Bakeries - Our Daily Bread

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					  Bakeries – Our Daily Bread




BAKERIES
Our Daily Bread




                                      Toni Chico
                                    Jaume Martí
                                      Èric Pardo
                                   Gonzalo Baltà




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             Bakeries – Our Daily Bread




                                     INDEX
- Abstract of the project……………………………………………………………………………3

- Introduction to bread (Comenius)……………………………..……………….…………3

- Documentary research: History of bakeries…………………………………..……….4

- Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………………………..5

- Objectives………………………………………………………………………………………………5

- Previous study………………………………………………………………………………………..5

- How have we obtained the information? ..............................................6

- Results……………………………………………………………………………………………………6

   - Results related to the consumers……………………………………………………7

   - Results related to the bakers………………………………………………………..10

- Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………….13
   - Conclusions of consumers……………………………………………………………13
   - Conclusions of bakers…………………………………………………………………..13
   - Conclusions related………………………………………………………………………14


- The organization of the work………………………………………………………………..14

- Inconvenients with the Bakeries Project……………………………………………….15

- Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………….15

- Annexes: The questionnaires………………………………………………………………..16




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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread



                   ABSTRACT OF THE PROJECT
“Bakeries – Our Daily Bread” is a project about the bread buying habits of
the consumers and how bakers work. We have passed out two
questionnaires: one to the consumers and another one to the bakers. We
have obtained some results from these questionnaires and we have
established some relationships between the results of two different
questions.

“Bakeries – Our Daily Bread” és un
projecte sobre els hàbits de compra
dels consumidors de pa i de com
treballen els forners. Hem passat
dos qüestionaris: un per als
consumidors i un altre per als
forners. Hem obtingut alguns
resultats a partir d’aquests
qüestionaris i hem establit algunes
relacions entre els resultats de dues
preguntes diferents.

                           INTRODUCTION
                                 Bread, why have we chosen it? Our group
                                 is participating in a Comenius project, a
                                 program that tries to connect students
                                 from different countries in Europe by
                                 using different topics to do projects on
                                 them. Taking into account this year is the
                                 International Chemistry year, the topics
                                 are related to this kind of science. One of
                                 these topics is bread, so we have done a
                                 project focusing on a specific part of
                                 bread. Although our project is not exactly
                                 related to chemistry, it’s a mathematical
                                 and statistic project. As it is an
                                 international project, we have had to do
                                 it in English.




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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread




                       HISTORY OF BAKERIES

It is not known where bakeries come from but it is believed that the
ancient Egyptians and the Greeks were the creators.
In the Roman Empire there weren’t bakeries because the government
distributed the grain wheat to the population in Rome. Later, they also
baked the bread.
In the Middle Ages, the mills were owned by kings and lords, who let their
people use them to grind wheat in exchange for a portion of their crops.
In the Middle Ages only the castles and convents had bakeries. The castles
also ate their bread and used it to pay its own workers. The convents
distributed pieces of bread among the poorest people.
In the seventeenth century France became the centre of the bread
making.

In 1784 the mills
appeared to be
driven by steam, the
new        technology
developed allowed
the use of steam as
motive power. There
was also a process of
mass migration from
rural to urban. The
industrial revolution
brought several improvements in the mills that allowed to increase the
bread production. This process meant that domestic production went
down. The invention of new wheat crushing, contributed to the
development of the baking industry. With the growth of the population,
baking and milling required new methods. The use of grinding stones was
replaced by steel. The flour from these mills was thinner. The invention of
electric blades replaced the grinding stones. Cylinders also replaced the
mill wheels. It reduced production costs, also increased production and
the varieties and qualities of bread.


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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread


                             HYPOTHESIS
    We think that the most eaten bread is rustic.
    We think that people nowadays eat less bread than in the past.
    We think that the consumers give more importance to the kindness
     of the baker.
    We think that the number of consumers that a bakery receives is
     related to the number of bread sold in a week.


                              OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the Project are the following:
    Contrast the hypothesis we have stated above.
    We want to get knowledge to obtain information about the bread
      buying habits of the consumers and the bread selling habits of the
      bakers in the province of Barcelona.
    Another objective is establishing relationships between the
      different answers that consumers and bakers give us and from
      there draw conclusions.

                          PREVIOUS STUDY
Population: Bakeries in the entire Barcelona province. There are,
approximately, 1800 bakeries.

Sample: bakeries from Sant Quirze del Vallès and Sabadell. There are 300
bakeries in these two
towns but the sample
needed is about 100
bakeries. But, as we don’t
have the time nor the
means we have visited 15
bakeries. We think that
these       two      towns
represent well enough
the bakeries in Barcelona,
which is a urban area.



