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					                                                           Test 3



        d   Name
Art # an                           Time
                        Producing Cult.      Artist              Notes


17-1
Louis XIV                  Baroque    1701    Hyacinthe Rigaud   Oil on canvas. 9'2"x7'10" He created the heels to compensate
                            France                               for his short stature. Fleur di Leis pattern in fabrics matches the
                                                                 Royal Crown.




17-25
Martyrdom of St Bartholomew Baroque   1634    Jusepe de Ribera   3 1/2x4' Oil on canvas People will go to hell if they don't follow
                             Spain                               the right religion. Counter reformation. Influence by Carravagio.
                                                                 Chiro scuro here again. Bartholomew was skinned alive. Willing
                                                                 to die for their faith. Persecution. He's looking towards heaven.
                                                                 The man is sharpening the knife. His mouth is open. He looks
                                                                 like he's praying. His hands look as though he's trying to make
                                                                 people understand. His hands make him appear as though he's
                                                                 a common man. It looks like the light on his face is the light of
                                                                 God. The rest are shadowed.
                                                        Test 3



17-26
Saint Serapion         Baroque   1628   Francisco de Zurbaran 4x3 1/2' Oil on canvas Fills the canvas. Exhausted and quiet.
                        Spain                                 He can no longer hold on. The white tag has his name on it.
                                                              Belonged to the Mercedarian's exchanged themselves for
                                                              Christian prisoners. He was myrtered because he preached to
                                                              the Muslim's he was exchanged to.




17-29
Las Meninas            Baroque   1656     Diego Velazquez     10 1/2x9' Oil on canvas
(The Maids of Honor)    Spain                                 Influenced by Titian. Oil on canvas. Influenced by Rubens from
                                                              Belgium.Became the court painter for the King of Spain.
                                                              Means the maids or maids of honor. This isn't a wedding. It's a
                                                              princess. The Infanta means princess. Those are her attendants.
                                                              Velazquez is the painter in the picture. One woman is a dwarf.
                                                              Common to have dwarfs as advisors or in the court. Princess' pet
                                                              is the dog. No symbolic meaning. Caught in action. Not posed.
                                                              King Phillip commissioned. The room is the King's picture gallery.
                                                 WV           It's Greek mythology in the paintings. The arts come from the
                                                              Gods. The King and Queen are in the mirror. The man on the
                                                              stairs is a court official. Important but unknown identity.
                                                              Velazquez is wearing a Order of Santiago shirt. It's almost like
                                                              being a knight. He wasn’t a member of this when it painted.
                                                              He appears to be an insider with the royal family. Glorification of
                                                              art and a member of the royal court is his agenda.Artist importan
                                                 WV           Painting was a craft at this time. Art elevated…. Fine art.
                                                              Images. What's the difference beween image & reality.
                                                              Paint style is bumpy. Move in close & you lose the perspective.
                                                            Test 3

                                                                 He paints the way we see.

17-30
The Immaculate Conception   Baroque   1645   Bartolome Esteban 7 1/2x6 1/2' Oil on canvas I couldn't find the exact picture online
                             Spain                 Murillo     Oil on canvas. 7 1/2 ft tall. Difference between Protestants &
                                                               Catholics. Was Mary born without the stain of original sin?
                                                               If you didn't believe this you were punished…. There were
                                                               about 24 of them. Extremely idealized people in his paintings.
                                                               Based on Raphael.




17-35
The Raising of the Cross    Baroque   1609   Peter Paul Rubens Center panel 15x11' Wings 15x5' Oil on canvas. At the Church
                                                               of Walpurga. Flanders/Belgium. Learned the court process.
                                                               Comfortable in Royal Courts. Multilingual. Court painter
                                                               He had a workshop. Sometimes students did his fill in and he did
                                                               the main parts. Turned away 120 students at one time. Moves
                                                               freely in space. Sensual but not sexual. Triptych. Counter ref
                                                               piece. Church militants fighting back. Drama, the facial express
                                                               of Christ. All the people have horrified expressions. See baby.
                                                               Mary is standing on the right part. Light is message itself.Rubens
                                                               twists everything. He liked to paint skin. Slightly off balance but
                                                               a sense of balance is there still. Triptych form is out of date &
                                                               that's why he chose it. Good on the right and bad on the left.
                                                               Good is on Christ's right like the middle ages. Don't over read
                                                               the dog. The eclipse is in the sky. When Christ dies there is
                                                                   Test 3

                                                                         darkness.


