Aid                      went to Canada
            Not eligible for                       Estimated 20,000-
             government jobs                         30,000 (Wikipedia)
                                                    1977 amnesty declared
                                                     by President Carter
                                                    Still could be arrested if
                                                     returned to the united
                                                     States
               Serving on a Jury
   In our legal system, a person
    is considered “innocent until      Judge doesn’t make final
    proved guilty” and no person        decision in a criminal trial
    may be found guilty of a            unless requested by the
    crime unless that guilt can         defendant
    be proved “beyond a                Constitution guarantees that
    reasonable doubt.”                  anyone accused of a crime
   We believe the best way to          may have the case decided
                                        by a jury of peers ~ a group
    prove a person’s innocence          of ordinary citizens who hear
    is to conduct a trial with          the case and decide whether
    citizens participating in the       the accused person is
    process                             innocent or guilty
   Lawyers, police officers,          The decision of the jury is
    psychologists play an               based upon the evidence
    important role in trial, but        heard at the trial
    they do not make the final
    decision as to innocence or
    guilt
         Differences Between a Civil
              and Criminal Trial
   Civil Trial
        A private party files a suit and  Criminal Trial
         becomes the plaintiff; accused       Suit is filed by the

         becomes the defendant                 government
        Punishment is never                   (prosecution), accused
         incarceration; only                   becomes the defendant
         reimbursement for losses             Punishment could be

        Jury usually not selected unless      incarceration, a fine, or
         defendant requests a jury; final      death penalty (in some
         decision usually made by Judge        states)
         depending on how much total          Jury is always selected

         losses are being claimed by the       unless the defendant
         plaintiff; jury decision does not     requests the Judge to
         have to be unanimous (8 to 4)         make the decision
        Small claims court (Judge Judy)  Jury must 100% agree to
            Both parties have agreed not to   convict or acquit
            have a jury                           “hung jury”
                            Jury Duty
   How are citizens selected
    for jury duty?                            Can you get out of jury
       May be selected randomly               duty?
        from the electoral roll or by
        driver’s license number                       No professions are
       Every citizen age 18 and                       exempt
        over is eligible                              Exemption forms can be
       Summons letter                                 filled out for
           Call morning of to see if
                                                       medical/mental reasons,
            beginning of alphabet or                   active military service,
            end of alphabet                            can request
                  Cannot send someone                 postponement (mother
                   else in your place!                 of 5 kids)
            Can only be summoned                     Age-related excusal for
             once every 12 months if
             service doesn’t last longer               people over 75
             than 3 days
            If lasts longer than 3 days
             can’t be summoned for the
             next 3 years
                           Jury Duty
   What if you refuse to          Are citizens paid for
    show up for jury                jury duty?
    duty?                              Allegheny County
                                            $9.00 per day if
       Risk of fines or
                                             selected plus .17 cents
        imprisonment                         per mile; $25 per day
                                             after 3 days of service
                                            Does not reimburse for
                                             parking
                                            Not all jobs pay
                                             employees for jury duty
                                                  Mrs. H doesn’t lose
                                                   any $ but would have
                                                   to pay the district the
                                                   $ from jury duty
                           Jury Duty
   Who picks the jury?                     How many members
       Prosecuting and Defense              are on a jury?
        attorneys interview and
        agree on who the jurors                 Usually 12 members
        will be                                  on a jury in a
            Attorneys can only                  criminal trial
             “strike” so many
             possible jurors….risk
             ending up with a jury
             they are not happy with
             if they “strike” too many
          Serving as a Witness
   During a trial lawyers        Juries and witnesses
    on both sides may call         play an important part
    witness to prove their         in making sure trials are
    case                           fair
   Witnesses are people
    who have seen events          Since Americans have
    related to the crime or        the right to a fair trial, it
    have special information       is the duty of all adult
    that may help                  citizens to serve as
    determine the guilt or         jurors and witnesses
    innocence of the person        when called to do so
    on trial
    What if a witness refuses to
              testify?
   Held in contempt of court
       Fine or jail time
   Subpoena
       A written demand to appear in court to testify
       literally means “under penalty”
       Options
            1 show up to court)
            2 attempt to convince the court you don’t have to show
             up to court
            Be held in contempt of court
                 Fine or jail time
                    Paying Taxes
    Through paying taxes,

    our local, state, and
                                       Income tax
    national government                    Gradual tax
    raise money to pay for                 The more you make
    the services that                       the more you pay
    citizens ask them to                        Federal Income Tax
    provide                                      $87.09
                                                      $2,649.62 so far
   Sales tax                                     
                                                      this year
       Flat tax                                PA Income Tax
       Everyone pays the same                   $49.38
        amount                                       $1,317.09 so far
       Student, teacher, Big Ben                     this year
        all pay the same amount
        of tax on a large Frank’s
        buff-chick pizza
              Income Tax Brackets
Margin                           Married Filing
                                                       Married Filing
al Tax         Single          Jointly or Qualified                        Head of Household
                                                        Separately
Rate[1]                            Widow(er)



