In AO2 I am going to a produce an comprehension description of two of my job roles
who are involved in promoting health, showing an understanding of what they do and
their skills and qualities each worker requires ensuring that they meet the needs of
individuals. Also I’m going to explain two preventive measures that would apply to
my key job roles and how the preventive measures are being applied by the key
workers. And finally show an understanding of the implications of the current health
There are many different types of health roles such as care assistance, health fitness
instructors, nurses and midwifes G.P and many more health professions. The two
key workers I choose were a fitness instructor and a nurse.
One of my key workers is Holly Jones who is a fitness instructor, she works in
Walsall council under the sports and fitness department she is an officer as well as
performance consultation. Holly works within a team of people who all have different
job roles, firstly there’s Joe who is a referral management; Dan is the fun for life
coordinator; Julie way forward casual coaching staff also she the one who organises
the sessions and training and Nad is the one who holds the sessions and make sure
everybody works within a team.
As well as holly’s main job she also promotes healthy lifestyle by promoting and
marketing also referring it so more people are aware of it. Holly gives leaflets out
about change for life, work with people who work to promote healthy lifestyle, holly
also advertise by producing well-being festivals, roller banners. She also promotes
sports. She and her organisation were uniform so it catching people’s eye and
people can join; holly has to strike up conversation with peoples so they are aware of
change for life
Holly and her team’s main focuses are to reduce obesity in Walsall. Walsall is one of
the many areas where obesity is a major problem. The team including holly want to
reduce obesity overall in Walsall and make young people feel healthier. Holly and
her team believe that the young people should be active as they are still growing and
learning; therefore it becomes a good habit in the future for them Holly and her team
have been trying to reduce obesity since 2006, as it has been successful over the
years. The funding that was needed is available until March 2011 also the funding
was not affected by the cost like other organisations because the funding was
secured before hand. Holly and her team work with the NHS, leisure and fitness
clubs to reduce obesity.
Change for life is a programme for children aged 8-16 it also could be a programme
for parents, parents get monitored as well as the children, and both parents and
children get consultation and help about healthy lifestyle and how to maintain it. It
also improves communication skills for children and parents as well as holly
(www.changeforlife.com).Change for life helps families work together to have a
healthier life and deal with the stresses of modern day. This organisation mainly
aims at children as they are the future generation. The website is set out in a
colourful and imaginative way so children will find it entertaining and would want to
do the activities. Their motto is to ‘Change4Life -eat well, move more and live longer.
This is the change for life webpage. The
webpage is colourful and bright so it could
attract the parents and the children. The
websites gives information regarding what
change for life is and what to do if you want to
join change for life
Different option you
can click on to
make it clear and
faster of what you
are looking at
Roles and responsibilities
Holly has many different
roles and responsibilities that
she need to do in order to do
her job properly.
Holly and her team go to schools and do educational sessions about keeping fit and
healthy. They also do interventions were they can work with the children and work
with the rest of the family and help them change their lifestyle for a better life. They
do Many physical activities and sports sessions which are cheap and affordable for
example swimming, swimming sessions are held in the Gala baths they also allow
people to join leisure clubs where they can do multi activities they do this to ensure
everybody across the borough has an opportunity to access these sessions. Holly
and her team want young children are active as they grow, which is a good habit as
Holly also has to give physical advice service to parents and have consultation with
parents regarding their children also help find ways to encourage other fitness
programmes such as ‘time to change’& ’evolve’ these are mainly for adults Holly has
to socialise both with the children and the parents while they are involved with way
forward. Consultations are held every 3-6 months depending on the child, she has to
regularly check the weight and check the lifestyle of the parent and see how she can
Holly’s role is to work with parents as well as the child, most parents don’t like to get
involved but holly does prefer family participation as it helps with self esteem issues,
this help them with a sense of achievement. As well as working with the parents and
the children holly has to focus on promoting, focussing, referring about what is
available and holly has to focus on the interventions and preventions.
A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the
minimum outlay of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into domain-
general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some
general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self
motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a
certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to
assess the level of skill being shown and used.
