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Chapter 14 Forging the National Economy by tangshuming

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									   Forging the
National Economy
Creating an
American
Character
        Westward Movement




 The population of America continued to move
  westward.
 By 1850 the population center would be west of
  the Alleghenies.
   Effects of the Wilderness




Young    population constantly in
motion.
Importance  of
 wealth and the
 constant
 pursuit of
 wealth.
                         John Jacob Astor
                  America’s First Multi-Millionaire
     Rough Pioneers




American      pioneers were rough
 characters.
The  wilderness required hard work
 and left little time for slacking.
“root, hog, or die”
    Gamblers All

self-centered,
 provincial and
 isolationist
“self-reliance”
contrasted  with
 the need to work
 together - log-
 rolling and barn
 raising.
American  tall-tales
 and exaggeration.
Boasting   and bluffing (poker
 playing)
gambling, drinking and fighting.
   On a Mississippi steamboat four men were
    playing poker, three of which were
    professional gamblers, and the fourth, a
    hapless traveler from Natchez. Soon, the
    young naïve man had lost all his money to
    the rigged game. Devastated, the Natchez
    man planned to throw himself into the river;
    however, an observer prevented his suicide
    attempt, and then joined the card game with
    the “sharps.” In the middle of a high stakes
    hand, the stranger caught one of the
    professionals cheating and pulled a knife on
    the gambler, yelling, “Show your hand! If it
    contains more than five cards I shall kill
    you!” When he twisted the cheater’s wrist,
    six cards fell to the table. Immediately, the
    stranger took the $70,000 pot, returning
    $50,000 to the Natchez man and keeping
    $20,000 for his trouble. Shocked, the
    Natchez man stuttered, “Who the devil are
    you, anyway?” to which the stranger
    responded, “I am James Bowie.”
    Effects on the Wilderness
Kentucky
cane fields
were burned
off and
planted with
bluegrass.
Mountain men
began to “trap
out” the beaver
in the Rocky
Mountains.
      The Buffalo




 Vastherds of American Bison covered the Great
 Plains.
 Estimates of the pre-European herd size vary
 from 30,000,000 to 70,000,000
    The Hunt
Buffalo hunters, trading in furs
and tongues, began to kill off the
great herds.
Bison Range
        Destruction of the Buffalo




Unregulated killing of bison led to the reduction of
the herds to no more than 1500 individuals in the
mid to late 1800s.
    The California Otter
The highly prized
pelts of the Pacific
Sea Otter led
trappers to hunt the
animals to near
extinction.
      American’s love of the Wild.




Americans   praised the unspoiled wilderness
 and the beauty of nature.
 This ideal of the idyllic came to be
 expressed in arts and literature.
    George Catlin
 Painter and student of
 the Native Americans,
 he wished to preserve
 the natural beauty of the
 west.
He proposed the
 creation of National
 Parks.
  George Catlin         Corn
Buffalo Bulls Running
George Caleb Bingham




 Boatmen on the Missouri
The Hudson River School




               - Thomas Cole
     Demographics
Population
 doubling every 25
 years.
Population was
 moving farther west
 every ten years.
The Oregon Trail
 By  1860 there were 33 states and the US was
  the fourth most populous country in the western
  world.
 By 1860 there were 43 cities over 20,000 pop.
Rapid
 urbanization led to
                       Croton Aqueduct NYC
 many problems,
 and cities slowly
 began to build
 water and sewer
 services.
  Immigration
Immigration
 tripled in the
 1840’s and
 quadrupled in
 the 1850’s.
many   push and
 pull factors
 brought
 immigrants to
 America.
  1844 The Potato Famine

Potato blight in
 Ireland led to
 famine and
 massive
 emigration.
Irish Catholics
 moved to the
 large cities,
 especially New
 York and
 Boston.
Women   found work as
housekeepers and men as workers
building canals and railroads.
      NINA
anti-Irish
 prejudice led to
 signs proclaiming
 “no Irish need
 apply.”
Anti-Catholic
 riots in
 Philadelphia and
 Boston.
Blacks and Irish
 relations were
 bad.
"the raw Irishman in America is a nuisance, his son a curse. They never assimilate;
     the second generation simply shows an intensification of all the bad qualities of
     the first. . . .They are a burden and a misery to this country."
Irish immigrant
 societies like the
 Ancient Order of
 Hibernians helped
 to get better
 conditions.
Irish votes
 gained power
 in Tammany
 Hall - many
 Irish became
 policemen.
    Germans
1830-1860   --
 1.5 million
 Germans came
 to America
    Germans in America




Middle  class farmers and political
 refugees.
Moved to the Mid-West .
Many   were
isolationists ,
most were better
educated, and
often
abolitionists.
Gave  us
 kindergarten,
 beer and the
 hot dog.
   Nativism
Anti-foreigner
 feelings grow with the
 increase in new
 immigrants.
Anti-Catholic
 prejudice led to the
 creation of Catholic
 parochial schools.
1849  - the Order of the Star-
 Spangled Banner is formed.
Led to the creation of the American
 Party -- known as Know-Nothings.
Citizen
Know-
Nothing
March of Mechanization
       1750
The  Industrial
 Revolution
 begins in Britain,
 but it is slow to
 take root in
 America.
   Why?
 Land was cheap in
  America.
 Labor was scarce.
 Capital investment
  was not plentiful.
 Raw materials were
  undiscovered.
Consumers   were scarce.
Long established British factories were more
 competitive.
Britain had a monopoly on Textile machinery.
   1791
Samuel   Slater “The
 Father of the American
 Factory System” builds
 first U.S. factory - a
 Textile mill in Rhode
 Island
     Eli Whitney
1793  - Eli Whitney
 invents the Cotton
 Gin - made cotton
 profitable and
 slavery an institution
 in the South.
The Cotton Engine
1798 - Whitney
later develops the
idea of
interchangeable
parts which leads
to mass
production.
  New England Manufacturing

