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					                                 Chapter – 1 Advanced HTML – Forms and Frames

1. _______ allow you to gather and collect data from the end user and return data to a CGI program.

(a) Forms            (b) Map          (c) Link          (d) None

2. The _______ element is used to start a form.

(a) <start>          (b) <begin>      (c) <form>        (d) <input>

3. ______ element is used to specify input type on the form.

(a) <link>           (b) <form>       (c) <input>       (d) none

4. ____ can be made with <input> tag.

(a) Radio button     (b) Text area    (c) Selection box           (d) All

5. Multiline text is prepared by _______.

(a) <select>         (b) <textarea> (c) <input>         (d) src

6. ____ element is used to prepare pull down menu.

(a) <select>         (b) <form>       (c) <option>      (d) none

7. ______ is used to scroll information.

(a) <select>         (b) <form>       (c) <option>      (d) <input>

8. ______ tag is used to display options in the form.

(a) <select>         (b) <form>       (c) <option>      (d) <input>

9. _____ tag is used to display information from the <select > list.

(a) <text area>      (b) <select>     (c) <option>      (d) <list>

10. In pull down menu, individual option is given by ____ tag.

(a) <textarea>…..</textarea>          (b) <select>….</select>

(c)<option>…</option>                 (d) <input>….</input>

11. Input character in password box are displayed as _____ symbol.

(a) *                (b) .            (c) !             (d) @

12. _____ button will clear all the previous information of the form.

(a) radio            (b) remove       (c) delete        (d) reset

13. ______ allows the user to select zero or more options.

(a) check box        (b) radio button (c) submit button           (d) reset button

14. Full form of CGI is _____.

(a) Computer Gateway Information                 (b) Computer Guided Interface

(c)Common Gateway Information                    (d) Common Gateway Interface

15. HTML enables the user to create ______ types of text fields.

(a) 2                (b) 3            (c) 4             (d) 5

16. In syntax h1{font-size:30;color;green;} ____ is the value.

(a) font-size        (b) 30           (c) green         (d) (b) and (c)

17. CSS stands for ____.

(a) Computing Style Sheets            (b) Cascading Style Sheets
(c)Computing Style Service             (d) Cascading Secure Sheets

18. In _____ tag,list of rules regarding style is available.

(a) <java>           (b) <script>      (c) <p>            (d) <style>

19. Execution of CSS file is written in ____ section.

(a) <body>           (b) <head>        (c) <title>        (d) <script>

20. The first part of the style sheet rule is known as _____.

(a) declaration      (b) object        (c) method         (d) selector

21. In style declaration, property and value are separated using _____.

(a) colon (:)        (b) semicolon (;)           (c) desh (-)       (d) equal to (=)

22. Which HTML tag is used to create labels for form controls CSS?

(a) <body>….</body>                    (b) <label>…..</label>

(c)<head>….</head>                     (d) <style>…..</style>

23. Which is not the part of syntax of CSS?

(a) Selector         (b) method        (c) declaration (d) object

24. To divide a single page into two or more than two sections ______ is useful.

(a) nested table     (b)frame          (c) colspan        (d) rowspan

25. The concept of “frames” is given by ______.

(a) Microsoft        (b) netscape      (c) IE             (d) None

26. Frame is useful for ______.

(a) seamless table (b) seamless frame            (c) navigation tool        (d) nested frame

27. To show default target frame in _____ tag, target attribute is used.

(a) <base>           (b) <body>        (c) <p>            (d) <a>

28. We should use _____ and _____ elements for browsers which do not support frames.

(a) <frameset>,<body>                  (b) <frame>,<body>

(c)<noframes>,<body>                   (d) <frameset>,<frame>

29. In creating frames, wildcard _____ can be used to create a row / column.

(a) ?                (b) *             (c) /              (d) \

30. How many frames will be created by writing <frameset cols=”30%, *,30%,*”>?

(a) 2                (b) 3             (c) 4              (d) 1

31. What is the default value of frameborder attribute of <frame> element?

(a) 0                (b) 1             (c) yes            (d) either (b) or (C)

32. frameborder=0 and framespacing=0 is required to have ______.

(a) seamless table (b) nested frame              (c) nested table           (d) seamless table

33. Which special word is used to design html page?

(a) tag              (b) tab           (c) coding         (d) CSS

34. Who has taken a place of printed from due to increase use of internet?

(a) unprinted form (b) electric form             (c) atomic form            (d) both (a) and (b)
35. Which of the following field specifies to add a file in the form?

(a) text box          (b) password       (c) browse button              (d) both (a) and (c)

36. which of the following allows user to select zero or more options from more than one options?

(a) radio button      (b) checkbox       (c) file            (d) submit button

37. which tag is used to display items in the menu inside <select> tag for pulldown menu?

(a) <option>…</option>           (b) <list>…</list>          (c) name           (d) none

38. which of the following program evaluate the details of form?

(a) CGI               (b) ASP            (c) PHP             (d) all

39. Displaying _______ method , value of query type is not seen in the addressbar.

(a) get               (B) post           (c) both (a) and (b)           (d) name

40. One or all property of CSS syntax is surrounded by ____.

(a) ( )               (b) { }            (c) [ ]             (d) < >

41. who is the selection in h1{font – size : 30 ; color : green;}?

(a) h1                (b) font – size    (c) 30              (d) none

42. As per element which value is started before and after statement of display property?

(a) _top              (b) _bottom        (c) block           (d) _table

43. Which attribute is used with <a> tag to decide hyperlink target with frame?

(a) base              (b) target         (c) src             (d) href

44. Target = _____ opens a link in a window in which it is used.

(a) “_self”           (b) “_blank”       (c) “parents”       (d) “_top”

45. Target = _____ opens a link in an unnamed browser window.

(a) “_self”           (b) “_blank”       (c) “_parent”       (d) “_top”

46. Target = _____ opens link in it’s frame’s frameset.

(a) “_self”           (b) “_blank”       (c) “_parent”       (d) “_top”

47. Which server technology is used to write the form of a handling program?

(a) CGI               (b) PHP            (c) ASP             (d) all

48. What is used as a selector in the given tag?

H6 { font – size : 30;color : green; font-family : arial}.

(a) Value in { }     (b) h6           (c) font        (d) ;
49. The uploading of a picture in a form, by using the value of type attribute is done by ____.
(a) browser          (b) text         (c) file        (d) submit
50. Tags are usually made up of ____.
(a) elements         (b) properties (c) value         (d) all
51. which attribute is used for horizontal frames only?
(a) rows             (b) cols         (c) src         (d) no frame
52. The size of frames can be defined in ____ ways.
(a) 5                (b) 4            (c) 3           (d) 2
53. With the help of the ____ element, we can add an instruction in a frame document.
(a) <body>           (b) <head>       (c) <frame>     (d) <frameset>
                                Ch-1 Advanced HTML - Forms and Frames
1. Registration Form (save this file as form1.html)


<title> Registration Form </title>




<h1>Gaming Community</h1>

<h4>Login Information</h4>



<td> Username </td>


<input type="text" name="username" value="username" size="10" maxlength="10">




<td> Email:</td>


<input type="text" name="email" value="Enter email here" size="25" maxlength="30">





<td><input type="password" name="password1"></td>

<td><small>Must be 8-25 characters long</small></td>



<td>Confirm Password:</td>

<td><input type="password" name="password2"></td>

<td><small>should match the password</small></td>



<h4> Other Information </h4>



<td> Name: </td>

<td> <input type="text" name="name" value="Enter Name"></td>


<td> Mobile No:</td>

<td><input type="text" name="mobile"></td>



<td> Image:</td>

<td><input type="file" name="ImageName"></td>

<td><small>upload your image </small></td>



<td>Receive alert by:</td>


<input type="radio" name="alertBy" value="Email" checked>Email

<input type="radio" name="alertBy" value="SMS">SMS



<td> Game of Internet : </td>


<input type="checkbox" name="game" value="Racing">Racing

<input type="checkbox" name="game" value="shooting" checked>Shooting

<input type="checkbox" name="game" value="puzzle" checked>Puzzle

<input type="checkbox" name="game" value="detective">Detective





<input type="reset" value="Reset">

<input type="submit" value="Submit"></br>



2. Create frame in webpage(save file as frame.html)




   learning frames</title>


   <frameset rows="30%,70%">
<frame name="frame1" src="form1.html"


<frame name="frame2">


3. Open frame in different way (save file as frame2.html)





   Opening the form in the second frame</td>

   <td><a href="form1.html" target="frame2"> form in frame2</a></td>



   <td>Opening the form in the parent frame</td>

   <td> <a href="form1.html" target="_parent"> form in parent window</a><br></td></tr>


   <td>Opening the form in the self frame</td>

   <td> <a href="form1.html" target="_self"> form in self window</a><br></td></tr>


   <td>Opening the form in the top frame</td>

   <td> <a href="form1.html" target="_top"> form on top</a><br></td></tr>


   <td>Opening the form in the blank frame</td>

   <td> <a href="form1.html" target="_blank"> form in new window</a><br></td></tr>


4. Nested frame (save file as frame3.html)



   <title>Nested Frame</title>


   <frameset cols="200,*">

   <frame src="ex2.html">

   <frameset rows="*,40%">

   <frame src="form1.html">

   <frame src="ex.html">



5. Create form (save file as prg1.html)



   <title> Addmision Form </title>

<body bgcolor=yellow text=red>


<h1 align=center>Shardayatan Computer Center </h1>



<td> student Name:</td>

<td><input type="text" value="Enter your Name here..." size=20 maxlength=25></td>




<td><textarea cols=40 rows=3></textarea></td>



<td>Contact Nos:</td>

<td><input type="text" size=10 maxlength=15></td>



<td>Course Name:</td>


<input type="checkbox" value="Ms-office" ckeched>Ms-Office

<input type="checkbox" value="D.T.P.">D.T.P.