Holly uses a number of skills in her day to day work. Holly’s main skills are to plan
and co-ordinate. She plans what she has to do with every different individual and
co-ordinate during the day. Holly also moves around the borough to run multiple
sessions so everybody has the opportunity to attend. Sessions are run across
Sheffield Bloxwich as well as Walsall.
Communication; Holly needs to have good communication skills as she has to target
her message in different ways. Parents and children need visual and interactive
ways that will make them interested to join and enjoy the sessions. Parent would
want a formal conversation which would interest them regarding weight
management. Holly has to do a lot of team work and collaborate with many people.
Holly and her team try to make it as informal as possible so that children don’t feel
like that they are in school and they don’t have to do, they are here to enjoy it rather
than force themselves, sometimes it be challenging for holly to make it informal also
they don’t make it that informal that children forget their discipline. Whilst teaching
them how to lose/maintain weight they also teach discipline holly also needs good
listening and good speaking skills as she has to be able to use vocabulary that the
children would understand, she would have to use different vocabulary when she
talking to the parents and differently when talking to the child.
confidentiality; Holly needs to be able to keep information confidential and not allow
anyone to be able to view the files, the files should be private and if Holly needs to
share data she should ask the parents permission.
Teamwork- holly needs to be able to have good teamwork as she has to work with
different people and be able to talk within the team and be able to listen to people as
well as giving ideas
Creative thinking- holly needs to be able to create different types of activities and be
able to make them fun as children would get bored whilst doing the same activities
every time by doing different activities children would enjoy themselves and want to
keep coming back
Whilst working as fitness instructor holly needs to have a number of qualities that will
make the children enjoy and keep coming to the sessions.
One of The quality’s of holly are that she has a sense of humour, Holly has a sense
of humour when the children tell jokes she laughs, sometimes holly has to tell some
jokes as well so the kids feel that this place if for having fun and enjoy themselves as
well as trying to keep fit.
Holly’s other quality is that She is kind and sensitive towards how people feel; she
keeps in mind people’s feelings and try’s to gives hints to parents to help on what to
do; the whole experience is laid back so now one feels to pressurised.
Holly encourages families to work together by informing them about the different
activities that are available to family activity centre. Also holly knows how to
encourage people to join and increase the form of physical activity
Holly needs to have good management skills as she has to manage and plan the
activities for the children. Such as being able to have a swimming pool at 3.00pm for
the children who want to do swimming
Holly also needs good observation skills so she could observe how the children do
their activities and be able to monitor and record so she could tell the parents how
the kids are doing by being able to show records stating the children
Holly and her team need coaching and or sports qualifications; they need this
because they are mostly doing physical activities. Holly also needs to be CRB
checked because she is working with children as well as been CRB checked she
needs to have qualifications in child protection. Whilst doing physical activities
people mainly injure them self so it is vital to be able to do first aid. Holly and her
team need to know have a certificate in first aid.
Holly promotes GOOD HEALTH by telling the parents on how to make a good
environment at home also by telling parents on how to keep their child healthy, and
what type of food is recommended. Holly also tells the children by making them
active and by giving them advice on what to do to maintain weight.
The professional job of a nurse is to take care for the unwell. A nurse usually is in
hospitals, a nurse may treat patients as well as advising patients of ways to live a
healthy lifestyle, this is a good way of telling the importance of a healthy lifestyle by
professions, and as they will help them to work on living a healthier lifestyle. Part of
a nurse’s job role includes promoting health
There can be a variety of nurses, for example some nurses may specialise in
working with the elderly, and others working with children, there also could be a
registered nurse, A nurse works amongst a team along with other members of
people who work in health care department to promote health the nurse also provide
care for patients and are responsible for protecting patients from receiving any other
illnesses within a care setting, for example a nurse will change the bed sheets of a
patient regularly to ensure that there is hygiene, which will reduce the risk of a
patient become even more unwell than they may be.
The nurse will also work alongside a doctor, GP, community nurse and other
professional care workers to provide both medical and non-medical treatment to
patients. A nurse may help with providing a patient with antibiotics or painkillers
within the hospital as part of caring for the patient, a nurses job could also include
scanning or x- rays, for example an x-ray could be carried out if a person has a
fractured bone and scans may be carried out if a women is pregnant to check that
the baby is stable.