17-36
Henri IV Receiving the         Baroque        1625   Peter Paul Rubens 13x10' Oil on canvas. Part of a series of 24 paintings
Portrait of Marie de MediciFlanders/Belgium                            Commissioned by Marie de Medici. 21 of the paintings depict
                                                                       the trials and triumphs of Marie. Medici commissioned art.
                                                                       Banking family. Henry IV of France. Pure propoganda for her son
                                                                       Son was first of the Bourbon Kings. It's obviously not real. She's
                                                                       idealized. He's looking on adoringly. Awestruck. Rubens is
                                                                       saying art can make you fall in love. They actually hated each
                                                                       other in reality. Fleur di Lies=French lilies. Mar's is there. The
                                                                       God of War. He's disarmed by love. Eagle and peacock. Zeus &
                                                                       Harrah or Jupitor and Junah. The king and queen of the Gods.
                                                                       They are he symbol of marital love. Henry didn't come to his
                                                                       own wedding to Marie. Uncle stood in. Lots of skin, twisting &
                                                                       movement. Looser style of painting.

                                                                         Very subtle sense of space.


17-38
Charles I at the Hunt         Baroque         1635   Anthony Van Dyck 9'x7' Oil on canvas. He collaborated w/Rubens. Came out of
                          Flanders/Belgium                            his workshop. Had his own at 16. Was court painter for Charles I
                                                                      in England. Looking down his nose at people. He's far better &
                                                                      bigger than the servant. He's at the hunt. Sportsman. Wealthy,
                                                                      sophisticated and looking out over HIS land. Framed face.
                                                                 Test 3




17-42
Officers of the Haarlem       Baroque       1627    Frans Hals        6x8 1/2' Oil on canvas. Leading painter in Haarlem. This was a
Militia Company of St AdrainDutch/Holland                             group portrait. He specialized in all portraits, but, group portraits
                                                                      where popular. Almost like a group picture mentality. Often you
                                                                      can tell who paid more by where they are positioned. He tried to
                                                                      make it appear relaxed and social. Food in the center…. A feast.
                                                                      Almost grid like.




17-43
Self Portrait                 Baroque       1635   Judith Leyster     2 1/2x2' Oil on canvas. It shows what is appropriate for women.
                                                      Holland         It's the first painting where a woman is DOING something. She's
                                                                      painting. She did idealize herself. Her clothes are much fancier
                                                                      than what she would have worn. Not peasants. Elected to Artist
                                                                      Guild. Her father was a brewer. They didn't drink water. It could
                                                                      kill you. Married a painter and had 5 children. Sued Frans Hal
                                                                      because he lured her apprentice from her shop. And WON! She
                                                                      has personality.
                                                              Test 3




17-45
Captain Frans Banning Cocq    Baroque   1642   Rembrandt van Rijn 12x14 1/2' Oil on canvas He isn't like Carravaggio type of
Mustering his Company                                             contrast. Light is always changing. Light changes because of
(The Night Watch)                                                 movement. His work is moody and introspective. People
                                                                  became disenchanted. Coming out of a Roman arch. Sense
                                                                  of importance. Woman might be wife of the captain or other
                                                                  main man. Each face is unique. Led into space with the captains
                                                                  hand gesture. We're not seperated. Baroque mentality is that
                                                                  we're part of this scene. Not a window into it. The person who
                                                                  paid the most takes the most importance. Rembrandt is in the
                                                                  center behind the flag.




17-46
Three Crosses (First State)   Baroque   1653   Rembrandt van Rijn 15x17" Drypoint and etching on vellum part of a series of 4.
                                                   Holland        His career started out well. Later on his work is rejected. He
                                                                  died in poverty. Paintings become something that probes the
                                                                  human soul. This was done only for the home. Etching achieves
                                                                  the same thing as engraving but you use acid. Cover the plate
                                                                  with a tar like substance and cut through the tar substance. Then
                                                                  dip in acid and it goes into the cut and eats part of the plate
                                                                  away. He also used dry point. You scrape it with a little metalic
                                                                  needle. That gives shadows. Because of the techniques you get
                                                                  states. This is Jesus immediate death. Into your hands I
                                                               Test 3

                                                                    commend my spirit. He's taken away the men crusified with
                                                                    Jesus. To develop your prints you need to print and see them.
                                                                    It wasn't meant to be seen seperately. You can have multiple
                                                                    originals with prints.

17-47
Three Crosses (Fourth State)   Baroque   1653   Rembrandt van Rijn 15x17" Drypoint and etching on vellum part of a series of 4.




17-48
Self Portrait                  Baroque   1658   Rembrandt van Rijn 4 1/2x3 1/2' Oil on canvas His style changed here and became
                                                                   much bolder and brighter. People weren't buying self portraits.
                                                                   Psychological studies in his self portraits. He was foppish as a
                                                                   youth. Confident yet tired and sad. Crappy life. He doesn't
                                                                   pretty himself up. He doesn't idealize himself. He's not Durer
                                                                   as Christ idealizing himself. 1st wife died in 1642. 4 children.
                                                                   Henriche, common law wife died in 1643. Titus, his only living
                                                                   child died in 1668. He has a sense of his own mortality. This
                                                                   didn't make people comfortable in their personal space.
                                                     Test 3




17-49
View of Delft             Baroque   1662   Jan Vermeer    3x4' Oil on canvas. Rembrandt contemporary. Died poor as well
                                             Holland      He made most of his $$ as an art dealer. He had a wife and 11
                                                          children. Only about 35 pieces verified to him. This is his one
                                                          landscape. Unique for Vermeer but not for the Dutch. There
                                                          aren't many people. Could be Sunday. No bustle. It's cloudy but
                                                          a ray of light on the church. Puritan's by the wharf. A sense of
                                                          moment. Rembrandt like. He was a slow worker. He wanted
                                                          everything perfect. Very flat land. They built the city out of the
                                                          sea. Flat lands give you lots of sky. He chooses the sacred
                                                          moment.