New
England’s poor
farm land
made factories
attractive.
Dense  population, capital from
 shipping and seaports made importing
 raw materials practical.
Rapid  rivers
 provided water
 power.
Non-intercourse
 and the War of
 1812 increased
 the need for
 American made
 goods.
Rise of nationalism
 increased the call to
 “buy American.”
1814  - First
 spinning-
 weaving cloth
 factory built
 in Waltham,
 Mass.
    Treaty of Ghent
After the peace of
Ghent Britain began
dumping its products
into America -
leading to many US
mills closing down.
US reacts with the
Tariff of 1816 and
the beginnings of
protectionism.
    Sewing Machine
1846 - Elias
Howe invents the
sewing machine,
which is later
perfected by
Isaac Singer.
Building the Business
World
        1844   - Samuel
          F.B. Morse
          invents the
          Telegraph and
          Morse Code -
          “What hath God
          wrought.”
The Single Current
Morse Key
   Corporations
New   England families invest in
 the Boston Associates an
 investment group.
1848 - First general
 incorporation law in New York --
 led to other Free Incorporation
 Laws
  Changes in Labor
Industrialization led to an
 increase in factories in
 “Spindle Cities”
Factories filled with “Wage
 Slaves” who lived in slum
 conditions.
The  independent Craftsmen
 and home workers moved to
 the factory.
Men, women and children
 worked six days a week, 12-
 13 hours a day for pennies.
Labor  Unions were
 forbidden by law -- strikes
 were uncommon before
 1830’s.
1830’s  and 40’s saw an
 increase in labor Unions and
 Trade organization for higher
 wages and the ten hour day.
1840  - President Van Buren
 establishes the Ten Hour day
 for federal employees
1842  - Massachusetts
 declares labor unions legal in
 Commonwealth v. Hunt.
    Women in the Workforce
Lowell  factory
 system in Mass.
 was considered to
 be a showcase –
 Factory Girls lived
 and worked under
 supervision.
     Role of Women
“the submerged
 sex” women
 were considered
 perpetual minors
 and under the
 control of father
 or husband.
Few jobs
were available
for women --
factory, nurse
and teacher.

                 Florence Nightingale
Catherine Beecher
 encouraged women to
 become teachers and
 the occupation became
 “feminized”
women also found
 work as domestics and   Catherine Beecher
 nursemaids.
      The Cult of Domesticity
Glorified the traditional
 roles of women and
 gave women immense
 “moral power’ over the
 family and society.
Families became
 smaller and marriage
 was for love not
 arrangement.
   Families
families  became
 smaller, the fertility
 rate dropped and
 became more “child
 centered”.
The rise of
 “domestic
 feminism.”
Agriculture Revolution
1830s
John Deere develops the steel
 plow, Cyrus McCormick
 invents in the mechanical
 mower-reaper.
  1840 - 1860.
Small-scale  and subsistence
 farming begins to give way
 to extensive, specialized,
 cash-crop farming.
Business  farmers begin to
 replace the Yeomen Farmers.
TheTrans-Allegheny
western states begin to out-
produce the eastern states
Increased  demand for land
 and machinery led to more
 debt for the farmers.
Transportation and
Communication Revolution
  1790’s
Turnpike
 construction
 begins with
 the Lancaster
 Turnpike
   1807
Robert Fulton’s first steamboat
 The Clermont runs up the
 Hudson.
The Steamboat
revolutionizes river travel in
the West, replacing the keel
boats.
   1811


Construction  begins on the Cumberland
 or “National” Road – it eventually
 stretches from Cumberland, MD to
 Vandalia, Il – connecting Baltimore to
 St. Louis.
Raw materials went east ;
goods and people went west.
     1817 - 1825

Governor  Dewitt
 Clinton of New
 York has the Erie
 Canal built.
 Clinton’s “big
 ditch” was a
 major success.
The Erie Canal
New   York City became the
 largest port in America.
Other states followed suit
 and built miles of canals in
 the north
Stourbridge Lion at Honesdale, Pennsylvania,
August 8th 1829
 1828


The Baltimore and
Ohio railroad is
begun in Baltimore.
        1830
The   “Tom Thumb,”
 a locomotive on the
 Baltimore and Ohio
 (B&O) Railroad,
 raced a horse drawn
 car and lost -- but
 railroads continued
 to be built.
The Iron Horse Wins
by  1860 the U.S. had
30,000 miles of
railroad track -- 3/4’s
of it in the North.
Early railroads were
 dangerous and
 unreliable, but
 improved with time.
The Pullman
 Sleeping “Palace”
 Car was invented in
 1859.
  Geographic Specialization
The   South raised cotton for
 export.
The West grew grain and
 livestock.
 The East made machines and
 textiles.
Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way
  1840 - 50
Donald  McKay’s
naval yard in Boston
builds the first Clipper
Ship.
Racing ‘round the Horn
American   shipping
had a brief period of
glory and set trans-
oceanic speed records.
Britain   will
 regain
 dominance
 with the tramp
 steamer ship.
  1858

Cyrus  Field
lays the first
transatlantic
cable - it
breaks.
    1860
The   Pony Express
 established - ran mail
 from St. Louis to
 Sacramento.
It lasted a legendary
 18 months.
…most trips were usually made in eight or nine
days, the quickest run occurring in seven days
and 17 hours.
  1861




First  transcontinental cable is
 laid - a transcontinental railroad
 will follow after the Civil War.
  1866
Permanent
 transatlantic
 cable is
 established

								
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