A nurse plays a really significant position in the boundaries of healthcare; she/he has
lots of tasks in the cure of an individual who has required hospital treatment. Overall
a nurse should provide support to patients to make sure that the patients recover
faster and a nurse may not just look at the illness a patient has but also look at the
total needs of a patient. A nurse makes sure that the patient is comfortable and
makes sure that the patient is receiving enough food and drink, a nurse will wash
and clean the patient and ensure that the patient does not experience any pain. A
nurse will maintain the patient as moveable as possible to keep away from the
consequences of things like pressure sores and firm muscles and joints and they will
also provide emotional support to the patient to help them recover. A nurse will also
give injections to patients as part their job role, and will also record the progress a
Gemma’s day at a hospital as a nurse
Gemma starts work at the hospital at 8.00am, and works throughout the day until
4.00pm. Gemma gets a 1 hour for lunch and 2 coffee breaks. Before Gemma starts
her duty she has a meeting with the sisters and the nurses on the ward to find out
what has happened to the patient during the night. Gemma and her colleagues will
discuss the patient’s case and if any changes are recommended the sister will tell
them the changes needed.
As Gemma starts to work, she firstly greets all patients on the ward and asks how
they are. She talks too them and usually tells what the weather is like. As the
patients have already had their breakfast Gemma fist thing she would do is to
remove all the breakfast things and help the patients to get washed, some may be
able to do it by themselves whilst other would need help. Some patients need
bedpans so Gemma needs to help them sit comfortably on them and empty them
whilst the client has finished. Gemma work with other nurses to lift patients as they
are not allowed to be lifted them on their own. Gemma also has to make sure that
the beds are made properly so that each patient is comfortable.
The patients are left to sleep, read or watch TV while Gemma check their records
and makes sure that they are ready when the doctors come for rounds, the doctors
mainly do the rounds of the ward between 9.30am and 11.00am. Gemma goes
round with the doctors so she could answer any questions about their medication the
patient received and any changed in the patient’s condition. Doctor talks to the
patient and observes, the doctor also decides whether to change any medication or
the type of treatment given.
At 11.00am the tea coffee trolley arrives and Gemma helps to make sure that
everybody gets the drink that they want, also some patients might need their
dressing changed or be prepared for a surgery or physiotherapy. Lunch for patients
eat their lunch also Gemma helps feed some patients who need help.
Throughout the day Gemma help brighten up patients day, some be worried about
the treatment and their condition, Gemma talks to them as by reassuring them and
explaining to them exactly what is going to happen to them.
After lunch patients are monitored and their temperature and pulse is checked also
the patients get any medication that they need, all this is done with the sister. All
records are added to the chart.
At 2.00pm visiting time starts, Gemma has to make sure that all records are up to
date, also Gemma has to talk to some patients as they don’t have no visitors on the
other hand she also has to change some patients dressing or who feel unwell.
Finally before Gemma finishes work she has a meeting with the staffs who are
coming on duty and exchange information about patient’s health, treatment and
A nurse needs a number of skills to do her job properly. A nurse will need
communication skills, practical skills, skills in diplomacy, observation skills and
Communication - A nurse should have good communication skills as most of the
time nurses are communicating with patients, relative’s doctors and other care
workers. A nurse should know about using the right tone of voice when speaking to
patients and others also nurses should use the right vocabulary, so patient could
understand as well as talking a nurse should have good listening skills. A nurse
should be able to Communicate through technology such as computers. It is likely
that all nurses will already have knowledge about how to send emails because it
would have been a part of the degree they achieved, being able to send emails can
help the nurses work as a team with other care worker. Also a nurse should be able
to communicate in different way to patients, some nurses may need to know more
than one language but it’s not necessary.
Confidentiality – a Nurse should learn how to keep data confidential about patients
and not share any information to others, a nurse needs to be able to keep
information private and it is important that information about a patient sent through
emails providing information is kept confidential and within the health care
Management- Nurses should have skills in management as they have to plan and
organise time. Management also involves using the best equipment Also a nurse
should be able to use the latest technology and the equipment to perform and treat
patients such as x-rays perform scans be able to help with operations.