<input type="checkbox" value="Tally">Tally





<td> <input type="radio" value="1" checked>English

<input type="radio" value="2">Gujarati





Faculty Name:</td>

<td><input type="text" value="Nimita mam" size="15"></td>


<td>Batch Time:</td>


<select name=time size=3 multiple>

<option value=8 a.m. to 10a.m.>8 a.m. to 10 a.m.</option>

<option value=10 a.m. to 12a.m.>10 a.m. to 12 a.m.</option>

<option value=14 p.m. to 16p.m.>14 p.m. to 16 p.m.</option>






<input type="submit" value="Submit">

<input type="reset" value="Reset"></td>




6. Form (save file as prg2.html)



   <title> Addmision Form </title>


   <body bgcolor="green" text="red">

   <h1 align="center">Cricketer Profile</h1>



   <input type="text" name="name" size="40">


   Date of Birth:

   <input type="text" name="dob" size="30">



   <textarea cols="40" rows="4"></textarea>



   <select name="city">

   <option value="ahmedabad" selected>Ahmedabad

   <option value="surat">Surat

   <option value="baroda">Baroda

   <option value="other">Other




   <select name="country">

   <option value="india" selected>india

   <option value="Us">US

   <option value="UK">UK

   <option value="other">Other


Age Group:

<input type="radio" name="16" ckeched>Below 16

<input type="radio" name="16-25">16-25

<input type="radio" name="25">Above 25


Cricket Played at Level:

<select name="cricket">

<option value="sl" selected>State Level

<option value="cl">Country Level

<option value="int">International

<option value="nl">National Level



<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Submit">

<input type="reset" name="reset" value="Reset">




7. Link file (save file as link.html)



    <tr><td> <a href="form1.html" target="frame2">Registration Form</a></td></tr>

    <tr><td> <a href="prg1.html" target="frame2">Computer Center</a></td></tr>

    <tr><td> <a href="prg2.html" target="frame2">Cricketer Profile</a></td></tr>


8. Frame and link prg (save file as prg3.html)



    <title> Frame</title>


    <frameset cols="30%,70%">

    <frame name="frame1" src="link.html"


    <frame name="frame2">


                                         Ch-2- Use of JavaScript in Webpage

   1. Program to pass the msg using prompt.

<head><title> Personalizing home page</title.


<body bgcolor="pink">

<font size="+4" text="black">


<script type="text/javascript">

var userName;

userName= prompt("Please enter your name");

document.write("Hello "+userName+", Welcome to this website!");

    2. Program to display current date and time



<title> displaying date</title>

<body bgcolor="pink">

<font size="+2" text="black">


<script type="text/javascript">

var todayDate = new Date();



    3. Program to add two values.


        <title> Simple Adder </title>

        <script type="text/javascript">

        function addNumbers(n1,n2)


        var no1= parseFloat(n1);

        var no2= parseFloat(n2);;


        function clearNumbers()


        Adderfrm.number1.value = "";

        Adderfrm.number2.value = ""; = "";




   <form name="Adderfrm" method="post">

   <h4>Simple Adder </h4>

   Enter a number:

   <input type="text" name="number1" size=10><br><br>

   Enter a number:

   <input type="text" name="number2" size=10><br><br>

   <input type="button" name="AddButton" value="Add

   <input type="button" name="ClearButton" value="Clear Field" onClick="clearNumbers()"><br><br>

   Answer=<input type="text" name="total" size=12 value="">







   Form Validation


   <script type="text/Javascript">

   function ValidationForm()


   var uName=frm.username

   var pwd1=     frm.password1

   var pwd2=     frm.password2

   if ((uName.value.length < 6) || (uName.value.length > 10))


   alert("username must be between 6 to 10 char ")

return false


if ((pwd1.value)!=(pwd2.value))


alert("Password must match!")


return false


return true





<form name="frm" method="post" action="new.html" onSubmit="return ValidationForm()">

<h1> Gamming Community </h1>

<h4> Login Information </h4>



<td> Username: </td>


<input type="text" name="username" value="username" size="10" maxlength="10">




<td> Email:</td>


<input type="text" name="email" value="Enter email here" size="25" maxlength="30">





<td><input type="password" name="password1"></td>

<td> <small> Must be 8-25 char </small></td>



<td>Confirm Password</td>

<td> <input type="password" name="password2"></td>
   <td><small>should match the password </small></td>





   <td> <input type="reset" value="Reset">

   <input type="submit" value="Submit"></td>






5. Mouse over program to change bgcolor


   <title> Change background colours </title>

   <script type="text/javascript">

   document.write("<center><font size=+5>Just for fun </font></center>")

   function changeBkgrnd(color)







   <font size="+4">

   <a href="" onMouseOver="changeBkgrnd('red')">Red</a><br>

   <a href="" onMouseOver="changeBkgrnd('green')">Green</a><br>

   <a href="" onMouseOver="changeBkgrnd('yellow')">Yellow</a><br>

   <a href="" onMouseOver="changeBkgrnd('blue')">Blue</a><br>





6. Program to display version of browser

   <title>detecting browser name and version</title>

   <script type="text/JavaScript">


   var browserName=navigator.appName;

   var browserVer=parseInt(navigator.appVersion);


   document.write("You are working with :<br><br>");





7. Prog to add two num

   <head><title>simple javascript for addition</titile></head>


   <script type="text/javascript">

   var first=10;second=20;

   document.write("The addition of the given number is",first+second);


8. Add two number

   <head><title>simple javascript for addition</titile></head>

   <body><script type="text/javascript">

   var first,second;



   document.write("The addition of the given number is",first+second);


9. Prog to find simple interest

    <head><title> Simple Interest</title></head>

    <script type="text/javascript">


    function simpleInt(p,r,n)


    var p=parseFloat(p);

    var r=parseFloat(r);

    var n=parseFloat(n);



    function clearNumber()










    <body bgcolor=pink>


    <form name=Adderfrm method=post>

    <h4 align=center>Function for simple interest</h4>

    Enter principal amount :

    <input type=text name=number1 size=10>

    Enter rate of Interest :

    <input type=text name=number2 size=10>
    Enter number of years:

    <input type=text name=number3 size=10>

    <input type=button name=simpleInterest value="Simple Interest"

    Simple Interest=

    <input type=text name=interest size=15>

    <input type=button name=ClearButton value=Clear number" onCLick="clearNumber()">


10. Prog to use if condition



    web page for if condition




    <script type=text/javascript>

    var age;

    age=parseInt(prompt("enter your age"));


               window.document.writeln("you are eligible for voting");


               window.document.writeln("you are not eligible for voting");

1. Which browser understands javascript?
(a) NetScape          (b) Internet Explorer   (c) Opera       (d) All
2. JavaScript was developed by ____.
(a) Microsoft         (b) Sun microsystem     (c) NetScape (d) Infosys
3. Java language was developed by _____.
(a) Microsoft         (b) Sun microsystem (c) NetScape (d) Infosys
4. The original name of Javascript is _____.
(a) Jscript           (b) Live Script         (c) V.B. Script (d) J.B.Script
5. _____ is a part of web browser.
(a) Script            (b) Scripting engine    (c) Engine host (d) HTML
6. A web browser that contains a scripting engine is called a ____.
(a) IE                (b) Scripting host      (c) JavaScript (d) Netscape Navigator
7. <Script> element has _____ attributes.
(a) 2                 (b) 3                   (c) 4           (d) 5
8. The ___ sign is used to write a single line comment.
(a) //                (b) \\                  (c) /*……..*/    (d) */…../*
9. The ___ sign is used to write a multi line comment.
(a) //                (b) \\                  (c) /*……..*/ (d) */…../*
10. <script> tag is always used in _____ or ____ tag.
(a) <a>,<body>        (b)<head>,<img>         (c) <body>,<head>        (d) <head> <title>

11. _____ is not a script.

(a) java             (b) html                          (c) VB             (d) CGI

12. _____ is used to declare a variable.

(a) variable         (b) ver                 (c) var            (d) none

13. Function is of _____ types.

(a) 2                (b) 1                   (c) 3              (d) 4

14. _____ function is used to display current date.

(a) todaydate        (b) datetoday           (c) newdate()      (d) none

15. which type of webpage we have learnt to make using HTML?

(a) static           (b) simple              (c) effective      (d) all

16. Which language is used to make a dynamic webpage?

(a) javascript       (b) vb script           (c) pascal         (d) both (a) and (b)

17. What is called to the webpage in which details are changed by user’s sction?

(a) dynamic          (b) static              (c) logical        (d) none

18. With <script> tag write type=”text/javascript” is ____.

(a) Not compulsory (b) optional              (c) a good habit for not having uneasiness

(d) All
19. What is displayed to get value from user by prompt?

(a) Radio button       (b) Check box          (c) Menu box      (d) text box

20. Give a use of document.write

(a) to display text in browser                (b) to dsplay value of variable in browser

(c)For printing text                          (d) None

21. Which of the following programming language is not needed to compile?

(a) C                  (b) Java               (c) JavaScript    (d) COBOL

22. To convert the text to real number _____ is used.

(a) parseFloat         (b) parseInt           (c) Parseint      (d) None

23. ____ is used to write comment in JavaScript.