                                                          Economically Holland was in a good place when this was created.
                                                          This is when they were exporting bulbs and it was a huge trade
                                                          for them. Vermeer, personally liked to capture a spiritual
                                                          moment in time. He was Protestant and of course, didn't paint
                                                          religious art. With the lack of activity this was probably painted
                                                          on a Sunday.
17-50
Woman Holding a Balance   Baroque   1664   Jan Vermeer    15x14" Oil on canvas. Represents the Last Judgment.
                                                          Also called woman laying pearls. His expertise was the detail
                                                          of light. Inside scenes often with natural light from a window.
                                                          Engaged in what she's doing, but, at a perfect moment of
                                                          stillness. It must have been a business. He makes the every day
                                                          sacred. Protestant that you don't need priests to make things
                                                          sacred. We all have our own sense of sacred. The Last
                                                          Judgment is in the painting behind her. The moral message is
                                                          that she's weighing. Every day should be Sunday mentality.
                                                          Test 3




17-53
The Jewish Cemetery       Baroque   1655   Jacob van Ruisdael 4 1/2x6' Oil on canvas. Specialized in landscape but liked the
                                                Holland       dramatic moment. Relatively liberal in Holland. The ruins above
                                                              it. The rainbow is a symbol of hope. God flooded the earth and
                                                              promised not to do it again. Moral element. Things decay and
                                                              fall apart from the ruins. The tree is broken but they grow again.
                                                              Landscapes popular in Holland because they showed Holland.
                                                              They wanted landscapes of their own home. They had pride in
                                                              Holland. Cultural identity.




17-54
Still Life with a Watch   Baroque   1636     Pieter Claesz     Oil on panel. The glass (Roemer) was an everyday item as are the
                                                Holland        pewter plates. The gilt cup (tazza) was a typical ornamental
                                                               piece. Basically, these are everyday items. The Dutch do a lot
                                                               with food in paintings. Balanced composition with open watch.
                                                               Claesz kept painting that glass. Lots of surface reflection. Might
                                                               be a Vanitas or might not be. He leaves you uncertain. Watch
                                                               and broken glass are traditional elements in his works.
                                                              Test 3




17-55
Flower Still Life      Baroque      After 1700   Rachel Ruysch      2 1/2x2' Oil on canvas. She was one of the most famous female
                                       1716         Holland         painters in her day. Vanitias = vanity. Religious painting w/o
                                      online                        having a religious painting. Tulips, cheese and beer come from
                                                                    Holland. Extreme advances in botany in Holland. Bee, butterfly,
                                                                    shell and ant on peony. Reflecting the economics as they're
                                                                    exporting flowers. Cut flowers are a luxury.




17-56
Palais de Versailles   Baroque        1675         Louis Le Vau    France is unified. Absolute monarch. The king controls all. They
                       Versailles            Jules Hardouin-Mansartcontrol the arts. 1593 Charles IV is accepted as king. Louis XIV
                                                    Gardens by     accepts the throne at 5 and takes control at 23 and lives over 70
                                                 Andre Le Notre    years/rules. Chief minister, Colbert. France is one of the
                                                      France       dominant powers. Colbert is in charge of the arts. Establish
                                                                   the French Academy. Regulates training, control of $$, and to
                                                                   establish a national style. The focus is on classical and drawing.
                                                       Test 3

                                                            Prix de Rome = Prize of Rome 3 yrs in Rome to make copies of
                                                            Classical and Renassiance work. Then create master piece picked
                                                            by Academy. Then you're eligible for private/govt commissions.
                                                            Only approved artists get to go into the salon. Focus is on the
                                                            King now. Govt control of art. 1667 Louis XIV moves his court
                                                            from Paris to Versailles. Needs to leave Paris because of the
                                                            aristocricy. He was making them come to him. Gave them little
                                                            competitions to become the people to help him. He's obtaining
                                                            control this way. He's destroying the aristocricy. In essence, they
17-57                                                       now have become obsolete. Le Brun was the painter. Le Vau was
Central Block of the Garden                                 the architect. Le Notre did the gardens. This was a swamp at 1st
Façade, Palais de Versailles                                France & Louis so powerful they control nature. Le Roy Solis =
                                                            The Sun King. Palace draws you in towards Louis' bedroom in the
                                                            center. Main palace has 100's of rooms. 4000 servants. 900
                                                            soldiers JUST for the palace. This inspires most other palaces.
                                                            Statue is behind the building in the gardens. Statue represents
                                                            the rivers. Louis is over all France.