Observation and monitored - a nurse will need good observation skills as they need
to observe patients condition also by observing a nurse should be able to monitor as
well, a nurse should note down any changes made in the clients condition on a
regular bases such as every hour.
Teamwork -A nurse should also be able to work in a team because a lot of teamwork
is used in health care setting, a nurse usually has to work with another person as
they would not be able to do something themselves, example: when lifting a patient
of their bed, a nurse cannot do this on their own as they would need another nurse
or a sister to help
Supportive skills and skills in diplomacy -A nurse should be able to support her
patients when they need, and when they need her support also a nurse should
support her colleagues’ when they are treating patients and a nurse could also have
diplomacy skills where she have to understand the needs of others and being
sensitive towards them.
One of the main qualities a nurse should have is too show best interest in patients
and be able to care for patients in an appropriate manner as a nurse’s first priority s
to look after the patients and give the best treatment that they need.
A nurse should be kind toward people, it is important that health care settings show
kindness towards patients because patients want to feel secure around nurses and
other service providers. Kindness is one way of ensuring that the patients feel
comfortable and secure. If a nurse is kind the patients will realise that the nurse is
friendly which will also make them feel comfortable around the nurse and want to talk
to the nurse about any problems that they have
A nurse should be calm and have patience she should be able to handle different
types of situations within the hospitals as you don’t know what type of illness or
disease a patient can have and a nurse should be able to handle the situation in a
sensible manner and have patients as some situations take longer than others
A nurse needs to be reliable so the patients trust her and be able to speak to her to
share the problem, also by giving the patients the right medicine and treating them
like their her own family member.
To become a Nurse you must be registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council.
Also hold a degree or diploma in nursing. The Courses normally last at least three
years full time or five to six years part time and usually require five GCSEs (A*-C) for
a diploma and five GCSEs (A*-C) and two A levels for a degree. From 2013, all
entrants will need to study for a degree.
A nurse could promote GOOD HEALTH by helping patients understand the
importance of good health, she could do this by showing patients leaflets, brochures
talking to them also by telling patient what the outcomes would be if they don’t meet
their health requirements for example: stop smoking if you don’t stop smoking you
could get lung cancer or other types of cancers
Health promotion are solely focusing on preventing people from being ill, this is
important part of health promotion but this also includes the other categories of
health promoting activity which deal with people who are already ill in some way
which is called health prevention Health prevention is reducing or avoiding the risk
of disease and ill health primary through medical intervention There are three types
of health promotion there are primary prevention secondary prevention and tertiary
Primary prevention is an attempt to eliminate the possibility of getting a disease.
Before it can affect people. It is historically based on common sense and recognition
of the proven or suspected cause and effect of diseases. The childhood
immunisation programme is an example of health protection.
Secondary prevention is for those people identified for being the early stage of a
disease, usually through early detection of symptoms. Actions focus on the
underlying cause in order to get rid of any symptoms or any further symptoms
occurring for example stop smoking group prevents imitative for someone who is
already suffering from respiratory problems such as repeat infections
Tertiary prevention refers to the control and reduction of an already established
disease, it helps people to live their lives with the disease example: someone
suffering from Parkinson’s disease being supported in learning about the managing
his or her condition independently as possible.
My first care worker Holly uses the primary prevention; she uses the primary
prevention as she tries to stop any disease from occurring because the children are
or overweight or obese. She makes them loose weight or maintain weight by
educating them about the bad things and what problems occur if you’re over weight
she talks to the people who have joined the programme change for life about weight
loss and being active. On the other hand she also goes to schools with her team to
promote good health and about they types of activities that are available, when she
goes in schools she talks to everyone and not the people who need it. Whilst doing
her job she also helps the people to do as many activities as possible. Holly does
these activities so that youngsters in Walsall are free from any diseases and
illnesses furthermore her main job role was to prevent people from getting any
My second key worker was Gemma who is a nurse, Gemma use all three types of
preventions when doing her day to day work. Gemma would use the primary
prevention when identifying what is wrong with the patient, she would identify
patients at risk factors and work with them to reduce these factors in an effort to
prevent the onset of the disease occurring for example: educating patients about
healthy eating; stop smoking and the effects if you don’t stop.