(a) /* */              (b) { }                (c) <!--         (d) none

24. On WWW, our computer is known as _______.

(a) server             (b) service provider   (c) controller    (d) none

25. _____ is an event handler.

(a) onFocus            (b) MouseOut           (c) ClickOn       (d) BlurOn

26. In JavaScript, the group of one or more instructions are written in which bracket?

(a) { }                (b) [ ]                (c) ( )           (d) < >

27. Which of the following is a Built-in function?

(a) parseFloat( )      (b) Clear number( )    (c) parseInt( )   (d) Both (a) and (b)

28. What is used for conditional statement in JavaScript?

(a) For loop           (b) While loop         (c) If….Else      (d) All

29. What is the small window that asks for the instruction from the user of GUI?

(a) Promp              (b) Script             (c) Method        (d) Cursor

30. Which symbol is used to concatenate the string in a JavaScript?

(a) &                  (b) +                  (c) *             (d) =

31. How can we have a message box in which only the OK button is displayed?

(a) alert              (b) confirm            (c) promp         (d) all

32. What is the object’s name in navigator.appName?

(a) appName            (b) navigator          (c) navigator.appName (d) all

33. The function parseFloat(n), where n=”123 abc”, will return _____.

(a) 123.0              (b) abc                (c) 123           (d)

34. Which symbol is used for the OR operator in JavaScript?

(a) &&                 (b) ||                 (c) \*            (d) /*

35. ____ cannot directly control the program that run on the web server.

(a) HTML               (b) Script             (c) JavaScript    (d) CGI

36. At the time of from submission, which event would ossur?

(a) onSubmit           (b) Click On Submit    (c) Onsubmit      (d) SubmitOn
                                       HTML Tags Chart
 To use any of the following HTML tags, simply select the HTML code you'd like and copy and paste it into your web

       Tag       Name                             Code Example                                  Browser View
                            <!--This can be viewed in the HTML part of a document-
<!--          comment                                                              Nothing will show (Tip)

                            <a href="">
<a -          anchor                                                                  Visit Our Site (Tip)
                            Visit Our Site</a>

<b>           bold          <b>Example</b>                                            Example

              body of
                                                                                      Contents of your web
<body>        HTML          <body>The content of your HTML page</body>
                                                                                      page (Tip)

                                                                                      The contents of your web
                            The contents of your page<br>The contents of your         page
<br>          line break
                            page                                                      The contents of your web

<center>      center        <center>This will center your contents</center>
                                                                                      This will center your contents

<font>        font          <font face="Times New Roman">Example</font>               Example (Tip)

                            <font face="Times New Roman"
<font>        font
                                                                                      Example (Tip)

                            <font face="Times New Roman" size="+3"
<font>        font
                            color="#ff0000">Example</font>                            Example                (Tip)

                            <form action="">                 Name:                  (Tip)
                            Name: <input name="Name" value="" size="10"><br>          Email:
<form>        form          Email: <input name="Email" value="" size="10"><br>
                            <center><input type="submit"></center>                     Submit

<h1>          heading   1   <h1>Heading    1   Example</h1>
<h2>          heading   2   <h2>Heading    2   Example</h2>
<h3>          heading   3   <h3>Heading    3   Example</h3>
<h4>          heading   4   <h4>Heading    4   Example</h4>
<h5>          heading   5   <h5>Heading    5   Example</h5>
<h6>          heading   6   <h6>Heading    6   Example</h6>

              heading of
                         <head>Contains elements describing the
<head>        HTML                                                                    Nothing will show

                                                                                      Contents of your web
              horizontal                                                              page (Tip)
<hr>                        <hr />

                                                                                      Contents of your web page

                                                                                      Contents of your web page
<hr>                        <hr width="50%" size="3" />
                                                                                      Contents of your web page
                                                                                   Contents of your web page
<hr>                      <hr width="50%" size="3" noshade />
                                                                                   Contents of your web page

                          <title>Title of your web page</title>
<html>      markup                                                                 Contents of your web page
                          <body>HTML web page contents

<i>         italic        <i>Example</i>                                           Example

                          <img src="Earth.gif" width="41" height="41"
<img>       image
                          border="0" alt="text describing the image" />

                                                                                   Example 1: (Tip)
                          Example 1:
                          <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">
<input>     input field   <input type="text" size="10" maxlength="30">                               Submit
                          <input type="Submit" value="Submit">

                          Example 2:
                          <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">         Example 2: (Tip)
                          <input type="text" style="color: #ffffff; font-family:
                          Verdana; font-weight: bold; font-size: 12px;
(Internet   input field                                                                              Submit
                          background-color: #72a4d2;" size="10"
                          <input type="Submit" value="Submit">

                                                                                   Example 3: (Tip)
                          Example 3:
                          <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">
                          <table border="0" cellspacing="0"
                          cellpadding="2"><tr><td bgcolor="#8463ff"><input
<input>     input field   type="text" size="10" maxlength="30"></td><td
                          bgcolor="#8463ff" valign="Middle"> <input
                          type="image" name="submit"
                          src="yourimage.gif"></td></tr> </table>

                                                                                   Example 4: (Tip)
                          Example 4:
                          <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">
                          Enter Your Comments:<br>
                          <textarea wrap="virtual" name="Comments" rows=3
<input>     input field
                          cols=20 maxlength=100></textarea><br>
                          <input type="Submit" value="Submit">
                          <input type="Reset" value="Clear">                        Submit     Clear

                          Example 5:
                          <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">
                          <center>                                                 Example 5: Tip)
                          Select an option:
                          <select>                                                 Select an
                          <option >option 1</option>                                           option 2
<input>     input field                                                            option:
                          <option selected>option 2</option>
                          <option>option 3</option>                                 Submit
                          <option>option 4</option>
                          <option>option 5</option>
                          <option>option 6</option>
                          <input type="Submit" value="Submit"></center>

                                                                                  Example 6: (Tip)

                         Example 6:                                           Select an option:
                         <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">
                         Select an option:<br>                                     Option 1
                         <input type="radio" name="option"> Option 1
                                                                                   Option 2
                         <input type="radio" name="option" checked> Option 2
                         <input type="radio" name="option"> Option 3               Option 3
<input>    input field   <br>                                                 Select an option:
                         Select an option:<br>
                         <input type="checkbox" name="selection"> Selection 1      Selection 1
                         <input type="checkbox" name="selection"
                                                                                   Selection 2
                         checked> Selection 2
                         <input type="checkbox" name="selection"> Selection 3      Selection 3
                         <input type="Submit" value="Submit">
                         </form>                                               Submit

                         <form method=post action="/cgi-bin/example.cgi">
                         Select an option:
                         <option>option 1</option>                                   Select an option: (Tip)
                         <option selected>option 2</option>
           listbox                                                                         option 2
<option>                 <option>option 3</option>
                         <option>option 4</option>
                         <option>option 5</option>
                         <option>option 6</option>

                         This is an example displaying the use of the paragraph   This is an example displaying
                         tag. <p> This will create a line break and a space       the use of the paragraph tag.
                         between lines.
                         Attributes:                                              This will create a line break
                         Example 1:<br>                                           and a space between lines.
                         <p align="left">                                         Attributes:
                         This is an example<br>
                         displaying the use<br>                                   Example 1:
                         of the paragraph tag.<br>
                         <br>                                                     This is an example
                         Example 2:<br>                                           displaying the use
<p>        paragraph                                                              of the paragraph tag.
                         <p align="right">
                         This is an example<br>                                                         Example 2:
                         displaying the use<br>
                         of the paragraph tag.<br>                                           This is an example
                         <br>                                                                 displaying the use
                         Example 3:<br>                                                   of the paragraph tag.
                         <p align="center">                                                Example 3:
                         This is an example<br>
                         displaying the use<br>                                        This is an example
                         of the paragraph tag.                                          displaying the use
                                                                                      of the paragraph tag.
<small>                  <small>Example</small>                                   Example (Tip)

                         Example 1:
                                                                                  Example 1: (Tip)
                         <table border="4" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"
<table>    table         <tr>                                                      Column 1           Column 2
                         <td>Column 1</td>
                         <td>Column 2</td>
                            Example 2: (Internet Explorer)                      Example 2: (Tip)
                            <table border="2" bordercolor="#336699"
                            cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" width="100%">
                                                                                Column 1       Column 2
                            <td>Column 1</td>
                            <td>Column 2</td>
                            </table>                                            Example 3: (Tip)
                            Example 3:
                            <table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"              Column 1       Column 2
                                                                                Row 2          Row 2
                            <td bgcolor="#cccccc">Column 1</td>
                            <td bgcolor="#cccccc">Column 2</td>
                            <td>Row 2</td>
                            <td>Row 2</td>

                            <table border="2" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"
<td>           table data   <td>Column 1</td>
                            <td>Column 2</td>                                   Column 1       Column 2

                            <div align="center">
                            <th>Column 1</th>
                            <th>Column 2</th>
                            <th>Column 3</th>
                            </tr>                                                Column Column Column
                            <tr>                                                    1      2      3
                            <td>Row 2</td>
               table        <td>Row 2</td>                                      Row 2      Row 2    Row 2
               header       <td>Row 2</td></tr>
                            <tr>                                                Row 3      Row 3    Row 3
                            <td>Row 3</td>
                            <td>Row 3</td>                                      Row 4      Row 4    Row 4
                            <td>Row 3</td></tr>
                            <td>Row 4</td>
                            <td>Row 4</td>
                            <td>Row 4</td></tr></table></div>

                                                                                Title of your web page will be
<title>                     <title>Title of your HTML page</title>              viewable in the title
                                                                                bar. (Tip)