Type of sampling: we are going to use a convenience sampling because
we are going to choose the bakeries that we have near our house, the


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            Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

ones in Sant Quirze and Sabadell. When we choose the consumers of the
bakeries ,we are going to use a systematic sampling.

      HOW HAVE WE OBTAINED THE INFORMATION?
We have prepared two
questionnaires: one for the
consumers and another for
the bakers. We have been
in some bakeries in Sant
Quirze, our town, and we
have also passed some
questionnaires in Sabadell,
the capital of our region. In
the bakeries that we have
been, we have given
questionnaires      to   the
bakers and questionnaires
to some consumers in that
bakery. We have tabulated
the    results     of    the
questionnaires in Excel
Spreadsheets and we have
studied them and plotted
some graphs.



                                 RESULTS
Now we are going to show the results of some questions of the
questionnaires. We also show some graphs where we have tried to relate
the results of the two initial questions. First , we are going to show the
results of the consumers’ questionnaire, and then, the results of the
bakers’ questionnaires.




RESULTS RELATED TO THE CONSUMERS



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                  Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

Number of people that consume each type of bread
In this first graph we can see the number of consumers that eat each type
of bread. We can observe that the most eaten bread is baguette, and
then rustic. These results don’t mean that the other types of bread are
not consumed, because the consumers a lot of times eat more than one
type of bread. But this graph shows the type of bread that is more
consumed by each consumer.


                  Number of people that consume each
                            type of bread
             25

             20

             15
    people




             10

             5

             0
                   viennese baguette   integral       english   ciabatta   rustic   others
                                                      bread
                                             types of bread




Factors that influence consumers
In the second graph we can see the factors, in the bakery and in the bread,
that influence more the consumers. From these factors, they decide to go
to one bakery or to another one. The most important factors are the
proximity of the bakery to their home and the quality of the bread. Other
consumers give importance to have the bread freshly baked or the
hygiene that is perceived in the shop.




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                    Bakeries – Our Daily Bread


                     Factors that influence consumers
           18
           16
           14
           12
  people



           10
            8
            6
            4
            2
            0




                                                 factors


Qualities preferred in bread
In this graph we can observe the qualities in bread preferred by the
consumers, when they go to buy bread, which qualities are the most
important for them. The most important are the quality itself of the bread,
to have it freshly baked and the taste and the smell of the bread, in this
order. Then we can see that other qualities preferred, but for less
consumers, are the texture (if the bread is easy to eat) and if the bread is a
healthy product.


                             Qualities prefered in bread
               20
               18
               16
               14
               12
      people




               10
                8
                6
                4
                2
                0




                                           qualities




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                                        Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

Money spent related to number of people
In this graph we have tried to find a relationship between the money that
the consumers spend buying bread in a week and the number of people
that live in the same house. Each point represents one situation. We can
see only 16 points because the situations are repeated. But, as we can
observe in the graph, there isn’t any relationship because we have all the
points dispersed. So this means that doesn’t matter if there are more or
less people in a family, the important is how much bread each person eats
in every meal.

                                      Money spent related to number of people
            5

            4

            3
  Money




            2

                1

            0
                                  0          1            2        3           4       5       6       7
                                                               People in the house



Frequency buying bread related to the amount of bread eaten
Here we have related the number of times that each consumer goes to
buy bread with the amount of bread that they eat. But another time, we
have that there is not any relationship and there is not any model.

                                        Frequency buying bread related to the
                                              amount of bread eaten
                                  3.5
          Amount of bread eaten




                                    3
                                  2.5
                                    2
                                  1.5
                                    1
                                  0.5
                                    0
                                        0        1    2        3           4       5   6   7       8
                                                              Frequency buying bread




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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

Bread consumed related to the past
In one question from the
consumers’ questionnaire         Bread consumed related
we asked this: if they think
                                        to the past
that they eat more, less or
the same bread than before,
when they were younger,                       more
teenagers or children. The
results say that there are
two     big   parts    quite        the same

matched: the ones that eat
the same bread and the                             less
ones that eat less bread
than before. But there are
very few people who eat
more bread than before.


Bread eaten on a diet
In another question we asked
this: if you are on a diet, do               Bread eaten on a diet
you eat the same bread as
always, less bread or any
bread?
                                                               any
 In this graph we can see the                      not diet
                                                              bread
results. It’s true that most of
the people eat less bread, but
there’s also a big part of                     the same
consumers that eat the same,                    bread           less
and a small part that exclude                                  bread
the bread from his/her diet.
Some consumers said to us
that they had never been on a
diet, so they didn’t have an
answer for this question.




