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					   Backwards Design, Differentiated
Instruction, and Assessment… the Big
                 Three!

                 Katherine Barwin,
                 Principal
                 Essex Town School
                 District
Overall objectives:

 Solidify Backwards Design ideas (Enduring
 Understandings, KUD’s) as the building
 blocks of a unit, and then clarify the three
 types of assessment and the purposes of
 each.
  Explore the options for DI in terms of
 content, process, and product. Apply all of
 these concepts to “the GRID.”
Differentiated Instruction

Simply put, means:
a) Knowing what you want students to know
    and be able to do, and understanding WHY
    this is important.
b) Knowing what students already know and
    are able to do, relative to (a) above.
c) Mapping out a plan that ensures all students
    reach (A).
The thing about DI

…as compared to “one size fits all” teaching…
DI is harder for teachers, but better for
   students.
It requires planning, anticipation, and flexibility.
Luckily, you have a range of expertise in your classrooms,
  technology, and a vast amount of resource (human/ material) at
  your disposal in school.
A word about planning…

   Did I mention planning?
   Planning at the outset is very, very important.
    You will spend a lot of time in this area.
    Planning, planning, planning, revising, and
    planning some more… and then you’ll start…
   You’ve already had a taste of that planning…
WARNING:

   Teaching is incredibly hard work. Planning
    for effective learning is even harder.

   Some of us are better at this planning than
    others. Use the strengths of those around
    you to determine the best way to accomplish
    this planning. Start small. Move it forward.
My bias…

 If you feel it is a reasonable expectation that
  all students will learn the same thing, at the
  same rate, in the same way,
THEN,
You should reconsider your choice of careers.
This is the KISS version of
Assessment and DI

   These topics are vast and complicated.
   Thus, I have sugared these two topics down
    to the essentials… the KISS (Keep it Simple,
    Silly) version… and many of you are already
    doing these in various ways, so it will be
    manageable!
Pre-assessment

   Take it.
   When you have finished, bring it up to me.
   Stay with me until I give you a task to do with a partner.
   When you and your partner have the tasks, go into a corner of
    the room, read them, choose one, and talk quietly (try to not
    disturb those still taking the pre-assessment)
   Keep going until I give you the signal for three more minutes.
   After three minutes, come join the group to share.
Differentiation Strategies

   You already know MANY. It’s the context of
    when/how you use them that is important.
   Some that you already know:
Backward Design

 This is an approach to planning for
  instruction, by looking at the end-state
  FIRST, and then planning backwards for that.
(hopefully, you have had a taste of this with
  your unit planning drafts….)
                 
Backwards Design and DI

Backwards design, as the process for planning
  your instruction, is critical because it forces
  you to clarify:
    Goals (ie: Content area standards/GE stems).
    Enduring Understandings (Big ideas that will be remembered and
    extend beyond just this content area)
   Essential Questions (Really “big answer” questions that will help lead
    students to think deeply about the content and hook them into the
    thinking process.
   What are your KUD’s? (Content understandings, knows, do’s)?
The Steps of Backwards Design
   Identify your content goals and KUD’s.
   Determine Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
    that hook the student.
   Determine the summative project/ assessment(s) that a child
    will do to show that they can apply this knowledge (KUD) in a
    new way.
   Plan “backwards” from this assessment. Map out the skills and
    content knowledge that a child is going to need in order to be
    successful at this assessment.
   Then, create your PLAN to teach/ structure learning
    opportunities that will help all students learn these critical skills.
    Readiness, interest, learning styles are all part of this planning.
                               The Principle of Backward Design
                                           PLANNING




                                                                                Student Starts with Formative Assessment
                                      Enduring Understanding
Teacher Starts with Planning


                                      Know Understand Do
                                          Start with GE’s
                                   SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT -
                                  How does he/she apply the learning in
                                         an authentic setting?

