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Coastal Water Pollution

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					Coastal Water Pollution


Chapter 14 – Report of the USCOP
Eutrophication - Nutrification
   Eutrophication is the #1 water
    pollution problem that we face.
   Sources – urban wastewater
    treatment plants, storm runoff,
    agricultural runoff, animal feeding
    operations
   Impacts – nutrient (N, P) inputs,
    algal blooms, decomposition and
    oxidation of organic material
Eutrophication - Nutrification
   Additional impacts
       fish kills
       changes and
        reduction of marine
        biodiversity
       public health
        impacts
       decreases in
        tourism
Point Sources of Pollution
   Industrial plants, wastewater treatment
    plants, animal feeding operations
   NPDES – National Pollutant Discharge
    Elimination System. State implemented
    program with USEPA guidance.
   TMDL – Total Maximum Daily Load
    Program. States list waters that do not
    meet water quality standards and,
    subsequently, must calculate TMDLs for
    non-conforming waters. The program
    reduces pollutant loads from various
    sources.
    Point Sources of Pollution
   Wastewater Treatment
    Plants
        Primary Treatment
         removes suspended
         solids, pathogens.
        Secondary Treatment
         reduces amounts of
         organic materials.
        Tertiary Treatment
         reduces nutrients (N,
         P). Tertiary
         treatment costs 25%      USCOP recommends
         more than Secondary     Tertiary Treatment for
         Treatment.              nutrient-impaired waters.
Point Sources of Pollution

   Septic Systems – 25% of the U.S.
    population is served by residential
    septic systems only.
   Septic systems can contaminate
    groundwater supplies and degrade
    coastal waters.
Point Sources of Pollution
   Combined Sewer
    Systems (CSS) capture
    street runoff, domestic
    sewage, and industrial
    discharges in the same
    pipes.
   During heavy rains,
    CSS may discharge
    directly to coastal
    waters without
    treatment.
Combined Sewer Systems
   Combined Sewer
    Systems create
    significant
    degradation of
    coastal water
    quality during
    periods of heavy
    rains.
Point Sources of Pollution
   Animal Feeding Operations –
    238,000 animal feeding operations
    in the U.S. produce more than 3
    times the sewage that humans
    produce.
   The largest operations – 18,500
    Concentrated Animal Feeding
    Operations/CAFOs - will require
    NPDES permits by 2006.
Point Sources of Pollution

   Recommendations –
       Development of Best Management
        Practices (BMPs)
       Long-term investments in improved
        infrastructure
       Market-based incentives in water
        pollution management (tradable
        nutrient credits)
       Improved monitoring and enforcement
Point Sources of Pollution -
        Solutions
Non-Point Sources of Pollution
   Sources = agrochemicals (fertilizers &
    pesticides), livestock and pet waste,
    urban street/stormwater runoff, timber
    harvesting sites, construction sites.
   The cumulative input of pollutants to U.S.
    waters from NPS pollutants is great.
   The multiple, small sources are extremely
    difficult to regulate.
Non-Point Sources of Pollution

   Problems – contamination of
    drinking water, beach closures,
    bacterial contamination, increased
    need for maintenance dredging,
    losses of tourism revenues
Non-Point Sources of Pollution

   Potential Solutions
       Establish measurable goals for the
        reduction of non-point source
        pollutants on a watershed basis.
       Create economic incentives for farmers
        to reduce agricultural runoff, i.e.
        nutrient credits for implementing
        agricultural BMPs
       If States fail to protect their waters,
        the federal government should
        withhold financial support.
Coastal Water Pollution

				
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