                            <table border="2" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"
<tr>           table row                                                        Column 1       Column 2
                            <tr><td>Column 1</td>
                            <td>Column 2</td></tr></table>

<tt>           teletype     <tt>Example</tt>                                    Example

<u>            underline    <u>Example</u>                                      Example

                                    Ch-3 Web designing and usability features

   1. Which is the most important step to begin planning of a website?
      (a) Target audience            (b) Content
          (c) Objective and Goal     (d) Prototyping
2. During _____ , the purpose, description and title of each page is recorded and then it is linked to other pages
   based on the suitable structure of content.
   (a) Clip boarding       (b) Site map    (c) Content      (d) Story boarding

3. In the ______ structure, each page contains two links, except the home page’s first to previous page and second
   to next page in the sequence.
   (a) Catalog             (b) linear     (c) hierarchical (d) tutorial

4. Give the name of the famous website, that follows the catalog structure.
   (a) (b)          (c)        (d)

5. In _____ based links, Icon, Logo, Picture or Images are used to provide links.
   (a) Text                 (b) Graphics            (c) Both (a) and (b)     (d) None

6. How many techniques are used to prepare the webpage layouts?
   (a) 1                (b) 3                   (c) 2                         (d) 4

7. Give the full form of IIS?
   (a) International Information Solution (b) Information Interpreter Service
       (c)Internet Infosys System         (d) internet Information Service

8. GIF supports _____ colors.
   (a) 64                 (b) 128                     (c) 256                 (d) none

9. WWW works on ___ method.
   (a) Client/server  (b) editor/browser              (c) client/webpage      (d) browser/ webpage

10. The HTML document which is put on internet is known as ____

    (a) Website     (b) Webpage       (c) Editor      (d) Browser

11. There are ___ homepage in a website.

    (a) 1           (b) 2             (c) 7           (d) many

12. ____ is the way to represent person institute or online business to the world.

    (a) Homepage (b) Website          (c) Webpage     (d) None

13. ____ means the reason for developing a website.

    (a) Browser     (b) Editor        (c) Objective   (d) Goal

14. _____ means for whom the website is to be developed.

    (a) Planning    (b) Goal          (c) Objective   (d) Target audience

15. _____ holds the visitor’s attention.

    (a) Good content           (b) Image      (c) Hyperlink      (d) None

16. FAQ stands for ___.

    (a) First Asked Question                  (b) Frequently Asked Question

    (c ) Fast Audience Question               (d) Frequently Asked Query

17. GIF stands for _____

    (a) Graphical Interactive Format          (b) Graphics Interchange Format
    (c ) Graphical Interactive File               (d) Graphical Interchange File

18. JPEG stands for ____

    (a) Joint Picture Exports Groups              (b) Joint Photographic External Group

        (c) Joint Picture Extensive Group         (d)None

19. PNG stands for _____

    (a) Portable New Graphics                     (b) Portable Network Groups

        (c ) Picture Network Graphics             (d) None

20. What is the key point of a website?

    (a) Content      (b) Homepage (c) Objective and Goal (d) Browser

21. _____ format is supported by browsers with restrictions.

    (a) GIF          (b) BMP            (c) JPG           (d) PNG

22. How does a website make by connecting web pages to link?

    (a) Auto         (b) templates      (c) Navigation (d) None

23. There are _____ types of structure for the website.

    (a) 2            (b) 4              (c) 3             (d) 1

24. Href stands for _____

    (a) Hyper text effect               (b) huper link effect

        (c ) hyper text efforts         (d) hyper text reference

25. What is true for navigation link?

    (a) Easily understand (b) based on text or graphics             (c) displaying location (d) all

26. ______ means the layout of the web page.

    (a) Outlook Express        (b) Frame          (c) Template      (d) Domain

27. Full form of CSS is _____.

    (a) Sascaded sheet style                      (b) Cascaded style sheet

        (c ) Computer style sheet                 (d) computer server sheet

28. The default fonts in the computer is ______.

    (a) Arial        (b) courier        (c) times new roman         (d) arial black

29. JPG supports _______ colors.

    (a) 16-bit       (b) 8-bit          (c) 24-bit        (d) 12-bit

30. ______ supports both 8-bit and 24-bit color.

    (a) BMP          (b) PNG            (c) GIF           (d) none

31. ISP stands for _____

    (a) Internet Surfing Providers                (b) Internal Surfing Providers

        (c ) international Service Providers (d) Internet Service Provider

32. DNS stands for _____.
    (a) Domain Name surfing                       (b) Domain News Service
        (c) Domain Name Service                   (d) none
33. VSNL stands for ______.
    (a) Videsh surfing Nigam Limited                 (b) Videsh Sanchar National Limited
        (c)Videsh Surfing News Limited               (d) Videsh SAnchar

                         Ch-4 Design and Development of Simple Websites Using MS Publisher

1. Which company has prepared publisher program?
   (a) Intel        (b) Adobe        (c) Microsoft (d) Corel
2. With which package publisher program is available?
   (a) MS Office 2000       (b) MS Office XP         (c) MS Office 2003     (d) All
3. What is the main use of Microsoft Publisher?
   (a) Create and publish website
   (b) Create an advertisement, cards, banners
   (c) Create a visiting cards, calendar, flyers
   (d) Create an invitation card, newsletter, labels
4. In Start Run ____ is specified by giving ok to open Publisher 2003.
   (a) Pub (b) mspub        (c) publisher (d) mspublisher
5. ____ options are three in a new design at the time of starting Microsoft Publisher.
   (a) 2            (b) 3            (c) 4           (d) 5
6. Which option is generally used to create a website?
   (a) Easy web site Builder                 (b) 3-Page Web Site
        (c) Product Sales                    (d) Professional Service

7. HTML document publisher on internet is known as ____
    (a) Webpage (b) Website             (c) Web browser          (d) (a) or (b)
8. Collection of more than one page is known as _____
    (a) Web browser           (b) Web server             (c) Web Sites (d) Home page
9. By default, Publisher stores files with ___ extension.
    (a) .pub         (b) .pli          (c) .pab (d) .pul
10. To see a Publisher file in the internet Explorer, it is stored with ____ extension.
    (a) .hmt         (b) .htm          (c) .pub (d) .pab
11. Which extension is generally given to website?
    (a) .doc         (b) .pub (c) .web(d) .htm
12. By default where does publisher save the file?
    (a) Mu Computer           (b) My Document            (c) Desktop      (d) Any one
13. By default, publisher takes which name of file?
    (a) Web1         (b) Website1 (c) Pub1               (d) Publication1
14. In which opened window does a Publisher file of a website saved with .pub extension?
    (A) Internet Explorer              (b) Microsoft Publisher
    (c) (a) or (b)                     (d) none

15. Which of the following displays a Webpage link?

     (a) Status bar      (b) Navigation bar          (c) Title bar    (d) Task bar

16. Change the logo of homepage ____ icon is used in publisher.

     (a) Magic wand icon         (b) Magic wone icon          (c) Magic wake icon    (d) Magic wind icon

17. Full form of XML is _______

     (a) Extra Markup Language                       (b) Extension Markup Language

     (c)External Markup Language          (d) Extensible Markup Language

18. _____ extension is given to flash file while saving a file in Flash.

     (a) .swf (b) .fla           (c) .sfw (d) .fal

19. ____ extension file will automatically create by pressing Ctrl+Enter at the time of testing animation in flash .
(a) .fla            (b) .swf (c).fal          (d) .sfw

20. how many navigation styles are available for designing webpage?

(a) 4                    (b) 5            (c) 6               (d) 7

21. In the “Easy website builder” dialog box _____ options are seen.

(a) 8                    (b) 6            (c) 4               (d) 2
 22. Which of the following navigation style is predefined to design a web page in publisher?

 (a) Horizontal only               (b) Bottom only

 (c)Horizontal and Bottom                  (d) Vertical and Bottom

 23. Which option is selected to change name of the page by right clicking on page in publisher?

 (a) Navigation Bar properties             (b) Rename        (c) Change      (d) Modify

                                      Ch-5 Introduction to E-Commerce
 1. Because of great development in _____ infrastructure and software technologies, the internet has become very
     (a) Telegraph (b) telephone (c) teleconference             (d) tele communication
 2. The use of Internet for conducting business activities is known as ____
     (a) B-Commerce           (b) M-commerce           (c) E-commerce (d) T-commerce
 3. E-commerce is widely used for ___
     (a) Auction of goods (b) net banking (c) online support service            (d) all
 4. ____ allows balance inquiry, statement of accounts, transfer of funds from one account to another using
     (a) Net marketing        (b) Net money            (c) Net banking (d) Net system
 5. ATM stands for ____.
     (a) At Time Money        (b) All Time Marketing (c) All Transaction Money          (d) none
 6. In ____ companies send their bills you service to customers on internet.
     (a) Online billing       (b) online banking       (c) online exams         (d) none
 7. is the website for ___.
     (a) Online billing       (b) online banking       (c) information service (d) none
 8. Software vendors allow their ___ customers to download the recent updates.
     (a) Licensed             (b) connected            (c) net                  (d) none
 9. ____ is very popular website selling variety of books.
     (a) (b) (c) (d) none
 10. ______ is not the benefit of e-commerce.
     (a) Helps in reducing the shipping time.
     (b) Gives the enjoyment of shopping customer
     (c) Business can be conducted cost effectively
     (d) None
 11. ______ is not a disadvantage of e-commerce.
     (a) Privacy of customer information
     (b) The credit card frauds
     (c) Online trading of the shares
     (d) Timely updates of information
 12. IT stands for ______
     (a) Internet Technology                  (b) Information Technology
          (c)Internet Technique               (d) Internal Technology

13. The business activity between different business partner is called ____

     (a) B2B             (b) B2C           (c) G2C           (d) G2B

14. Two business involved in B2B exchange the information using set of standards known as ____

     (a) EID             (b) EDI           (c) DIE           (d) WWW

15. GSWAN stands for _____

     (a) Gujarat State Wide Area Nation                      (b) Gujarat State with Area Network

     (c)Gujarat State Wide Area Network                      (d) Gujarat State with All Networks

16. SSL stands for ___

     (a) Safe System Layer                                   (b) Secure Socket Layer

     (c) Secure Socket Lock                          (d) Safe Socket Lock

17. Success of e-commerce depends on ______.

     (a) store                     (b) supply                (c) payment mechanism           (d) (a) & (b)
18. City Bank is an example of _____

     (a) card association        (b) acquiring bank          (c) issuing bank (d) master bank

19. ICICI,HDFC etc. are example of ____

     (a) card association        (b) acquiring bank          (c) issuing bank (d) master bank

20. ____ is an example of online magnetic strip card.