                                               PLANNING
                               What are the skills I need to teach to advance
                               understanding so the child can demonstrate
                                   knowledge in an authentic setting:.
                                               USE the GE’s

                                   FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS
                                How do I make sure everyone is getting it
                                           along the way?
Summative Assessment

   Culminating project
   Application of learning that has taken place
    (KUD’s) in a new situation
   Authentic and relevant (address the Enduring
    Understanding)
   Allows for differentiation
   “Brings the learning, to this point, all
    together.”
Explorers Unit:

Enduring Understanding: Exploration involves
   risk, success and failure, and brings about
   change.
Can this be applied across settings over time?
Is this a big idea?
                      What is the overarching
                     theme that can be applied
                            to real life?

       Confucius say: ”Exploration involves risk, success
             and failure and brings about change.”

                              Content                     Content
  Content                    Knowledge                     Doings
Understanding                What are the facts
                               you want the
                           students to know? (ie:
                                                       These start with
   The big ideas          Which specific explorers?     active verbs:
worth remembering.        What accomplishments?       Locate, Construct,
                          When? Why important?
                                                      Read, Use, Define
Some words about KUD’s:

   DO's are activity free. Something like "explain the rock cycle, using the
    four steps and explain why it's called a cycle."The most powerful DO is
    a combo of KNOW and UNDERSTAND. (A know would just be explain
    the rock cycle. An understanding is that rock formation is a cycle.)
   Understandings: Units should have 2-5 understandings.
   Knows: Knows can go on and on, depending on how explicit you want
    to get. The first bullet of a know should be the key vocabulary inherent
    in your unit.
   Tie each Know and Do to an understanding, because that (the
    understanding) is what we remember over the years.
American Exploration-
Content Understandings

What do I want the students to Understand about American
  exploration?

   Both voluntary and involuntary migration is based upon
    environmental forces such as climate, the availability of resources,
    and economic opportunities as well as cultural forces including
    religious and political factors.

   Geographical features and the environment shaped the patterns of
    settlement, land use, and migration in specific regions of the United
    States
    Humans adapt to the environments in which they live often causing
    cultural shifts and broader understanding.
American Exploration- Content Knowledge
Students will Know:
Key Vocabulary: migration, voluntary/involuntary, economics, geography,
  culture, region, physical, persecution, immigration.
   Patterns of involuntary migration: Trans-Atlantic slave trade,
    resettlement/relocation of Native Americans, religious persecution
   Patterns of voluntary migration: economic and/or religious regions
   The physical and cultural geographic characteristics that shaped and defined
    what America is today. Mountains, climate, natural resources, proximity to
    other countries, etc.
   The physical, political, and cultural characteristics of each region of the United
    States that influenced migration.(ex. Westward expansion, building or railroad,
    etc.)
   The contributions that various cultural groups within regions made to the
    diversity of American culture. (French explorers impact on Louisiana (Mardi
    Gras), French settlements along the Mississippi whose names still exist, etc.
Coming up with the KUD’s:

   What do you want the students to know,
    understand, and be able to do at the end of
    your unit (this connects with your GE’s).
   Why is this important for kids to know? So
    what?
   Be sure to keep in mind the fact that these
    elements will drive your assessments.
In UbD, thinking about your summative
assessment comes at the beginning…

   Once you know your EU’s and KUD’s, you
    then plan for your summative assessment.
   Once you have come up with ideas for your
    summative assessment, you double-check to
    make sure that they are aligned with your
    EU’s and KUD’s.
   Then, you identify the requisite skills/content
    students need, in order to be successful in
    the summative assessment.
A quick exercise…

 Immigration Unit: I asked you to imagine
  what might you devise for your students as a:
 Content Understanding:
 Know:
 Do:
Bonus: What might an Enduring Understanding
  for this unit be? How about an EQ?
Now, think of a summative assessment…
Thinking of the Immigration Unit…

   Look at your KUD’s and EU’s.
   What might a summative assessment be,
    that would accomplish all that a summative
    assessment should:
   Application of learning that has taken place (KUD’s) in a new situation
   Authentic and relevant (address the Enduring Understanding)
   Allow for differentiation

Take 10 minutes or so to come up with some ideas… and share as a
   class…
Assessment