Gemma would also use the secondary prevention method when trying to remove or
reduce symptoms or trying to prevent the whole disease from occurring and being
able to fully treat the patient. Gemma could try and talk to the patient about the
effects and tell them to keep coming for treatment such as vaccines and regularly
take their medicine on time, if they do this there could be a chance of the disease to
be diagnosed for example: by screening patients to find out the cause; Immunization
by helping to diagnose the problem
Gemma may also use the tertiary prevention as some people in hospital may have
cancer, Gemma would use the tertiary method when helping people to live with their
problems in hospital or even when they are out of hospital. She could help by giving
advice to them on how to live their lives with the problem, Gemma could give advice
and leaflets as well so that the patients know what to do and how to continue with
their everyday life, Gemma could increase the skills required by the individual to
take control of their health at this stage.
People have become more aware of the needs for good health, there are many
different ways where the government advertise health, they do campaigns on TV,
radio, in newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have become more noticeable.
These campaigns cover many different topics and the information they give can be
found all around us in places such as supermarkets, schools and health centres.
Leaflets are often available in doctor’s surgeries.
At the moment there are several health promotion campaigns in the media, they are
run by public health groups attached to the NHS. Information is found mostly on TV
as this is the medium that most people see every day, but there are many other
methods that can be used to carry out a health promotion message. These include
information packs posters and leaflets T.V, cinema and radio.
Government initiative on obesity
The public health white paper was published in November 2004. This document
reviewed all the health inequalities and acknowledged the strong role of the
government in promoting a healthier lifestyle for its public. This included tackling
obesity; trying to make the public eat more fruit and vegetables; persuading public to
look after their health; reduce the number of smokers; increases in exercise;
encourage and support sensible drinking; improve mental health. There are a
number of ways the government have tried to tackle these problems, but the main
difficulty while doing this was tackling the increasing number of obese people in the
u.k and so the government decided to come out with an imitative which was;
“If Britain does not want their population going extremely obese by the year
2050, they should tackle the situation now. Also halting the obesity epidemic
will need sustained and joint work across the public sector”.
The Government is concerned about the levels of obesity in this country. The
latest Health Survey for England (HSE) data shows us that nearly 1 in 4
adults, and over 1 in 10 children aged 2-10, are obese.
In 2007, the Government-commissioned Foresight report predicted that if no
action was taken, 60% of men, 50% of women and 25% of children would be
obese by 2050.
Obesity can have a severe impact on people’s health, increasing the risk of
type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and heart and liver disease.
There is also a significant burden on the NHS - direct costs caused by obesity
are estimated to be £4.2 billion per year and forecast to more than double by
2050 if we carry on as we are.
Reducing obesity is a priority for the Government. We want people to know
that they can change their lifestyle and make a difference to their health.
The Government will provide clear, consistent messages on why people
should change their lifestyle, how to do so, and put in place ways to make this
easier. We will also work in partnership with local government, charities and
business to reduce obesity.
The White Paper Healthy Lives, Healthy People: Our Strategy for Public
Health in England sets out how the Government plans to improve public
health. In spring, the Department of Health will publish a follow-on document
setting out how obesity will be tackled in the new public health and NHS
systems, along with the role that all partners can play.
What is overweight and obesity?
Overweight and obesity are clinical terms used to describe excess body fat.
How do we measure obesity and overweight?
The most common method of measuring obesity is the Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI
is calculated by dividing a person’s weight measurement (in kilograms) by the square
of their height (in meters).
In adults, a BMI of 25 to 29.9 means that person is considered to be overweight, and
a BMI of 30 or above means that person is considered to be obese.
In children and adolescents BMI varies with age and sex, for this reason, the BMI
score for children and adolescents is related to the UK 1990 BMI growth reference
charts in order to determine a child’s weight status.