17-58
Hall of Mirrors                Begun Jules Hardouin-MansartMirrors & glass expensive. Shows wealth. They invented French
Palais de Versailles           1678      Charles Le Brun   doors in this hall. Makes the room bigger and the sun comes in.
                                                           Enhances the theme of the Sun King. Everything had to be of
                                                           French manufacture. The problem was only the people of Venice
                                                           make mirrors. Bribes artists from Venice to come to France to
                                                           make mirrors. They put a hit out on the men doing the bribing.
                                                           Salon of Peace and Salon of War were here. Depending on
                                                       Test 3

                                                            where he met with you told you on where you stood. If the
                                                            gardens look like carpet they're meant to look like carpet. They
                                                            actually were able to grow oranges…. Again, controlling nature.
                                                            Anyone can go to Versailles can tour the gardens for free. Not
                                                            the palace. Apollo Attended by the Nymphs is continuing the
                                                            theme of Louis as Apollo.




17-62
Landscape w/St John on   Baroque   1640   Nicolas Poussin   3 1/2x4 1/2' Oil on canvas. They see themselves as defenders of
Patmos                                        France        the classical arts. Argued that the best painters were Titian &
                                                            Raphael. Thought they were the most linear and structured.
                                                            Final authority for the French Academy. Effects art for the next
                                                            150 years. Quotes: The subject and narrative must be grandiose
                                                            Inferior painters had 'feeble talent'. This was a small painting for
                                                            Poussin. Wrote Revelations. Tells about the end of the world.
                                                            This is where he has his visions. This is God's revelation to us,
                                                            thus, it's the BIG STORY part of his philosophy. There is a Greek
                                                            or Roman ruin in the painting tying to the Classical. Didn't show
                                                            a lot of brush strokes. He took the focus on lines from the
                                                            Classical. Debate between Rubens and Poussin. Poussin is using
                                                            shades of one color. Reubens is using many colors. Crisp lines
                                                            for Poussin. Precise. The debate is line vs color. Poussin's style
                                                            becomes the official style of the Academy and you can't show at
                                                            the Salon. Smooth like glass. No texture. The idea is to
                                                            eliminate the artist and focus on the subject.
17-66
St Paul's Cathedral      Baroque   1675   Chrisopher Wren   Mathemetician and scientist. Professor of Astronomy. Studied
                         London                England      French and English architecture. He's borrowed architecture
                                                            from all over. See Fontaine. Almost Catholic interior. Look at the
                                                            Louve in France.
                                            Test 3




Banqueting Hall         Baroque   Imogo Jones    Prime minister's residence. Used for Masques= masked parties.
                        England                  2 story but, not. Classical influence. Renaissance on outside.




Apotheosis of Jones I   Baroque                  Ornate ceiling painted by Rubens. It was commissioned by the
                        England                  Kings son. Painting of James I being sucked up to heaven..
                                                 This is at White Hall in the Banqueting Hall. This is glorifying the
                                                 father, the King after his death. The message is that rulers are
                                                 great and if the father was great the son must be as well. The
                                                 King was James I.
                                                          Test 3




17-67
Blenheim Palace       Baroque         1710   John Vanbrugh      This isn't the actual aerial view. But, the general idea is here.
Woodstock          Oxfordshire, Eng                             Borrowing here became a mish mash. Soldier and play wright.
                                                                He couldn't deal with the engineering issues. Nickolas
                                                                Hawkmoor was the engineer. Commissioned by Queen Anne
                                                                for the Duke or Marlborough. National monument for history.
                                                                Landscape architect is Capability Brown. The kitchen is 1/4 of a
                                                                mile from dining area. Doesn't work. It pushes you back. It
                                                                doesn't draw you in like Versailles which it was modeled after.




18-5
Church of the          Rococo         1745   Johann Balthasar   Means 14 Saints. Built where sheperd had vision of 14 saints. In
Vierzehnheiligen                                Neumann         Bavaria in Southern Germany. S. Germany is Catholic. Lots of
                                                              Test 3

                                                    Germany         ins and outs on this one. An active surface.




18-7
Interior of Vierzehnheilgen   Rococo   1745     Johann Balthasar    Shrine built in the 15th century over where a sheperd had visions
                                                   Neumann          of the Christ child surrounded by saints. The saints came to be
                                                                    known as the Holy Helpers because they assisted people in need.
                                                                    Lighter colors. Marble naturally has yellow and pink with gold
                                                                    touches. Reliquary related to 14 saints in the center is a carriage.
                                                                    Rich but not heavy. Canvas that's attached and painted. Not a
                                                                    fresco. An example of what the Protestants would have hated.
                                                                    The art is almost distracting.