     Pre-assessment: Figuring out what students
      already know (readiness), and/or how they
      approach learning (their affective, learner
      characteristics related to learning).
     Ongoing-formative assessment: Determining
      how successful they are along the way (what
      is sticking, where is the confusion).
     Summative: End-state assessment…
      application of the learning to new setting.
Share sample of a unit…

   These are the EU’s and KUD’s for a short
    unit on Literary Elements/Devices.
   Take a look at the initial planning GRID.
   Your thoughts?
   Now look at the ideas for summative
    assessment options. Thoughts?
Pre-assessments:

   Depend on what you are trying to learn about
    the students.
   Happen at the start of the year (big,
    repeating skills).
   Also happen at the start of a new unit
    (discrete, new skills/content)…
   Use the information that you get from them to
    guide/plan instruction.
As a MS Reading/LArts teacher…

   Beginning of the year pre-assessments: (thinking
    about requisite skills and assumptions)
Reading comprehension for literal and inferential text, for both literary and informational text, at
     approx. levels, to determine a baseline.
Purpose/organization/details/VT/Gum in a writing sample (Do you think you are a good reader,
     explain) to determine a baseline.
Note-taking abilities
Ability to read my cursive handwriting
Use a dictionary… find a word, locate correct meaning from context.
Ability to deal with frustration (frustration assessment)
Questionnaire (nosy questionnaire) about the students interests and lives (hobbies, learning
     styles, study habits, time after school, pet peeves, tv, chores, family responsibilities,
     favorite movies/tv shows, etc.)
Pre-assessment for UNIT

   Pre-assess the readiness skills that you don’t
    already know, related to the KUD’s and
    Summative Assessment skills/content that
    you have identified.
   Not for a grade… culture shock for some
    students (parents) if not a regular
    occurrence.
   To be used to plan for your instruction and to
    monitor growth!
Formative Assessments

   Dipstick checks at frequent intervals to monitor
    understanding and growth as students move along
    the “got it” continuum.
   Teacher uses it to guide instruction for next
    session... Next steps. Teacher gives students
    feedback about their growth along the “starting,
    getting there, got it!” continuum.
   Students use it as an opportunity to self-reflect on
    how they feel about their learning and make plans
    about next steps.
   Teacher gives FEEDBACK to students (not a grade).
Formative Assessment examples

   Exit tickets
   Review of student work.
   Skills checklists from student work
   Anecdotal records of student work
   Student questionnaires and feedback forms
   Observation checklists
   Individual check-ins with student
    (written/oral)
Grading vs Assessment

Rule of Thumb:
Under-grade, rather than over grade. Grades
 shut down learning. Feedback is more
 valuable to students.
Data collection is EXTREMELY
important!

   It isn’t enough to do these assessments. You
    need some sort of a data collection system,
    related to the KUD’s and points of interest, so
    that you can monitor growth of students
    easily.
   This will also help you group students for
    either extensions or remediation (flexible
    grouping).
Example of data collection form:

          Purpose   Organization   Details   VT   GUM
Student
          M         M              N         M    N
Mary
          N         B              N         N    M
Bill
          M         M              M         M    B
Joe
          B         N              B         N    N
Nedim
          N         N              M         M    M
Suzette
How to determine assessments
needed (again, use the skills/content of your summative
assessment to start your thinking about this…what skills/content
must students have in order to be successful at the Summative
Assessment?):


What is the skill/content   What are my readiness/     How can I preassess for   How can I formatively
(the KNOW/DO)?              affect/ LS/ Intelligence   this/ how have I pre-     (dip-stick) assess for
                            concerns about this?       assessed for this?        this?
Immigration Unit idea:

   In your groups, fill out the GRID for the
    knows/do’s related to your summative
    assessment that you have outlined, and
    consider a pre-assessment and formative
    assessment that you might want to be
    thinking about...
Summative assessment
What is the              What are my pre-        How can I pre-assess   How can I formatively
skill/content involved   requisite concerns      for this/ how have I   (dip-stick) assess for
in this assessment?      (readiness/affect/LS/   pre-assessed for       this?
KNOW/DO                  intelligences) about    this?
                         each?
Mapping out your plan

   Differentiated Instruction usually means
    looking at three areas:
           •   Content (Skills/content that we want students
               to learn)

           •   Process (How students will learn this)

           •   Product (How students will show us that they
               have learned this)
Differentiating Instruction

 Content
 Process
 Product
Using the following common techniques:
 Tiering
 RAFT
 Curriculum Compacting
Content: What are we talking about?