     (a) Debit card              (b) Credit card             (c) telephone card          (d) both (a) & (b)

21. The E-cash system is ____ way token system.

     (a) infinite                (b) three                   (c) two                     (d) one

22. SSL was developed by ____

     (a) Netscape                (b) IBM           (c) Microsoft               (d) Sun micro system

23. SSL starts the address using ____

     (a) https://                (b) http://                 (c) ftps://                 (d) ftp://

24. ____ means e-commerce using mobile phones.

     (a) M-commerce              (b) E-commerce (c) Authentication             (d) Non-repudiation

25. The full form of PDA is ____

     (a) Permanent Data Assistants                 (b) Permanent Digital Assistants

     (c) Personal Digital Assistants               (d) Personal Data Assistant

26. The full form of PIN is ____

     (a) Personal Information Numerical                      (b) Personal Information Number

     (c) Personal Identification Number                      (d) Personal Integrated Name

27. Which of these is an example of C2C?

     (a)                                        (b)

     (c)                                       (d) all

28. Which of these is an example of G2B?

     (a)                 (b)

     (c)                                      (d) all

29. Which type of banks issue credit card to customers?

     (a) Giving banks (b) Authorizing banks        (c) Issuing banks           (d) (a) and (c)

30. Among these which do not store electronic cash?

     (a) Electronic cash         (b) Smart card              (c) Credit card             (d) all

31. What is the for e-commerce website?

     (a) Start from https://                                 (b) Use SSL for message communication

     (c) Display security Logo                     (d) all

32. What is the used in M-commerce?

     (a) Mobile phone            (b) PDAS                    (c) Wireless device         (d) all

33. ____ is a protocol used for making e-commerce secured.

     (a) VSNL                    (b) SSL           (c) BSNL                    (d) TCP
34. E-commerce has ____ aspects for security

      (a) 1                     (b) 2                   (c) 3                   (d) 4

35. _____ is used to avoid the details like credit card number and billing and shipping information in the forms.

      (a) Electronic cash       (b) Electronic wallet   (c) Smart card          (d) Debit card

36. _____ provides facilities for online railway ticket booking and paying online.

      (a)                               (b)

      (c)                              (d) none

37. The major challenges for e-commerce are related to ______.

      (a) copy rights           (b) privacy             (c) property rights     (d) all

                            Ch-6 Layout Design of E-Commerce website
 1. E-Commerce website is a ___ place on the Internet.

      (a) Virtual               (b) Opposite language (c) Semi language         (d) Multilanguage

 2. Where does vendor display products to sell products through internet?

      (a) Shop                  (b) Web browser         (c) Website             (d) Television

 3. How does a seller sell product to customer after completion of order and payment in E-shopping?

      (a) Local Transport       (b) Post                (c) Courier             (d) Any one of the given

 4. How many steps are there to design a catalogue in website?

      (a) 2                     (b) 3                   (c) 4                   (d) 5

 5. Product details are stored in _____ at the time of designing catalogue in website.

      (a) Class                 (b) Database            (c) data                (d) form

 6. Shopping cart is also called as ______

      (a) Trolley               (b) Carriage            (c) Basket              (d) All

 7. What should customer do before buying product in E-shopping?

      (a) Should be Indian Citizen (b) Should have PAN card (c)Should have credit card(d) Should do registration

 8. Where does all the details store after customer registered in E-commerce website?

      (a) Table                 (b) Form                (c) Database            (d) Report

 9. How will a product send if the option of payment is at the time of receiving a product in E-shopping?

      (a) Courier               (b) Transport           (c) VPP                 (d) Any one

 10. Full form of VPP is ____

      (a) Value Payment Parcel(b) Value Payable Parcel(c) Value Package Parcel(d) Value Pattern Parcel

11. What is the meaning of payment by cash?

      (a) Cash on delivery of product (b) Shop with cash(c) Send cash to receive product(d) all

12. How many times a buyer can change shopping cart in E-Shopping?
        (a) One time              (b) limited time       (c) many time            (d) cannot change

  13. _____ is used to create e-commerce website.

        (a) Ms Word               (b) Ms Publisher       (c) Ms Excel             (d) Ms Public

  14. Which text box should be put near to the product for buying product at the time of designing? E-commerce

        (a) Purchase It           (b) Get Now            (c) Buy Now              (d) Take It

  15. ____ is used to insert an order form.

        (a) Insert Order Form                           (b) Insert  Page  Form

        (c)Insert PageFormOrder Form                  (d) InsertPageFormOrder Page

  16. How many ways can a website be saved?

        (a) 2                     (b) 3                  (c) 4                    (d) 5

  17. How can a website be saved made in publisher?

        (a) As a publisher file   (b) As an HTML file    (c) Both (a) and (b)     (d) None

  18. Which characteristics should be needed to add before hosting website made in publisher on any server?

        (a) URL                   (b) ISP                (c) HTTP                 (d) ASP

  19. What is the full form of ISP?

(a) Internet source provider (b) Internet section provider(c) Internet service provider(d) Internet scheme provider

  20. Which of the following is a scripting language?

        (a) HTML, Java Script, Visual Basic(b) Java Script, PHP, ACP(c) ASP, JSP, PHP(d) ASP, PSP, PHP

  21. ASP stands for _____

        (a) Active Server Pages (b) Active Service Pages (c) Action Source Pages (d) Active Section Pages

  22. JSP stands for ____

        (a) Java Source Pages(b) Java Section Pages(c) Java Server Pages (d) Java Service Pages

  23. While purchasing from Internet you can pay your bill by which of following options?

        (a) Credit/Debit Card     (b) Net banking        (c) Cheque/draft         (d) All

24. Cash on Delivery means ____.

        (a) Give cash on delivery(b) Go with cash and purchase (c) Send cash for delivery(d) all

25. While booking on Internet, which of the following details is required?

        (a) Your name             (b) Your phone number (c) Your address          (d) all

26. Purchase list of buyer is stored in ____
        (a) text file             (b) Database           (c) Worksheet            (d) none

27. On e-shopping, we will get information of product by ____

        (a) its specification                            (b) Its photographs

        (c) Its specification & photographs              (d) none

                          Ch-7- Introduction to Open Source Software
    1. How many component does Digital computer have?
(a) 2               (b) 3            (c) 4             (d) 5

2. What type of part hardware is in computer?

(a) Unique          (b) Secondary (c) Physical         (d) Imaginary

3. How many types does the software have?

(a) 2               (b) 3            (c) 4             (d) 5

4. Which of the following is a type of software?

(a) System software           (b) Application Software           (c) Both (a) and (b)    (d) none

5. In which part does a classification of a software done based on its usage?

(a) Proprietary s/w (b) Open Source            (c) Centralized s/w       (d) Both (a)and (b)

6. By whom a proprietary s/w are sold based on particular condition?

(a) Person          (b) owner        (c) Company       (d) all

7. Which types of s/w are sold based on particular condition?

(a) Proprietary     (b) Open source(c) Both (a) n (b)            (d) none

8. Who can develop Open Source software?

(a) Company         (b) group        (c) both (a) n (b)          (d) none

9. Who has prepared a free version of UNIX Operating System?

(a) Chales Babage (b) Dennis M Richi           (c) Richard Stoneman      (d) Richard Stallman