18-8
Pilgrimage to the Island of   Rococo   1717   Jean-Antoine Watteau Oil on canvas. 4'3"x6'4" Designed for Paris art gallery called
                                                Test 3

Cythera                                France         Edme-Francois Gersaint. Intro'd the concept of gallery art with
                                                      the idea of selling paintings by catalogue. Sold after 15 days.
                                                      Cut in half and a bit lost, but, reunited in 20th century. The big
                                                      first artist. Uses Rubens style, but, takes the action out of it.
                                                      Uses friends as models as well as poetry. Cytera was the Island
                                                      of Love. No drama. Lots of soft, muted pastels. Curvy forms.
                                                      Lots of silks. It's all couples. Looks like they're aristocrats headed
                                                      to a dance. Not meant to take seriously. Emotions were
                                                      encouraged. Very fake sensibilities.




18-10
Triumph of Venus   Rococo   1740   Francois Boucher   Oil on canvas. 4'3"x5'3" It appears he's done several based on
                                        France        the same theme. He became the painter for Madame de
                                                      Pompadour. She was Louis the XIV's mistress. Lots of control.
                                                      Paints for Madame and the King. Body styles more Poussin.
                                                      But, voyeristic and not enough of the BIG STORY there. Love
                                                      concquers all to him. His art does have the pastels too.
                                                      Painted for the Madame's bathroom at a palace the King built
                                                      for her.




18-11
                                                                 Test 3

The Meeting                Rococo        1771    Jean-Honore FragonardOil on canvas. 10'5"x7' From Loves of the Shepard. Studied
                                                        France        with Boucher. Also the Academy. Not as fuzzy as a Watteau,
                                                                      Done for Madame de Barrie. She was the kings last mistress.
                                                                      Part of the Progress of Love series. This is the scene they
                                                                      finally meet him. She's inaccessible and never looks at him.
                                                                      Loose brush work and pastels here. Silly story would offend
                                                                      Poussin. Love is a game mentality.




18-18
Chiswick House          Neoclassicism     1725       Richard Boyle     Gardens done in 1730 by William Kent. Near London. He was
W. London, England   Age of Enlightenment               England        the Earl of Burlington. Interested in the Villa Rotunda.
                                                                       It was a library for parties. Classical - columns, statues, looks
                                                                       like a Greek temple. Little pediments. It isn't very ornamental.
                                                                       Rejection of the aristocracy in a sense. Much more simplistic
                                                                       style. Built by an aristocrat that embraced the enlightenment.
                                                           Test 3

18-21
Strawberry Hill         Romanticism     1750   Horace Walpole    Very political. See inside scene. Probably a library. Feeling
Twickenham, England                                              rather than thinking is important. Humans should be able to
                                                                 control nature. Romanticists view is nature wins. Neoclassical
                                                                 is about the intellect. Gothic revival is here. Pointy archs.
                                                                 Walpole owned Strawberry Hill. Took about 25 years to build.
                                                                 Walpole wrote Gothic horror tales. (Finishes 1776) Stoker who
                                                                 wrote Dracula was writing then. Looks like a castle when they
                                                                 weren't building castles. Looks like the Magic Kingdom. Pulling
                                                                 the middle ages forward.




18-26
The Marriage Contract   Neoclassicism   1745   William Hogarth   Oil on canvas. 2'x3' From Marriage ala Mode Uses Rococo
                          Rococo                    England      style to reflect Enlightenment values. Satire here. Questioning
                                                                 the status quo. Marriage ala Mode was a set of art. Marriage
                                                                 Turned into a set of prints. Critiquing the aristrocrats for
                                                                 arranging marriages. Lord Squanderfield had gout and was the
                                                                 aristocrat who squandered his $$ and is arranging the marriage
                                                                 of his son to the daughter of a rich merchant. He gets $$ the
                                                                 merchants family gets status. This is the first of six paintings.
                                                                 She's being wooed by a lawyer. The black thing on the grooms
                                                                 neck is symbol of syphylis. The dogs are an irony being the
                                                                 symbol of fidelity. He's criticizing the rich middle class and the
                                                                 aristocricy.
                                                                    Test 3

18-30
Corneilia Pointing to Her   Neoclassicism     1785   Angelica Kauffmann Oil on canvas. 3.5'x4.5' Takes place in 2nd century BCE. Cornelia
Children as her TreasuresAge of Enlightenment              England      displays her children as her 'jewels' to a visitor diplaying gems.
                                                                        Professional by age of 15. Admitted to Saint Luke Academy.
                                                                        Couldn't paint nudes there because a woman. She founded
                                                                        the British Academy. It has to be the BIG story again.
                                                                        Values motherhood. Good mother. Family values are here.
                                                                        It's not what you have materialistically that's important. Her
                                                                        sons become reformers and world leaders. Blank walls again
                                                                        in Neoclassicism. Poussin style. Everything is more a pure color
                                                                        again.