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                  Bakeries – Our Daily Bread



RESULTS RELATED TO THE BAKERS

Consumers and bread sold
In this graph we can observe the relationship that we have found between
the consumers that each bakery receives and the amount of bread that
they sell in a week. In this graph there aren’t only 5 points, but as in the
graph before each represents one situation and there are situations
repeated. So really we have 15 points, one for each baker. We can see
that this is a very good model because the R2 is 0,7501, so this means that
the R is equals to 0,86608, and this number is very closed to 1.

                  Consumers and bread sold                     y = 0.8897x - 0.4069
                                                                    R² = 0.7501
          5

          4

          3
  bread




          2

          1

          0
              0             1            2                 3       4              5
                                               consumers




Types of bread sold
In this graph we have shown the amount of each type of bread sold by
different bakers. The most sold bread is rustic and baguette. As we have
said before, these results don’t mean that the other types of bread are not
sold, only that they are sold in less amount.




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                               Bakeries – Our Daily Bread


                                            Types of bread sold
                      10
  number of sellers

                      8
                      6
                      4
                      2
                      0
                               viennese    baguette    integral   English   Ciabatta   Rustic
                                                                  bread
                                                         Types of bread




Factors potentiated by bakers
In this graph we can see the factors that make bakers sell more. The most
potentiated factors are the kindness with the consumer and the quality of
the bread.

                                    Factors potentiated by bakers
                       10
                           8
                           6
             bakers




                           4
                           2
                           0
                                kindness     quality    hygiene     price    freshly   variety
                                                                              baked
                                                                              bread
                                                              factors



Qualities preferred on bread by bakers
Here we have shown the qualities preferred in bread by the bakers if they
needed to buy some bread. The results are very similar to the question
that we have made to the consumers. So the most important quality is the
quality of bread and then the taste and the smell and to have the bread
freshly baked.




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                   Bakeries – Our Daily Bread


                      Qualities preferred on bread by
                                   bakers
               7
               6
               5
      bakers




               4
               3
               2
               1
               0
                      fresh   taste and   quality      texture   appearance   price
                      baked     smell
                      bread
                                                 qualities

                                    CONCLUSIONS
Here we have the conclusions that we have drawn from the results before
shown. In the first and the second parts (Conclusions of consumers and
Conclusions of bakers) each point is referred to one graph in the results.

CONCLUSIONS OF CONSUMERS
   The most eaten bread is baguette. We were wrong in the
    hypothesis because we said that the most eaten bread is rustic.
   The consumers choose between one or another bakery depending
    on the proximity of the bakery to their home. They also give a lot of
    importance to the quality of bread. We were wrong in the
    hypothesis because we said that they give importance to the
    kindness of the baker with them but this is not true.
   The qualities preferred in bread by consumers are the quality of the
    product itself, to have the bread freshly baked and the taste and the
    smell.
   We have seen that there is not any relationship between the money
    that a consumer spends buying bread in a week and the number of
    people that live with him/her.
   We have also seen that there is not a relationship between how
    often a consumer goes to buy bread and the amount of bread that
    he / she eats.
   People eat the same or less bread than before, but very few people
    eat more. So, in general, the bread is less eaten than before.
   There are a lot of people that eat less bread when they are on a diet
    and there are some that don’t eat any bread. There are also people


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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

      that eat the same bread but they are less. So there are more people
      that give importance to bread when they are on a diet than people
      that don’t give importance to it.

CONCLUSIONS OF BAKERS
   We have seen that there is a relationship between the consumers
    that they receive with the number of pieces of bread sold in a week.
    This relation is a very good model because the R2 is 0,7501 so this
    means that the R is equals to 0,86608, and this number is very
    closed to 1.
   We have seen that the most sold bread is rustic. This is curious
    because before we could observe that the most eaten bread is
    baguette, and not rustic.
   The factors that are more remarked by the bakers to sell more
    bread are the kindness with the consumer and then the quality of
    the bread.
   If the bakers went to buy bread, the qualities that they would prefer
    are the quality of the bread itself, the taste and the smell and to
    have it freshly baked.

CONCLUSIONS RELATED
   One curiosity is that the most eaten bread is baguette, but the
    most sold bread is rustic.
   The bakers give importance to the kindness with the consumer but
    the consumers don’t.
   The consumers and the bakers preferred the same qualities in
    bread.

