Goal: preservation, enhancement, transfer
to new media, and interstellar travel
William Sims Bainbridge, Ph.D.
A background of computer
programming of social and
behavioral science software and authoring methodology textbooks! 1992
Basic tendencies Objective biography
Genetics Overt behavior
Physical characteristics Stream of consciousness
Cognitive capacities Life course
Physiological drives External influences
Focal vulnerabilities Developmental influences
Personality traits (5 factors) Macroenvironment
Attitudes, beliefs, and goals
Self-concept McCrae, Robert R., and Paul T.
Implicit & explicit views of self Costa, "Toward a New Generation of
Personality Theories," pp. 51-87 in
The Five-Factor Model of
Identity Personality, edited by Jerry S.
Life story, personal myth Wiggins (New York: Guilford, 1996).
Personality Capture Modules
from the Bainbridge Laboratory
Name Area Items Status
The Year 2100 Predictions of the future 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
Beliefs Agree-disagree statements 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
Beliefs II Agree-disagree statements 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
Wisdom Agree-disagree statements 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
Emotions Situations that might elicit one of 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
twenty common emotions
Experience Experiences a person may have 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
Taste Preferences for foods 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
Association Judgments of the connections 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Released
between pairs of words
Action Preferences for various actions 4,800 (2 × 2,400) Released
Self Adjectives describing oneself 3,200 (2 × 1,600) Released
Self II Public domain surrogates for 4,000 (2 × 2,000) Beta testing
standard psychology measures
ANNE Emotional reactions to events 100,000 (20 × 5,000) Under
STM Capacity of short-term memory 5,760 (48 × 120) Experimental
I included an open-ended question
asking respondents to write in their
predictions for the year 2100...
About 20,000 responded!
The Year 2100 has three main goals.
It seeks to be:
1. An interactive book of the future
based on the thoughts of thousands of
people around the world, thus a time
machine for the imagination.
2. A system for recording a
person's opinions about issues that
challenge decision makers today, thus
a time capsule to preserve an
important aspect of that individual.
3. An educational system for
preparing essays concerning the
major trends of our times, thus a
method for consciousness expansion
at both home and school.
Cross Input Method
Block Input Method
Personality traits (5 factors+)
15 Psych Tests with 310 Scales
Sample Group Analysis
Ideals to Strive for
Emotional Ratings of Life Episodes
ANNE: ANalogies in Natural Emotion, an advisor system, based on ratings of
thousands of actual and hypothetical experiences in terms of 20 emotions: anger,
boredom, desire, disgust, excitement, fear, frustration, gratitude, hate, indifference,
joy, love, lust, pain, pleasure, pride, sadness, satisfaction, shame, surprise .
What other experiences were like THIS What does
one? What did you do? What happened? it mean?
STM measures your short-term memory: ●●
(1) error rates, and (2) response time
Videogame Play Recording
This is an alternate, passive approach, based on ubiquitous or
pervasive computing, that constantly captures aspects of the
individual’s personality, actions, and experiences, as he or she goes
about everyday life.
The technology is being developed by many researchers in a
fragmentary manner at the present time, for a large number of
purposes that are usually limited in scope.
Even after continuous, passive methods for personality capture have
been developed to an advanced level, it will still be essential to
employ active methods based on scientific principles, such as
questionnaires to measure traits, attitudes, and beliefs.
Following are a few examples of passive capture...
Virtual Lifetime Tutor
“A personal tutor that understands
what a user knows and does not
know, provides just-in-time tutoring
as needed, adapts to a user’s
learning style and knowledge
level, and is initiated by either the
user or the tutor.” Dr. Jean Scholtz,
National Institute of Standards and
Personality Capture Guidelines
Select the most appropriate guidance given the goals and context.
1. Simplify the task by finding commonalities among superficially
different aspects of personality.
2. Distinguish core features of personality from peripheral ones.
3. Begin with a low-fidelity record of a personality, then gradually
increase fidelity as technology and other resources permit.
4. Concentrate on features that are essential for a given, well-
5. Conduct personality capture as a byproduct of accomplishing
6. Give priority to the qualities that reflect the person's subjective
7. Employ an interative process to capture an aspect of
personality: emulate it, evaluate the emulation, use the results
to refine capture.
8. In the light of other criteria, be guided by cost-benefit analysis.
“...advances in genetic engineering,
information systems, and robotics will allow
archived human beings to live again, even in
transformed bodies suitable for life on other
planets and moons of the solar system.”
Bainbridge, W. S. (2002). The spaceflight revolution
revisited. In S. J. Garber (Ed.), Looking backward, looking
forward (pp. 39-64). Washington, D.C.: National
Aeronautics and Space Administration.
“In the first Converging Technologies report, computer engineering pioneer Warren
Robinett agreed that human personalities could travel through space at the speed of
light in the form of information transmitted by radio or laser, an idea I had explored in
a 1993 essay. Other writers have proposed that deep-space exploration would be
carried out by intelligent machines, and that humans will soon be succeeded by
machines as the dominant intelligent species on this planet . I suggest that
machines will not replace humans, nor will humans become machines. These
notions are too crude to capture what will really happen. Rather, humans will realize
that they are by nature dynamic patterns of information, that can exist in many
different material contexts, some of which are suitable for travel to the stars.”
“Converging Technologies and Human Destiny” by William Sims Bainbridge, forthcoming.