                                                                         Poussin style becomes official for the British Academy too.
                                                                         Called history paintings with moral lessons.
                                                                         Virtue here.
                                                                         Very simple geometric shapes. They appear frozen in time.
                                                                         Emphasis on line.
18-31
The Death of General Wolfe Neoclassicism    1770       Benjamin West     Oil on canvas. 4'11"x7' Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
                       Age of Enlightenment               America        Patriatism here. Doing what is best for the citizen is their
                                                                         definition of patritism. They go past their defects of the present.
                                                                         They chose to go back to Greece and Rome to find their ideals.
                                                                         Their source is moral authority. Majority of one…. When you're
                                                                         right you're the majority of one. Sacrificing for society.
                                                                         Pennsylvania Quaker family. Began painting at 6. He's a Tory
                                                                         who goes to England and becomes president of the Academy.
                                                                         Wolfe British General that fought in Quebec. French/Indian War.
                                                                         Geometric and linear. Patriotic adds the sense of virtue.
                                                                         Narrow foreground. Almost staged like Cornelia. It's viewed as
                                                                         to busy. Contemporay for them. Not historical enough for the
                                                                         time.
                                                                     Test 3



18-33
Elohim Creating Adam       Romanticism       1795        William Blake     Color print finished with Pen and Watercolor. 1.5'x2'. Made via a
                                                           England         monotype process. Combines printing w/painting and drawing.
                                                                           Eloheim is Hebrew for God. Book of Genesis. Adam is being
                                                                           formed from the earth. God's left hand is holding the ground.
                                                                           Romanticism loves nature vs Neoclassical. Asserts the value of
                                                                           feeling. Reality is rooted in the self. English visionary style.
                                                                           Not important in his lifetime. Believed in Revolutionary ideals
                                                                           Thomas Payne, wrote Common Sense. Mary Wollstoncraft was
                                                                           an author he admired. Her daughter wrote Frankenstein. His
                                                                           wife hand colored his prints. He worked outside the box… no
                                                                           rules to art. His own version of Christianity. Muscles of God &
                                                                           Adam came from Michelangelo. Spiritual threatened by physical.
                                                                           Red Dragon & Woman Enclosed in the Sun. Done by Blake as
                                                                           well.


18-38
Portrait of Marie Antoinette Neoclassicism    1787   Marie Louise ElizabethOil on canvas. 9'x7' Favorite painter of the Queen. She and her
with her Children        Age of Enlightenment            Vigee-Lebrun      daughter escaped Paris on the eve of the Revolution in 1789 and
                                  and                       France         fled to Rome. She returned in 1805. Painted over 800 portraits.
                                Rococo                                     It appears to be almost Rococo but the message is Neoclassical.
                                                                           She was in the French Academy in 1783. MA wife to Louis XIV.
                                                                           Wife of an art dealer. By 15 a major portrait artist. One of the
                                                                           1st celebrity artists. Loving mother with child gazing up. Stable
                                                                           person/work in the triangle shape. Empty crib draped in black
                                                                           because she lost a child. Her job was to produce an heir. They
                                                                           called her Madame Deposit. She appeared to just be spending $
                                                                           when the country was struggling. Never said 'let them eat cake'.
                                                                           Possibly a wacky aunt did. They didn't put up the portrait of the
                                                                           queen. She wasn't needed…fear of putting her picture up.
                                                                           Within a year or two she's been beheaded. The heir to the
                                                                           Throne died in prison. End of an Era. Rococo died here. The
                                                             Test 3

                                                                   message makes it Neoclassical

18-40
Oath of Horatii      Neoclassicism     1785   Jacques-Louis David Oil on canvas. 10'8"x14' The Horatii were male Roman triplets
                  Age of Enlightenment              France        that were destined to wage war against the triplets from Curataii.
                                                                  This was his 'masterpiece' to get into the Academy. The triplets
                                                                  are being sworn in. The women aren't happy. Almost as if they
                                                                  can't take it. One is clutching her children. It's about the men.
                                                                  Shallow like on a stage. Don't miss the message. Linear. Blank
                                                                  walls. Pure colors here too. Many triangles here. Gridlike design
                                                                  Back to the Classical About the war between Rome & Alba in
                                                                  669 BC. Instead of sending troops they send the champions.
                                                                  These are the Horatii. One of the wives is a sister to a Curataii.
                                                                  The Curataii were the Horatii cousins. The one surviving man
                                                                  is tried for murder for doing what he's asked. Their patriatism is
                                                                  to their fellow Frenchmen.




18-41
Death of Marat       Neoclassicism     1793   Jacques-Louis David Oil on canvas. 5'5"x4'2" Marat was murdered on 7/13/1793 by
                  Age of Enlightenment              France        Charlotte Corday. She was part of the counter rev movement.
                                                                  Marat was part of the National Assembly and a jounalist. He was
                                                                  buried in the Pantheon. David study at Academy. Won the prize
                                                                  to study there. Post revolution the Jacobin were in power & led
                                                                  by Robes Pierre. The Reign of Terror takes over. Over 300 arrest
                                                                  warrants were arrested and many killed. Not one artist. Marat
                                                                  was a maryter. Same year king & queen were executed then too.
                                                                  Marat was a phenominal leader. He had exzema & spent a lot of
                                                                  time in the tub. Widow sends a letter for aid. The woman, was a
                                                                  Royalist. The bath is almost like a tomb and he's using the
                                                                  comparison of a Christlike figure. He has a patch on his clothes.
                                                                  The plain box is his desk. He's frugal. The box is his tombstone.
                                                                  Even in his pain he continued to work 'for the people'. In reality
                                                                   Test 3

                                                                        he was evil. Very prettied up. Not a lot of blood. Nudity links
                                                                        to the antique.