10. When was Unix Operating System’s free version developed?

(a) 1950            (b) 1960         (c) 1970          (d) 1980

11. What would be the appearance of a free version of UNIX Operating system?

(a) GNP             (b) GPL          (c) GLU           (d) GUI

12. The full form of GPL is _____

(a) General Private License                      (b) General Public License
(c)General Public Locator                        (d) Graphic Public License
13. What is software or program code?
(a) Application         (b) Source      (c) Program       (d) Model
14. By whom does a word open source become famous?
(a) Computer            (b) Internet    (c) Model         (d) Server
15. What is Open Source?
(a) Free Avaibility of Software         (b) Avaibility of Source code
(c) Avaibility of free distribution of software           (d) none
16. How would be the source code?
(a) Having a permission for distribution         (b) Easily available
(c) It is possible for changes                   (d) All
17. How should be the Open Source License?
(a) Having facility to change other (b) Having facility to make a software from original software
(c) Facility for distribution as per the license of original software      (d) all
18. Give a meaning of completeness of source code.
(a) Name or version number of made software is different from original software
(b) Name or version number of made software is same as original software
(c)Name or version number of made software is not displayed
(d) None
19. _____ policy is a major issue when distributing Open Source Software..
(a) Legal rights        (B) Licensing (c) Legalization             (d) execution
20. Match the following:
                        (a)                                                      (b)
(1) Proprietary Software                                    (a) LINUX
(2) Open Source Software                                    (b) Give a special facility to the users
(3) Physical Components of a computer                       (c) Microsoft Word 2007
     (4) System Software                                        (d) Hardware
     (5) Application Software                                   (e) Users are using machine with ability
     (a) (1-c) (2-a) (3-d) (4-b) (5-e)               (b) (1-c) (2-a) (3-b) (4-e) (5-d)
     (c) (1-c) (2-a) (3-d) (4-e) (5-b)               (d) (1-c) (2-a) (3-e) (4-d) (5-b)
21. Which of the following is an example of Open Source Software?
(a) Linux                   (b)       (c) Mozilla Firefox         (d) All
22. Without _____ the computer is of no use.
(a) Operating system (b) Internet                    (c) Open Source Software            (d) All
23. Which of the following is free Operating Systems?
(a) Linux                   (b) FreeBSD              (c) Free Dos                (d) All
24. ____ is the Operating System which is the most used in Open Source.
(a) FreeDos                 (b) OpenBSD              (c) Linux                   (d) FreeBSD
25. Mozilla Firefox Web browser began its journey in ____
(a) 1998                    (b) 1999                 (c) 2000                    (d) 2001
26. Which open source Web Browser is most successful today?
(a) Amaya                   (b) Sea Monkey           (c) Mozilla Firefox         (d) Konqueror
27. Firefox 3 was released in ____
(a) June 2008               (b) July 2008            (c) August 2008             (d) September 2008
28. Linux is available in around _____ languages.
(a) 45                      (b) 46                   (c) 47                      (d) 48
29. Which of the following open source office suite works only on windows operating system?
(a) Lotus Symphony          (b) Soft Maker Office 2006        (c) Both (a) n (b)(d) none
30. Full form of LGPL is _____
(a) Lesser General public License                    (b) Lesser general public License
(c)Lesser Government Public License                  (d) Lesser General Publicity License
31. Which application is included in openoffice 2.x?
(a) writer                  (b) calc        (c) Impress                 (d)all
32. Writer is similar to ______ software
(a)Spreadsheet              (b) Word Processing (c) Desktop Publishing (d) Database
33. Calc is ____ type of Application.
(a)Spreadsheet              (b) Word Processing      (c) Desktop Publishing (d) Database
34. Impress is ____ type of application.
(a) Multimedia presentation (b) Word Processing               (c) Desktop Publishing (d) Database
35. Base is ____ type of application.
(a) Multimedia presentation          (b) Word Processing      (c) Desktop Publishing (d) Database
36. Full form of SQL is ____
(a) Structured Query Language                                 (b) Special Query Language
(c) Social Quick Language                                     (d) Source Query Language
37. Draw is ____ type of application.
(a) Graphics                (b) Database                      (c) Word Processing        (d) Spreadsheet
38. Math is _____ type of Application.
(a) Mathematical            (b) Word Processing               (c) Database               (d) Spreadsheet
39.full form of HTTP.
(a) Hyper test transport protocol           (b) hyper text transfer prototype
(c) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol            (d) Hyper Text transfer Pages
40. ____ is the most used Open Source Web Server.
(a) AOL Server              (b) Apache HTTP Server            (c) Apache Tomcat          (d) Boa
41. when was the Apache started?
(a) April 1995              (b) May 1995 (c) June 1995 (d) July 1995
42. Which database provides us Open Source?
(a) Ms-Excel                (b) Ms-Access (c) My SQL Community Edition (d) SQL Server
43. Which is the most commonly used component for Application Development?
(a) IDA                     (b) IDB         (c) IAD           (d) IDE
44. The full form of IDE is _____
(a) International Development Environment            (b) Image Development Environment
(c)Integrated Development Environment                (d) Internal Development Environment
45. The NetBeans IDE is the first IDE to fully support ____ features.
(a) JDK 6.0                 (b) JDK 6.1     (c) JDK 7.0       (d) None
                              Ch – 8 working with Linux Operating System
1. The best initiative of Open Source till date has been the OS called _____
    (a) OpenOffice           (b) Linus                 (c) Linux                   (d) Unix
2. The Linux Operating System is now available from many _____
    (a) Shopkeepers          (b) Programmers           (c) Vendors                 (d) GUI
3. Each distributor of Linux has prefixed it with their own name like _____
    (a) Red Hat              (b) SuSE                  (c) Ubuntu                  (d) All
4. The ides to develop Linux dates back to _____
    (a) August 1991          (b) September 1991        (c) July 1991               (d) None
5. ____ from Finland posted a message regarding the OS on a Newsgroup.
    (a) Bill Gates           (b) Linus Torvalds        (c) Linux Torvalds          (d) Pascal
6. The creator of Linux OS had originally tried to build a free OS for ___ Clones.
    (a) Pentium              (b) Intel                 (c) 386,486 AT              (d) All
7. ____ always has the last say as far as the kernel of the OS is concerned.
    (a) Bill Gates           (b) Linus Torvalds        (c) Linux Torvalds          (d) Pascal
8. ____ is on the of the distributors of Linux.
    (a) SuSE                 (b) Linus                 (c) Debian                  (d) Both (A) & (c)
9. Red Hat Linux runs on _____ leading computing platforms.
    (a) 1                    (b) 2                     (c) 3                       (d) 4
10. _____ is a computing platforms on which Red Hat Linux runs.
    (a) 386                  (b) 486                   (c) 286                     (d) Sun SPARC
11. The Root directory is represented by the symbol ____
    (a) \                    (b) /                     (c) //                      (d) \\
12. The ____ directory contains several useful commands for normal users and system administrator.
    (a) /root                (b) /bin                  (c) /boot                   (d) /dev
13. The ___ directory contains the shells like bash, csh etc.
    (a) /root                (b) /boot                 (c) /bin                    (d) /dev
14. The ____ directory contains the system map.
    (a) /root                (b) /boot                 (c) /bin                    (d) /dev
15. The _____ directory suggests that everything in Linux is a file or a directory.
    (a) /dev                 (b) /boot                 (c) /bin                    (d) /etc
16. The _____ directory contains all the configuration files of the system.
    (a) /dev                 (b) /boot                 (c) /bin                    (d) /etc
17. The _____ directory in Linux is a multi-user environment directory.
    (a) /etc                 (b) /home                 (c) /bin                    (d) /etc
18. The _____ directory is the home directory of user root.
    (a) /home                (b) /root                 (c) /bin                    (d) /tmp
19. /opt directory is used for _____
    (a) Default installation (b) To add extra software apart from default software
    (c) To select option     (d) all
20. Linux uses ____
     (a) Forward slash                 (b) Back slash            (c) semicolon              (d) none
21. With the help of ____ it is easy to install and uninstall individual software packages in Linux.
     (a) PRM                           (b) RPM                   (c) MRP                    (d) All
22. Minimum disk space required to install Linux is _____
    (a) 475 MB                         (b) 500 MB                (c) 5 GB                   (d) 4 GB
23. Maximum disk space required to install Linux is _____
    (a) 475 MB                         (b) 500 MB                (c) 5 GB                   (d) 4 GB
24. While installation of Linux, the keyboard configuration would be ______
    (a) US English                     (b) UK English            (c) Indian English         (d) All
25. The installation program provides ______ boot loaders to choose from GRUB and LILO.
    (a) 1                              (b) 2                     (c) 3                      (d) 4
26. The first login screen prompts the user to enter _____
    (a) password                       (b) username              (c) registration no        (d) license no
27. The ____ icon is similar to My Computer of Windows.
    (a) root’s home                    (b) Computer              (c) Trash                  (d) Action
28. The ____ icon is similar to My Document of Windows.
    (a) root’s home                    (b) Computer              (c) Trash                  (d) Action
29. In the web browser settings, _____ is selected to access the internet through a proxy server.
    (a) Manual Proxy configuration                               (b) Direct connection to the Internet
    (c) Automatic proxy configuration                            (d) None

30. Linux has an inbuilt utility called the ____.
   (a) Archive Manager                   (b) WinZip            (c) Old Manager          (d) Archive Zip
31. What is the full form of BOSS?
  (a) Basic Operating System Solution                          (b) Beginner Operating System Solution
  (c) Bharat Operating System Solution                         (d) Bharat Operating Super Solution
32. Full form of C-DAC is ____
      (a) Centre for Development of Advanced Computing in India
      (b) Centre for Department of Advanced Computer in India
      (c) Centre for Data of Advance Computer in India          (d) Center for Developed American Computing in India
   33. What is the extension of Archive files in Linux?
      (a) tar.gz                           (b) .zip                 (c) .tar              (d) .doc
   34. ____ is the most used format of file when sharing is considered.
      (a) .WMP                             (b) .PDF                 (c) .EXE              (d) .Doc
   35. _____ directory is a virtual file system containing information about system resources.
        (a) /proc                          (b) /opt                 (c) /root             (d) /sbin
   36. Which tool is used to set the system date and time?
        (a) Setup Agent                    (b) System agent         (c) System properties (d) none
   37. _____ is a full-featured personal and work group information management tool for the Linux and Unix based
        (a) Ms Outlook                     (b) Thunderbird          (c) Evolution         (d) none
                                                    LABORATORY EXERCISES
   1. Start the Computer.
   Ans: -> Switch on the main switch on CPU. Continuously Press Down Arrow Key.
         It will display two option like Red Hat Linux and Other. Select Red Hat Linux.
   2. Check the date and time of your computer. Change the time, so that it is forwarded by 15 minutes.
         Click right mouse button on the right side of Desktop Date and Time.
         From the menu do Adjust date and time.
         Give password .
         Adjust time and click on OK.
         After that give the user name Password.
   3. Change the desktop background.
         Place the mouse pointer on the desktop and right click the mouse.
         Click on change Desktop Background.
         Click on desired theme and the desktop.
   4. Create folder having name “MyData” in home directory.