   Content consists of ideas, concepts, skills,
    knowledge that we want students learn. The
    way we differentiate content is by thinking
    hard about the depth and complexity of this,
    depending upon what a student currently
    knows and where you want him/her to move.
How can you differentiate content?

   You can tier complexity of the content (depth,
    breadth). Use your standards and GE’s…
    they are already tiered for you… if you look
    above and below…
   You can also differentiate the source of
    content.
History                       Historical Connections
6.4        Students identify major historical eras and analyze periods of transition in various times in their
local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide, to interpret the
influence of the past on the present. This is evident when students:



                     Prek-4                                                5-8                                               9-12

6.4.a. Demonstrate understanding of concepts         Evidence Prek-4 b. and c. applies, plus-           Evidence Prek-4 b. and c. applies, plus-
of past, present and future (e.g., create time       6.4.aa. Demonstrate the ways that time has         6.4.ddd. Sequence historical eras; identify the
lines, create chronologies based on narratives,      been organized throughout history (e.g. linear,    characteristics of
compare and contrast family life, or school, and     cyclical) and various dating system (e.g., A.D.,   transitions between eras, being sure to make
community life in different periods);                B.C.); and                                         connections to past and present; and
6.4.b. Examine local history by reading historical   6.4.dd. Sequence historical eras; identify the     research, analyze, and synthesize historical
narratives and documents, investigating              characteristics of transitions between eras,       data from each era:
artifacts, architecture, and other resources that    being sure to make connections to the present;     VERMONT
illustrate key periods in local history (e.g.,       and research, examine, and analyze historical      The Growth and Emergence of Modern
investigate local town's history and establish its   data from each era:                                Vermont Era (1860-1930)
connection/place with Vermont and other              VERMONT                                                -discover the impact Vermonters made on
cultures);                                           The Pre-Contact to 1608 Era                        the Civil War and the war's impact on life in
6.4.c. Investigate the impact of new knowledge         -discover how Abenaki oral tradition reflects    Vermont
and inventions (e.g., the knowledge of fire, the     and influences their society                          -discover the environmental and industrial
printing press, the cotton gin, train, automobile,                                                      factors that effect the emergence of modern
textile, machine, electricity, steam); and           The Colonization Era (1609-1774)                   Vermont (e.g. the great flood of 1927 and
                                                        -interpret the impact of resettlement on        immigrations)
                                                     Abenaki, European colonizers, and the
                                                     environment
Content Differentiation continued…

   Differentiate the source of your content. For
    example, if you have to extract content from
    a source (text book, resources, materials),
    make sure there is a wide range of sources
    to choose from, in terms of difficulty.
   For example, if I am going to learn how to fix
    my computer, I want the EASIEST source (a
    picture book is best).
Tiering by Resources
Tier        Where Plants and Animals Live
Tier I.   Use picture books to help you locate 3 animals and 3
          plants that live in each of the following habitats: desert,
          ocean, tundra, plains. Create a poster using your
          pictures where you sort them by habitat. Include labels.
Tier II. Use National Geographic Kids Magazines to help you
          find pictures and information about the following
          habitats: desert, ocean, tundra, plains. Create a booklet
          of your habitats with pictures and write a one paragraph
          summary explaining the information you found.
Tier III. Use the internet to help you find kid-friendly websites for
          the following habitats: desert, ocean, tundra and plains.
          Critique each website and create a reference document
          for your classmates that includes important facts and
          information to help them find quickly what they need.
Considerations for Content
Differentiation