18-47
Monticello                  Neoclassisim     1775   Thomas Jefferson    Home of Thomas Jefferson. In Virginia. See the Chiswick House!
                        Age of Enlightenment                            Starts the house in 1796. Roman and Greek pattern. Called
                                                                        Greek Revival or Federal style. They went back to Greek because
                                                                        they founded the Republic. First Democracy was in Greece.
                                                                        Republic is one person that represents the people. We're saying
                                                                        our roots go way back with copying their style. Wrote
                                                                        Declaration of Independence. President. Embassador to France.
                                                                        Cook, gentleman farmer. Brought spagetti to America. Columns
                                                                        are Neoclassical. Plain walls. Monticello means little mountain.




19-2
Napolean Crossing the       Neoclassisim     1800   Jacque Louis David Oil on canvas. 8'11"x7'7" David etched the names of Bonaparte
Saint-Bernard           Age of Enlightenment             France        and 2 others that had accomplished this on the rocks. Claims
                                                                       there would be representation of the people. Crowns himself
                                                                       King in 1804. Wages war all over. He did eliminate aristrocratic
                                                                       privledge. Encourages neoclassical for propaganda. The Saint-
                                                                       Bernard is a path into Switzerland. Charles the Great, Hannibal,
                                                                       Bonaparte were famous generals in history. Hannibal almost
                                                                       conquered Rome. Charles the Great conquered the Holy Roman
                                                                       Empire. Putting himself up there with great generals. He's
                                                                       leading. Driving power. He's on a rearing horse. Larger
                                                                       shoulders. Cloth gives the illusion of larger shoulders. He's
                                                                       creating a path of destruction. Looks as if the horse could be
                                                                       ready to fall. Brave. Looking out at us and not fearful of getting
                                                                  Test 3

                                                                       thrown. In reality, he rode a donkey.

19-4
Large Odalisque         Neoclassicism                               Oil
                                          1814 Jean Auguste Dominique on canvas. 3'x6' They had discovered the Near East in Africa.
                     Age of Enlightenment              Ingres       European men facinated by harems. This was a reaction to the
                                                                    egalitarian views of women following the French Revolution.
                                                   Romanticism too He was a student of David. Neoclassic: Pure colors. Plain back-
                                                                    ground, deep space, linear. Romanticism: Silks strewn about,
                                                                    her gaze. Not clearly a message piece. Erotic & bold in the way
                                                                    she faces us. Her fan is elegant. Odalisque is a member of the
                                                                    harem. She's not a prostitute, but she's not a wife. The pipe she
                                                                    was probably smoking opium or marijuana.




P. 730
Raft of the Medusa       Romanticism      1819     Theodore Gericault Oil on canvas. 16'x23.5' Waving figures are rising hope. Lower
                                                        France        left they're facing a wave. Symbolizes the rescue of men is not
                                                                      yet assured. Black man is Jean Charles. May have political
                                                                      meaning. Metaphorical suggestion that freedom for all humanity
                                                                      will only occur when the most oppressed are emancipated.
                                                                      He also turned his studio into a virtual morgue to create art.
                                                                      Believed in a revolt against establishment. Medusa (ship) bashes
                                                                      into a rock. This was a raft. The officers were in the life boats
                                                                      where women & children should have been. This was a scandal.
                                                                      Politics were like it is today here & in Iraq. Shown at the Salon.
                                                                      There is no hero. Captain Sully road away on a boat. Structured
                                                                      painting. Death at the bottom and there was a triangle.
                                                                 Test 3




19-6
Pity the Sorrows of the Poor Romanticism   1821   Theodore Gericault Lithograph 12.5"x15" Title is from a popular English nursery
Old Man                                                France        rhyme. One of the first to use lithographs. From the book:
                                                                     Various Subjects Drawn From Life and on Stone, London 1821.
                                                                     New print process. They use a wax crayon and press this. The
                                                                     old man is ignored. Society is brutal. Gericault gives the problem
                                                                     and not the solution to people being homeless and on the street.




