Introduction to Microprosessor

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					EEB 2023
    Microprocessor

      Introduction
Objectives
•   Definition of a microprocessor
•   Evolution of computers
•   Applications of microprocessors
•   Fundamentals
    – Significance of digital signals
    – Basic microprocessor system
              Outcomes
You should be able
• to define what is a microprocessor.
• to talk about the evolution of computers
• to name some applications of computers
• to explain the basic workings of a
  microprocessor system.
What is a microprocessor?
An integrated circuit (IC) that contains the entire
central processing unit (CPU) of a computer on a
single chip.



           4004




                                  386

            68000
 Evolution of Microprocessor
                                               Antonakos, chap.1, pp.3-4




ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
Technology: contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystal diodes, 1,500 relays,
              70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors
Size: roughly 8 x 3 x 100 feet, took up 1800 square feet (167 m2)
Power Consumption: 150kW
• First generation – vacuum tubes
  – Slow, limited instructions, breakdown easily




             The Manchester Mark 1
• Second generation – transistors
  – Computers shrank in size




                     The IBM 7090
• Third generation – integrated circuit (IC)
  – Thousands of transistors packed into a small silicon




                            IBM 360
•Fourth Generation - Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of
computers




                             IBM PC
• Fifth Generation - Present and
 Beyond: Artificial Intelligence
  – Fifth generation computing devices, based on
    artificial intelligence, are still in development,
    though there are some applications, such as
    voice recognition, that are being used today.




   Lieutenant Commander Data
           is an android
  Microprocessor Applications
Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC)
                           RAM: 32K
                           ROM: 2K
                           Number of Logic Gates: 5,600
                           Speed: appox. 1 MHz
Microprocessor Applications
 Self Assessment Question (SAQ)
• List 5 products that contain
  microprocessors that we use daily.
      Flite FLT-68K 68000
Microprocessor Training System

          The Flite FLT-68K is based around
          the popular Motorola MC68000
          microprocessor with its 16-bit data
          bus and 24-bit address bus.

          The system also incorporates a
          range of peripheral devices and is
          driven by a 10MHz clock.
To PC
Some Fundamental Stuff


                    …….
     Analogue vs Digital




Analogue (sine-wave)   Digital
Why Digital?
• Digital circuit easier to design
• Digital circuits are less affected by noise
  (electrical)
• More digital circuitry can be fabricated on
  IC chips.
• Operations can be programmed.
Why The Binary Counting System?

Answer:

• Binary signal is two discrete state, hence
  binary counting system i.e 1 (logic 1) and
  0 (logic 0)
 Basic Microprocessor System


Clock




Block Diagram of A Microprocessor System
Anatonakos, chp.1, pp.5
    Inside A Microprocessor (CPU)




I   Central Processor Unit
    (CPU) also known as
    Microprocessor Unit
    (MPU)
I   The CPU controls the
    microprocessor
    system. Its carries out
    arithmetic and logic
    operations internally.
Block Diagram of Internal Structure of a
        Microprocessor (CPU)

				
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Description: This article will share the basic definition of a microprosessor and the evolution of computers. Beside that, the article also will tell the example of microprosessor applications. Lastly, the significance of digital signals and basic microprocessor system