   Do you have the knowledge to expand your
    content expectations (especially for those
    students who are at either end of a vast
    spectrum)?
   Do you have the resources/materials to
    access, that will help with the content
    acquisition? (on-line resources, librarians,
    other teachers at other grades)
Process Differentiation

   Coming up with different “ways” students can
    learn the material.
   Peer learning (heterogeneous groupings or partners)
   Teacher coaching (homogeneous groups or individual help)
   Stations/centers/independent study/contracts
   Accessing learning styles/intelligences
   Scaffolding (templates, helping devices)
   Technology tools help with the process
When thinking Process Differentiation:

   You have to think about how to structure your
    time, both in the day and over the week…
   How you use your human resources in the
    class (you, your teaching partners, your
    special educators, your students)…
   Set up a schedule that works for you, that
    takes into consideration both activities and
    time.
Sponge/ “Lag time” activities

   This is an important thing to have on-hand,
    so that as students finish at different rates,
    they can move onto another activity without
    wasting time.
   Examples: specific skills practice, journaling,
    silent reading, working on the problem of the
    week, contract work.
Product Differentiation

   Tiered assignments of a variety of forms…
    Tiered Assignments



In a DI classroom, the teacher:
 Uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas.
 Uses varied levels of tasks that asks students to use skills at a level
   that builds on what they already know.
 Uses varied levels of tasks that encourage student growth.

In a DI classroom, the students
   Explore the same essential ideas.
   Work at different levels of thought.
   Work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks.
  Tiering by Complexity

   Tier      Read and respond to a Time for Kids article
                        on global warming
Tier I.     Write a public service announcement using jingles,
            slogans, or art to convey why global warming is a
            problem and what people can do to prevent it.
Tier II.    Conduct a survey of peer awareness and
            understanding of global warming. Design a limited
            number of questions and decide how to report your
            results such as with charts or in a newscast.
Tier III.   Debate the issue. How serious is global warming?
            Each side should express a different viewpoint.
            Provide credible evidence to support your opinions
            and arguments.
Tiering by Challenge Level

  Bloom’s Levels of           Elementary Activities for Book Talk
     Taxonomy                          Presentations
Knowledge                    List the story elements.

Comprehension                Write a summary of the book.

Application                  Support a conclusion about a character
                             with evidence from the book.
Analysis                     Discuss the theme or author’s purpose
                             for writing the book.
Synthesis                    Create a new ending for the story.

Evaluation                   Critique the author’s writing and support
                             your opinion.
 Tiering by Product
                 Groups are formed based on learning preference,
     Tier      using Gardner’s multiple intelligence
                   Solar System: Study of rotation and
                          revolution of the earth.
    Tier I.      Create a flip book, diagram, or model
Visual-Spatial showing the rotation and revolution of the
               earth around the sun.
   Tier II.      Position and move three people to
   Bodily-     demonstrate the concept of revolution and
 Kinesthetic   rotation of the earth with respect to the
               moon and sun.
  Tier III.      Make a timeline of a year detailing the
  Logical-     position of Vermont with respect to the sun.
Mathematical
Product Differentiation - Health

    VISUAL             ORAL            WRITTEN          KINESTHETIC

 Create a story    Radio-spot         Brochure for a    Pantomime a
 board for a TV    (public            pediatrician’s    struggle of “will”
 “ad” using        information with   office for kids   regarding smoking
 few/no words to   music timed,       9-16 with         – including a
 make the point    lead-in)           graphics          decision with
                                                        rationale
 Comic book        Nightline (T.      Research &        Act out a skit on
 parody with       Koppel, with       write an          pressures to
 smoking super     teen who           editorial that    smoke and
 heroes/heroines   smokes,            compares the      reasons not to
                   tobacco farmer,    relative costs    smoke.
                   CEO, person        and benefits of
                   with               tobacco to NC
                   emphysema          – submit for
                                      publication
  Tiering by Outcome
Tier        Students use the same materials, but what they
            do with the materials is different.
                           Pattern Block Math
Tier I.     Identify all the ways you can group your pattern
            blocks.