Ch -9 openoffice : word processing and presentation authoring software

Select the appropriate choice from the given options:

   1. ________ is the feature rich word processor of Open Office suite.

       (a) Impress                      (b) Word                 (c) Writer               (d) Draw

   2. Open Office can be installed on Linux and ______.

       (a) Office                       (b) Windows              (c) Unix                 (d) none

   3. The toolbar on the top is called the ________.

       (a) Standard toolbar    (b) formatting toolbar (c) status bar              (d) office toolbar

   4. The _____ displays lists of Heading, tables, text, frames, graphics etc.

       (a) Navigator                    (b) tables               (c) references           (d) indexes

   5. We can change the _____ using the rulers by dragging them with the mouse.

       (a) Text                         (b) margins              (c) picture              (d) fonts

   6. Writer has _____ ways to view documents.

       (a) 1                            (b) 2                    (c) 3                    (d) 4

   7. The new document opened in Writer is called ______document by default.
    (a) New                             (b) titled                     (c) untitled              (d) start

8. The index/table can be updated by selecting _____ form the Update Index/Table of the pop-up menu.

    (a) Copy                            (b) paste                      (c) Update                (d) none

9. ____ is presentation software like MS PowerPonit.

    (a) Draw                            (b) Word                       (c) Writer                (d) Impress

10. An empty presentation can be selected under the ___ section.

    (a) Wizard                          (b) type                       (c) text                  (d) next

11. The ___ section gives two main choice of presentations.

    (a) Slide design                               (b) slide transition(c) calculating (d) both (a) n (b)

12. The ___ contains the thumbnail picture of the slides in the presentation.

    (a) Slide pane           (b) workspace (c) taks pane               (d) all

13. ___ key is used to run the presentation.

    (a) F5                              (b) F11                        (c) F6         (d) F8

14. ______ is a vector graphics drawing program.

    (a) Impress              (b) paint                     (c) Draw                   (d) drawing

15. The objects created using the draw software are stored with ___ extension.

    (a) .odg                 (b) .otg                      (c) .dog                   (d) .odf

16. In the Draw program, which option is save the image in the in the image file formats as .gif, .tiff etc?

    (a) File/save            (b) file /save as             (c) file/export            (d) none

17. Draw is a _______ graphics drawing program.

    (a) Pixel                (b) points                    (c) lines                  (d) vector

18. In Impress, ______ key is used to change the text style.

    (A) F5                   (b) F7                        (c) F9                     (d) F11

19. By default, the Writer saves the document itself every ______ minutes.

    (a) 40                   (b) 30                        (c) 20                     (d) 10

20. By default, Impress contains ______ master pages.

    (a) 5                    (b) 4                         (c) 3                      (d) 2

21. Hatching has ______ pre-packaged patterns.

    (a) 5                    (b) 15                        (c) 10                     (d) 20

                                                            Ch - 10

22. To delete an entry in Calc, the _____ key can be used.

    (a) Delete                          (b) backspace                  (c) esc                   (d) spacebar
23. Which function is used to arrange the data in ascending or descending form?

    (a) Sort                                (b) adjust                   (c) find                     (d) view

24. Formulas in calc are divided into ____ categories.

    (a) 10                                  (b) 11                       (c) 12                       (d) 13

25. _____ symbol is used as a separator in calc

    (a) ; (semicolon)                       (b) : (colon)                (c) , (comma)    (d) . (period)

26. To fill series in calc _____ option is used.

    (a) File -> fill -> series              (b) edit -> fill -> series (c) insert -> fill -> series (d) data -> fill series

27. ____ aid users to understand the complex data by presenting it in s pictorial manner.

    (a) Graphics                            (b) charts                   (c) area         (d) all

28. EMI stands for _______

    (a) Equated monthly incentive. (b) equal monetary instalment(c) equated monthly instalment (d) equal
        money instalment.

29. A ____ is an organized collection of data.

    (a) Worksheet                (b) document                 (c) database                (d) presentation

30. Open source provides users with RDBMS software known as ____

    (a) Access                   (b) base                     (c) excel                   (d) writer

31. The full form of DBMS is ____

    (a) Database Management Software                 (b) Database Management system(c) data management software
           (d) none

32. ____ is the key, that uniquely identifies the record of a table.

    (a)                     (b) primary key              (c) foreign key             (d) composite key

33. The default extension of database file is _____

    (a) .dbo                     (b) .obd                     (c) .odb                    (d) ALL

34. The _____ button helps in transferring all fields.

    (a) >              (b) <                                  (c) >>                      (d) all

35. ___ is a tool in Base to extract information from the database.

    (a) Table                    (b) form                     (c) Query                   (d) report

36. A ____ report once created cannot be changed.

    (a) Edited         (b) dynamic                            (c) static                  (d) grouped

37. A _____ is a simple sheet consisting of rows and columns.

    (a) Document (b) Spreadsheet                              (c) Accounts grid           (d) base

38. A _____ in a worksheet represents an entity.

    (a) Column         (b) row                                (c) record                  (d) field

39. Each sheet in calc can have a maximum of _____ rows.

    (a) 65,536         (b) 65,556                             (c) 65,636                  (d) 65,356

40. Every worksheet contains ______ individual cells.

    (a) 16777,217 (b) 16777,216                               (c) 16777,206               (d) 16777,116
41. The default file extension of Calc is _____.

    (a) .ods          (b) .xls                                (c) .cic                    (d) .odc

                                              Ch-11 Basic Linux Commands Part – I

1. What is used to open a command line console in a graphical interface?

    (a) Terminal window(b) to make a directory(c)To make file in console(d) GNOME window

2. Which prompt, symbol is displayed if you are logged as an administrator?

    (a) $                        (b) #              (c) @                (d) ‘/’

3. Which prompt symbol is displayed if you are logged as username?

    (a) $                        (b) #              (c) @                (d) ‘/’

4. What is a shell?

    (a) Command line interface(b) graphic space(c) command interface(d) all

5. Which shell is used to write a program based on commands?

    (a) Bourne shell             (b) C shell        (c) korn shell       (d) bash shell

6. Bash shell is used for ?

    (a) Account configuration(b) in shell script programming(c) (a) n (b) (d) to make directories

7. Which command is used to find all available shell of your system ?

    (a) Cat/etc/shells           (b) cat/etc/shells           (c) cat/etc/shell(d)cet/etc/shells

8. Which command is used to display the value of any variable?

    (a) Print                    (b) display        (c) echo             (d) scanf

9. Linux syntax consists of how many parts?

    (a) 2                        (b) 3              (c) 4                (d) 1

10. Zero or more specifications that alter the behaviour of the command starts with which symbol?

    (a) @                        (b) $              (c) -                (d) #

11. To display next page of the online help which command is used?

    (a) b                        (b) f              (c) a                (d) d

12. To exit man pages which command is used?

    (a) Bye command              (b) ctrl+q         (c) ctrl + d         (d) ctrl + m

13. Which command is used to display single screen page at a time?

    (a) Forward                  (b) back           (c) more             (d) page

14. What is the purpose of bc – l ?

    (a) Not to take blank value(b) To include standard math libraries(c) to take blank values(d) to make directory

15. Which command is used to change the password of the current login account?

    (a) Password                 (b) passwd         (c) psd              (d) pswd

16. _______ symbol will be displayed as a prompt if you are logged in as an administrator.

    (a) $                        (b) #              (c) ?                (d) ^

17. ____ was developed as a shell using the C programming syntax.
     (a) Tcsh shell               (b) bourne shell (c) bash shell      (d) csh shell

 18. The Linux operating system with its current environment settings as its values is known as _______ variable.

     (a) Cat                      (b) environment          (c) SHELL           (d) none

 19. The shell automatically provides the remaining information after typing the first few letters of a command and
     then pressing the ____ key.

     (a) TAB                      (b) Enter                (c) Shift           (d) CTrl

 20. The extension of a oracle file is ____

     (a) .orl          (b) .odb                            (c) .sql            (d) .c

                                   Ch- 11 Basic Linux Commands Part I

1. cal : calendar

 To display calendar

 Ex. $ cal 08 2008

 $ cal 2008

2. date : displaying the system date
  ex. $ date

3. echo : to display a message
  ex. $ echo “ Hi, I am XYZ from shardayatan”

4. passwd : changing ur password
  ex. Passwd

5. who : knowing list of y\users currently logged in
  ex. $ who

 $ who am i

6. checking ur home directory
  ex. $ echo $HOME

7. pwd: checking ur present working directory
  ex. $ pwd

8. mkdir : make a directory
  $ mkdir cities

 “cities is a directory(folder) name”

9. cd : change directory
  $ cd cities OR $ cd ..

10. To display file content

  Ex. $ cat

11. To create a file

  Ex. $ cat > filename

12. To append a file
  Ex. $ cat >> filename

13. concatenate multiple files
  ex. Cat filename1 filename2 > newfile

14. ls : listing a files and directories
  ex. $ ls

  to display hidden file ex. $ ls –a

  to display subdirectory along with directory ex. $ ls –R

15. ls with wild card character

  $ ls t*

  File name starting with ‘t’

  $ ls *s

  File name ending with ‘s’

  $ ls ??