                 ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK
To pass out the questionnaires we have divided the work; two of us went
to Sabadell and the others two, stayed in Sant Quirze while we were
passing out the questionnaires, we were also writing the information in
excel grades, to save the data obtained quickly. Later, we have met
ourselves to study the data, write the results and draw the conclusions.




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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread




                           INCONVENIENTS
   - We didn’t have enough time and means to pass more
     questionnaires.
   - We found a lot of bakeries closed when we went to pass the
     questionnaires.


                            BIBLIOGRAPHY
- http://www.gremipa.com/NewsPa/newspa163.htm

- http://www.botham.co.uk/bread/history1.htm

- http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historia_del_pan

-http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/vertie/motivadores/histopan.
htm

- http://www.gremipabcn.com/




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          Bakeries – Our Daily Bread




              ANNEXES: THE QUESTIONNAIRES
               BAKERIES QUESTIONNAIRE (Consumers)
AGE:
MALE / FEMALE
TOWN AND NEIGHBORHOOD:

1. What type of bread do you consume? If you have more than one
answer, please, put them in order of preference.
   o Viennese                              o Ciabatta
   o Baguette                              o Rustic
   o Integral / with fibers                o Others:_______
   o English bread

2. How often do you buy bread?
   o Daily                                  o   Once a week
   o 6 times in a week                      o   Twice a month
   o 4 times in a week                      o   Once a month
   o 3 times in a week                      o   Others:_______
   o Twice a week




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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

3. Which factors influence you when you buy bread? If you have more
than one answer, please, put them in order of preference.
   o The proximity to the                  o The price.
      habitat                              o The bread that has just
   o Seller kindness.                         been made.
   o The quality of the product.           o The variety of products in
   o Hygiene and food safety                  the establishment.
      perceived in the                     o The opening hours.
      establishment.                       o Others:_____

4. Which qualities do you prefer in bread? If you have more than one
answer, please, put them in order of preference.
   o Fresh baked bread                       o Price
   o Taste and smell                         o Healthy product
   o Quality                                 o Ingredients
   o Texture / easy to eat                   o Weight / size
   o Appearance                              o Others:_______

5. When do you eat bread?
   o Just after buying it
   o I freeze a part
   o You make toasts with the bread that you have not eaten.
   o Others:______
6. When do you eat bread?
   o In the morning                        o At night
   o At midday                             o Always
   o In the afternoon

7. How many people do you live with?
   o Anybody                               o 3 persons
   o 1 person                              o 4 persons
   o 2 persons                             o More than 4 persons
8. How much bread do you eat in one day?
   o ¼ loaf
   o ½ loaf
   o 1 loaf
   o More than 1 loaf

9. How much money do you spend buying bread in one week?
   o Less than 5€
   o Between 5 and 10€
   o Between 10 and 15€         17
   o Between 15 and 20€
   o More than 20€
           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

                   BAKERIES QUESTIONNAIRE (Sellers)
AGE:
MALE / FEMALE
NAME OF THE BAKERY:
OPENING HOURS:
TOWN AND NEIGHBORHOOD:
1. How many consumers do you attend in one day?
   o Less than 50.                      o Between 50 and 100.
   o Between 100 and 150.               o More than 150.

2. How much bread do you sell in a week?
   o Less than 500 loafs.                o Between 500 and 1000
   o Between 1000 and 1500                 loafs.
      loafs.                             o More than 1500 loafs.

3. Which day of the week do you sell more?
   o Monday                               o Friday
   o Tuesday                              o Saturday
   o Wednesday                            o Sunday
   o Thursday

4. Which type of bread do you sell more? Put the ones that you sell in
order of amount.
   o Viennese                             o Ciabatta
   o Baguette                             o Rustic
   o Integral / with fibers               o Others:_______
   o English bread

5. Which part of the day is the best to sell bread?
   o In the morning                           o In the afternoon
   o At midday                                o At night.




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           Bakeries – Our Daily Bread

6. Which qualities in bread do you think are more important? Put in order
of preference the ones that you choose.
   o Fresh baked bread                      o Price
   o Taste and smell                        o Healthy product
   o Quality                                o Ingredients
   o Texture / easy to eat                  o Weight / size
   o Appearance                             o Others:_______

7. Which factors do you potentiate to sell more bread? Put in order of
preference the ones that you choose.
   o Kindness with the                      o The price.
      consumer.                             o Fresh baked bread
   o The quality of the product.            o The variety of products in
   o Hygiene and food safety                   the establishment.
      perceived in your                     o Others:_____
      establishment.




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