Tier II.    Identify all the different patterns you can make
            with your pattern blocks.


Tier III.   Create a bar graph to show all the different kinds
            of pattern blocks in your bag.
RAFTs as Projects (also think about them as
possibilities for a Summative Assessment)


   Students pick, or are assigned, one row on
    the RAFT.
   They take a specific role.
   They address a specific audience within a
    given format.
   They address a specific topic.
     Creating a Raft for Immigration Unit

       ROLE              AUDIENCE             FORMAT                TOPIC

12 year old boy who       Best friend in                          Crossing the
came from Europe in        Germany                Letter        ocean on the ship
    the steerage
                           Emigrants                            How to prepare for
     Ship Captain        waiting to come         Booklet            your trip
                           to America
Artist arriving at Ellis Graphic design      picture postcard    Wish you were
 Island from France       firm in NYC                                here
 Dorothy Hargrove        Mayor of NYC                             We are being
 NYC Sophisticate                               Editiorial         overrun by
                                                                   foreigners
Father arriving in first    Wife and                             Don’t worry. It’s
   class from Italy      children in Italy        Letter        easy to immigrate!
 Math RAFT
ROLE           AUDIENCE         FORMAT           TOPIC

Fraction       Whole #          Petition         To be
                                                 considered part
                                                 of the family
Improper       Mixed Numbers    Reconciliation   We’re more alike
Fraction                        Letter           than different
A simplified   A non simplified Public Service   A case for
fraction       fraction         Announcement     Simplicity
GCF            Common Factor Nursery Rhyme       I’m the greatest!

Equivalent     Non-equivalent   Personal ad      How to find your
Fractions                                        soulmate
Curriculum Compacting:

   Curriculum compacting is one of the most common forms of
    curriculum modification for academically advanced students. It
    is also the basic procedure upon which many other types of
    modifications are founded. Compacting is based on the premise
    that students who demonstrate they have mastered course
    content (through pre-assessment), or can master course
    content more quickly, can “buy time” to study material that they
    find more challenging and interesting (Renzulli and Reis, 1985).
    This study is usually in the form of an independent study, that a
    student will negotiate with a teacher (or choose from a list of
    options), that related to the EU’s and Content Understandings
    of a unit.
Remember what I said about Planning,
Planning, and more Planning????

   Here is a GRID that I use when I begin to OUTLINE
    a unit.
   Once I fill it out, I begin to create my daily lesson
    plan overview (not overly specific, but a general
    planning guide for each day).
   Once I rough draft the daily/weekly schedule, I go
    back to the outline and slash/edit it as needed, to fit
    in with my real timeframe/schedule.
   Then, I develop the specifics of each day.
WARNING revisited:

   Teaching is incredibly hard work. Planning
    for effective learning is even harder.

   Some of us are better at this planning than
    others. Use the strengths of those around
    you to determine the best way to accomplish
    this planning. Start small. Move it forward.
In closing…

   As you can see, there is far more to UbD, DI,
    and Assessment than easily fits into this
    schedule.
   Hopefully, I’ve hit the highlights for you, and
    given you plenty of examples to play with.
   Sources for you, for further exploration, on
    the next page…
      Additional Resources
Some Tiered Activity Resources include:
 Coil, C (2004) Standards-Based Activities and Assessments for
  the Differentiated Classroom. Pieces of Learning

   Davidson, K.and T. Decker. (2006) Bloom’s and Beyond: Higher
    Level Questions and Activities for the Creative Classroom.
    Pieces of Learning.
   http://www.doe.in.gov/exceptional/gt/tiered_curriculum/welcome.html (Great
    samples for grades K-12 in 3 content areas: science, math and
    lang. arts.)

   Heacox, D. (2002) Differentiating Instruction in the Regular
    Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc.
More resources…

 Summative assessment video (math)… this
  will REALLY get you thinking about your
  summative assessment!!!:
http://www.edutopia.org/mountlake-terrace-
  high-school

				
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