BMI is the best way we have to measure the prevalence of obesity at the population
level. No specialised equipment is needed and therefore it is easy to measure
accurately and consistently across large populations. BMI is also widely used around
the world, not just in England, which enables comparisons between countries,
regions and population sub-groups.
For most people their BMI correlates well with their level of body fat. However,
certain factors such as fitness, ethnic origin and puberty can sometimes alter the
relation between BMI and body fatness. In cases such as this other measurements
such as waist circumference and skin fold thickness can also be collected to confirm
a person’s weight status.
Weight is measured with the BMI calculator
which tells people about their BMI and if they
are underweight; average; overweight; very
overweight and obese
Why is it important to reduce obesity?
Obesity has a severe impact on the health of individuals, increasing the risk of type-2
diabetes, some cancers, and heart and liver disease.
Around 10% of all cancer deaths among non-smokers are related to obesity. The risk
of Coronary Artery Disease increases 3.6 times for each unit increase in BMI. And
the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is about 20 times greater for people who are
very obese (BMI over 35), compared to individuals with a BMI of between 18 and 25.
These diseases can ultimately curtail life expectancy. Some studies have shown that
severely obese individuals are likely to die on average 11 years earlier than those
with a healthy weight, although this figure can vary depending on an individual’s
Given the impact on individual health, obese and overweight individuals also place a
significant burden on the NHS. Direct costs are estimated to be £4.2 billion and
Foresight have forecasted that this will more than double by 2050 if we continue as
we are. But there are also costs to society and the economy more broadly – for
example, sickness absence reduces productivity. Foresight estimated that weight
problems already cost the wider economy in the region of £16 billion, and that this
will rise to £50 billion per year by 2050 if left unchecked.
What is the Government doing to reduce obesity?
Obesity is a priority for the Government. We want people to know that they can
change their lifestyle and make a difference to their health. What the Government
can do is give the public clear, consistent messages on why they should change
their lifestyle, how to do so, and put in place ways to make this easier.
The White Paper, Healthy Lives, and Healthy People: Our strategy for public health
in England set out radical plans for how the Government will improve public health
and tackle today’s causes of premature death and illness, including obesity.
We will do this by creating Public Health England which will give more power to local
people to improve their health. There will be a ring-fenced public health budget and
Local Authorities will commission the majority of public health services.
We want to give individuals, families and communities the responsibility and
information they need to improve their own health. This includes reducing the levels
of obesity by promoting greater physical activity and a healthier diet.
The Government will facilitate and support people to make informed decisions about
their lifestyle and health, working alongside providers and others in the private and
The Change4Life campaign continues to help individuals and families to eat well and
move more. The National Child Measurement Programmer provides parents with
information on their child’s weight and supports parents to make positive changes
that will affect their child’s long-term health.
In spring, the Department of Health will publish a follow-on document to Healthy
Lives, Healthy People which will set out how obesity will be tackled in the new public
health and NHS systems, along with the role that all partners can play.
The implications are that that the people in the nation would be healthier and live
longer because they are healthy and are less obese, if people are healthier that
means family’s be more happy as they would not worry about each others problems
and be more into other stuff such as caring for the family, planning family activities
however if there is a lot of people who have got obesity this would mean a increase
in the death rate as people will die because of the disease they have got. When
being obese the risk of getting disease is extremely high
If people in the nation be healthy they are less likely to get disease which means
that the hospital could save a lot of money and could improve financially. Also this
means that if people are less obese they are more activate and walk which would be
eco friendly as they would be less likely to use buses and cars and walk more often
Also if the number of people obese decreases this would be cost saving for healthy
living programmes which help adults and children who are obese such as the
change for life programme which the money used for these programmes could help
the economy; especially when hit by the credit crunch.
The NHS has got a website on obesity
which helps people; the website tells
people how to reduce obesity and the
The government has also started a programme for children to loose weight, the
programme is change for life; as I mentioned early on about change for life the
government decided to open a programme that help young children to loose weight,
the programme was funded till March 2011. Government had started other
programmes but was not as successful as change for life
Folen GCSE in health and social care
AS level OCR Health and social care Neil Moonie