  File name having only two characters

  * = any number of characters including none

  ? = a single character

  [abc] = a single character –either a,b or c

  [!abc] = a single character that is not a,b or c

  [p-s] = a single character within the ASCII range of the characters ‘p’ to ‘s’

  [!p-s] = a single character that is not within the ASCII range of the characters ‘p’ to ‘s’
                         Ch-12 Basic Linux commands : Part II
1. Cp: copying a file

   Ex. $cp filename1 filename2

2. Mv : renaming files and/or moving files

   Ex. $ Mv filename1 filename2

3. Rm : Removing a files

   Ex. $ rm filename

4. Rmdir: removing directory/directories

   Ex. $ Cd student

   $ rmdir villages


   $ rmdir /home/student/villages

5. More : paging output

   $more cities

   “cities is a filename”

6. Wc : counting lines, words and characters in a file

   $ wc – l cities.txt

   Line count

   $ wc –w cities.txt

   Word count

   $ wc –c cities.txt

   Character count

7. Chmod : changing permissions

   $ chmod ugo-w cities.txt

   The character u in the above chmod command stands for user, g for group and o for owner.

8. Gzip : compressing files

   $ gzip filename

9. Gunzip : decompressing files

   $gunzip filename.txt.gz

10. Mount : mounting file system

   The mount command is used to mount a new file system to exiting file system.

   For instance, you would like to copy data from USB pen drive to hard disk using Linux OS. Attach a pen
   drive, open my computer and if you find that your machine has not detected the USB pen drive. What
   can you do?
    You need to attach the file system of new device to existing file system of operating system. You can
    attach the new device to it by using mounting command. Note that mount command can only be used
    by a root user.

     Create pen drive dir

    #mkdir / mnt / pendrive

    Fint device name using this comm.


11. Unmount : unmounting file system

    # unmount mnt/pendrive

12. Piping :

    Piping facility of linux helps in connecting commands with commands.

    Using pipe symbol ( | ) output of one command can be supplied as input to another command and this
    process is know as piping in Linux

    $ ls | wc – l

13. Head : displaying top lines of the file

    $ head cities.txt

14. Tail : displaying last lines of the file

    $ tail cities.txt

15. Cut : cutting a file vertically

    $ cut frnd.txt

16. Cutting characters (-c)

    Cut –c 1-4, 5-23 frnd

17. Paste : pasting files

    $ paste stream contacts

18. Sort : ordering a file

    $ sort frnd

19. Tr : translating charcters

    $ cat frind.txt | tr ‘[a – z]’ ‘[A – Z]’

20. Grep : searching for a pattern

    $ grep “Minal” frind.txt
                Ch-13 Linux Editor and Writing Simple shell Scripts
Shell Script : Shell script is defined as series of commands written in a plain text file.

Vi editor: vi which is visual display editor is used to write the shell script as this editor is available with almost all Unix
and Linux flavours.

Commands and its use of insert mode of vi editor
Commands         Usage
  A              To insert text after the current cursor position.
   I             To insert text before the current cursor position.
 A               To append text at the end of the current line
  I              To insert text from the beginning of a line
 O               To insert in a new line above the current cursor position.
 O               To insert in a new line below the current cursor position.
r char           To replace single character under cursor with char
R                Replace characters, starting with current cursor position
S                TO replace single character under cursor with any number of characters
S                To replace entire line

To save a file in vi editor:
Press Esc key and type : (colon) and wq

To create shell script : $cat >

To run shell script : $ sh file

Ex. 1 : write the shell script through which the system will tell you your user id, what directory you your user id,
what directory you are in, list of the files in that directory and the date.
$ cat >
#script 1 : to display information about logged in user and display current date
echo “ you are”
Who am i
echo “ The directory you are in is “
echo “ The files in this directory are”
echo “The date is “

Ex. 2 Write a shell script that displays only time and not the date
#script 2 : shell script to display current time
Echo “ current time is ‘date” + %H: %M: %S”’”

Ex.3. write a shell script that displays your name and home address
#script 3 : to display name and home add
name=”sanjay upadhyay”
add1=”35, nikunj soc, nanpura, surat”
echo “ may name is $name”
echo “ my Home add is $add1”

Ex. 4 shell script to display total number of lines and word in that file
echo –n “Enter file name:”
read fname
echo “ total number of lines in a file is ‘cat $fnamr | wc -1’”
echo “total number of words in a file is ‘cat $fname | wc –c’”
Ex. 5 Write a shell script that accept birth year from the user and displays current age in years
#script 5: this script calculates age in years
Echo –n “Enter your birth year”
Read byear
cyear=’date | tr –s ‘ ‘| cut –d “ “ –f 6’
age=’expr $cyear - $byear’
echo “your current age in year is $age”

Ex 6. Write a script which accepts two files from the user and creates a new file containing the contents of both the
files provided as input.

#this script is to display merge two files
echo –n “ enter First file:”
read file1
echo –n “enter second file:”
read file2
paste $file1 $file2 > file3
echo “ now f3 file is ‘cat file3’”

                       Ch-14 Decision Making and Looping Constructs
Ex 1. To compare two files

#script 6 : compare two files
echo “enter first file”
read file1
echo “enter second file”
read file2
if cmp $file1 $file2
         echo “files are same…”
         echo “files are different…”

Ex. 2 To greet a user with a msg

#script 7 : this script greets a user with a msg
Hour=’ date +”%H”
“if [ $hour –ge 0 –a $hour –lt 12 ]
          echo “Good morning”
elseif [ $hour –ge 12 –a $hour –lt 18 ]
          echo “Good afternoon”
          echo “Good evening”


#scripe 8 : script to check whether more than 5 files are created in a month
C=’ls -1 | grep –c “$1”
If [ $c – gt 5 ]
         echo “ yes you have created more than 5 files in $1 month”
you can use ‘test’ command instead of [ ] in if condition.

Ex.4 To create a copy of file
#script 9 : shell script to create a copy of file
If [ -r $1 ]
cp $1 $2
          echo “ file copied successfully…..”
          echo “ you should have read permission on source file to create its copy..”

Ex. 5 file has all permission or not
#script 10 : shell script to check whether the files has all the permission or not
if test –r $1 –a –w $1 –a –x $1
          echo “ you have all the permission on the file “

Ex. 6 check whether two strings are equal or not
Echo –n “enter first string :”
read str1
echo –n “enter second string:”
read str2
if [ $str1 = $str2 ]
          echo “ string are equal”
          echo “ string are unequal”
Ex. 7 find the file with the smallest size
echo $1 $2 $3
          fsize1=’wc –c !1| cut –d “ “ –f 1”
          fsize2=’wc –c !2| cut –d “ “ –f 1”
          fsize3=’wc –c !3| cut –d “ “ –f 1”
if [ $fsize1 – lt $fsize2 ] ; then
          if [ $fsize1 – lt $fsize3 ] ; then
          echo “ $1 is the smallest “
elif [ $fsize2 – lt $fsize1 ] ; then
          if [ $fsize2 – lt $fsize3 ] ; then
          echo “$2 is the smallest “ fi
          echo “ $3 is the smallest “
Ex. 8 menu driven script
#Script 13 : this script displays list of current files and directories in the current directory according to user’s choice.
echo “1. Only Files”
echo “2. Only Directories”
echo “3. All files including hidden files”
echo “4.Executable files”
echo “5. Quit”

echo –n “enter your choice [1-5] : “
read ch

case $ch in
        ls -1 | grep ^-
        ls -1 | grep ^d
        ls –a
        ls –x
        exit 1
        Echo “ sorry ! Incorrect choice , Try again !!!!!!”

Ex. 9 using for loop
#Script 14 : to move all the empty files the working directory to a directory named ‘empty’
if ! [-d empty ]
          mkdir empty
          for I in ‘ls’
          if [ -s $i ]
                    mv $i ./empty
Ex. 10 create multiple directories
echo –n “enter the number of directories you want to create:”
read n
while [ $i –le $n ]
          echo –n “enter the name of the directory:”
          read dirname
          mkdir $dirname
          if [ $? = 1 ] ; then
                    echo “ the creation of directory failed”
i=’expr $1 + 1’
Ex 11 display the sum of first n natural num.
echo –n “enter the number”
read n
until [ $i –gt $n ]
          sum=’expr $sum + $i’
          i=’expr $i + 1’
echo “the sum of $n numbers is $sum”
Ex 12 creating multiple directories
echo –n “enter the number of directories you want to create:”
read n
while [ $i –le $n]
        echo –n “enter the name of the directory:”
        read dirname
        mkdir $dirname
        if [ $? = 1 ] ; then
                 echo “the creation of directory failed”
i=’expr $i + 1’

Ex 13 menu driven program demonstrating until loop
echo $choice
until [ $choice=n ]
echo “…………………………………………………………………………………”
echo “ “
echo “ a: list of files and directories in a current directory”
echo “ b: display current working directory”
echo “ c: display current date and time”
echo “ d: searching a word from file”
echo “ e: exit”
echo “ “
echo “…………………………………………………………………………………”
echo –n “enter your choice : [a-e] “
read ch

case $ch in

ls -1
echo “you are working in ‘pwd’”
echo “current date and time is is ‘date’”
echo –n “enter the word to be searched : “
read word
echo –n “enter the file in which the word is to be searched”
read file
grep $word $file
echo “Oops!!!incorrect choice, try again..”

echo –n “do you want to continue ? : “
read choice

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