 10%             $0 – $8,350          $0 – $16,700           $0 – $8,350          $0 – $11,950



 15%        $8,351– $33,950      $16,701 – $67,900      $8,351 – $33,950    $11,951 – $45,500



 25%       $33,951 – $82,250    $67,901 – $137,050     $33,951 – $68,525   $45,551 – $117,450


                                        $137,051 –                                 $117,451 –
 28%      $82,251 – $171,550                          $68,525 – $104,425
                                         $208,850                                   $190,200

                 $171,551 –             $208,851 –           $104,426 –
 33%                                                                       $190,201 - $372,950
                  $372,950               $372,950             $186,475


 35%              $372,951+             $372,951+             $186,476+             $372,951+
              What if you don’t pay your
                        taxes?

   IRS (International Revenue Service)
       Will come find you
            “auditing”
       All tax returns must be filed by April 15th
        every year “Tax Day”…fines for being late!
       Fines…..then if you still don’t pay you will
        go to prison and still have to pay the
        money you owe once you get out!
          Attending School 
   Everyday you go to school you are
    performing one of your duties as a citizen
   Society depends on school to make sure that
    young people are prepared for the future and
    that the United States can continue to
    compete with the rest of the world
   Schools give students the knowledge they
    need in order to carry out the duties and
    responsibilities as a citizen
    What happens if you don’t go
        to school? 
   Must attend school until age 17
       Can dropout at 15 with parent permission (worst
        idea ever!!!)
   Parents will be fined for truancy
       More than 3 days without a lawful excuse
       $300 for each violation
       Parents must perform community service or
        attend a parenting education class
            If refuses parent can spend up to 5 days in jail for each
             violation
       Students can lose driver’s license for up to 6
        months at a time
       Taken out of your home (CYF) and placed in an
        alternative facility or possibly with another family
         Cost of High School
         Dropouts to Society
   ½ of all dropouts use Welfare services
   ½ of all dropouts are in prison
   Students who do not complete High
    School cost taxpayers billions of dollars
    in lost revenues, welfare,
    unemployment, crime prevention, and
    prosecution
            Education Pays
   $7.15 (current minimum wage in PA) x
    2,000 hours (average American works
    this many hours per year) = $14,300 
   $7.15 x 4,000 = $28,600 
   Poverty line for a family of 4 in 2008 =
    $21,200
   Education Pays!!!!!
     Responsibilities of Citizens
   Unlike duties, responsibilities are
    fulfilled by choice
   Even though not required by law,
    fulfilling our responsibilities is just as
    important a part of being a citizen as
    performing our duties
          Working Towards the
            Common Good
   The basic responsibility of all citizens is
    to contribute to the common good, or
    the well-being of all members of society
       This means to acting in ways that protect
        the rights of all Americans and to make our
        communities good places to live.
                       Voting
   One of the basic rights of American
    citizenship and one of our most important
    duties
   We vote on local, state and the national level
   Sometimes asked to make important
    decisions on ballot issues
   DON’T COMPLAIN IF YOU DON’T
    VOTE!!!!!
       Important when voting to be informed about the
        candidates and the issues
       Separate fact from opinions while watching for
        bias and propaganda
             Other Civic Responsibilities
                                             Influencing Government
   Holding Public Office                        Persuade government to take
       People who agree to hold public           action regarding a cause you
        office are filling another very           believe in (writing letters to
        important responsibility of               representatives, speaking a
        citizenship                               city council or school board
                                                  meetings
       “Public Servant”
   Participating in Election                Serving the Community
    Campaigns                                    Not a civic responsibilities
                                                  deal with government
       One way to fulfill responsibilities
        of citizenship is to help a              Each of us are responsible for
        candidate in his or her election          making our communities a
        campaign or to work the polls on          better place to live
                                                       Volunteering, respecting others and
        Election Day
                                                   

                                                       their opinions (contributing to the
                                                       common good)

				
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