19-8
Liberty Leading the People: Romanticism    1830    Eugine Delacroix   Oil on canvas. 8'6"x10'8" This was Les Miserables. This was the
July 28, 1830                                           France        July Revolution, not the French Revolution. Curtailed freedom of
                                                                      the press. The middle class and peasants rose up and fought.
                                                                      Charles the X was on the throne. Replaced by Louis XIV. The
                                                                      woman is Lady Liberty modeled similar to Statue of Liberty. They
                                                                      had narrow streets. Similar to Greek Godess. Yet, she's also a
                                                                      common women. Exposed breasts and bare feet. Done in red
                                                                      white & blue. Pyramid of action. Looser application of paint. A
                                                                      Rubens style work.
                                                       Test 3




19-11
The Sleep of Reason   Romantacism   1796   Francisco Goya   Etching and aquatint. 8"x6" Published 1799. Printed about 300.
Produces Monsters                              Spain        Offered for sale, but pulled 2 days later. Possible threat of the
                                                            Inquisition for unflattering portrayal of the Church. 1803 he
                                                            donated to the Royal Printing Office. #43 from Los Caprichos.
                                                            Censorship going on here. Midevil conservatism. Father was a
                                                            gold smith and common man. His mother a lower level aristocrat
                                                            Supported the enlightenment. The group of prints was called
                                                            Los Capricos (The Caprices) Something you do but don't think
                                                            about with the rational mind. The censorship from the govt
                                                            would pull these within 6 hours of them being put out. Aquatint
                                                            is crystals that the acid eats into. When govt decide things & the
                                                            people sleeps, bad things happen. Aquatint gives the fuzzy effect




19-13
Third of May, 1808    Romanticism   1814   Francisco Goya   Oil on canvas. 8'9"x13'4" Napolean's brother Joseph is put on
                                               Spain        the throne. Execution of the 3rd of May, 1808 is the full name.
                                                            About screen size. Victim Christ like with light on him/arms out.
                                                            Church is in background. Church/priest is useless. Executioners
                                                            are like robots with no faces. Political machine. Loose brush
                                                            stroke. Current event is far from Neoclassical.
                                                             Test 3




19-16
The Burning of the House of Romanticsim   1835   Joseph Mallard   Oil on canvas. 3'x4' Awesome nature that you can't control.
Lords and Commons, 16th                          William Turner   Parliament was the House of Lords and Commons. Real fire in
October 1834                                        England       1834. Shows the London Bridge. Nature conquers all. Like
                                                                  Byron & Shelley literature. Free brush work.




19-17
The White Horse            Romanticism    1819   John Constable   Oil on canvas. 4'3"x6'2" Painting is true to nature but striving for
                                                    England       feeling there. Blessings of the English countryside. White horse
                                                                  in the boat. Lots of flecks of paint almost like pointalism before it
                                                                  existed. Paints different textures. Mimics our optical vision like
                                                                  Valesquez. Nature is a metaphor. Ignores that this is an England
                                                                  that's disappearing due to the Industrial Revolution.
                                                                  Lost in time.
                                                      Test 3




19-19
The Oxbow            Romanticsim   1836    Thomas Cole      Oil on canvas. 4.5'x7' Poe or Hawthorne writers. Hudson Valley
                                               US           Painters School. It was in the Catskills. A bend in the Connetciut
                                                            River. Progress & the future was a theme of Cole. He's wild
                                                            and farms. Comparison / Contrast. Indian spear with a hidden
                                                            figure there.




19-37
The Stone Breakers     Realism     1849   Gustave Courbet   Oil on canvas. 5'3"x8'6" Destroyed in WWII. One to young for
                                              France        had labor and the other to old. Shows disgust for the upper class
                                                            and respect for the workers. Academy disappearing. All men are
                                                            created equal. Dicken's comments on English class system.
                                                            Oliver Twist born into orphanage. Zola defends political & social
                                                            justice. Her traitor was a Jew. Madame Bovary has an affair. All
                                                            shocking. Photography ignites and destroys Realism. Show me
                                                            an angel and I'll paint one. Socialist. Claimed his paintings to
                                                     Test 3

                                                          large but they didn't like the political nature. He had a one man
                                                          public showing in a tent outside the Salon. Linked him to the
                                                          working class. Working class is dangerous if they 'unionize'. Carl
                                                          Marx was from this period. Class and economics come from him.
                                                          Communist Manifesto. Poor men. Patches. Anonymous. Can't
                                                          see the faces of the poor. It makes people uncomfortable. The
                                                          First Socialist painting.




19-38
A Burial at Ornans   Realism   1849    Gustave Courbet    Oil on canvas 10'x30' Inspired by burial of grandfather Jean-
                                           France         Antoine Oudot, a veteran of the Revolution of 1793. Oudot is at
                                                          the far left in the painting. This is meant to link the revolutions
                                                          of 1793 and 1848 in France to advance the cause of democracy.
                                                          There are no heros here. It's simply a funeral. A real scene. This
                                                          is what life is. No pyramids or triangles.




19-39
The Gleaners         Realism   1857   Jean-Francois Millet Oil on canvas 2 1/2'x4' Millet called a anarchist. Gleaning is
                                            France         picking the leftovers from the field. The women are brown from
                                                           the sun. Peasants. Hard existance.
                                                       Test 3




19-41
Plowing in the Nivernais:   Realism   1849   Rosa Bonheur   Oil on canvas. 5'9"x8'8" Her father was a painter and socialist.
The Dressing of the Vines                       France      Came from a family of painters. Famed for her animal art. This
                                                            may have been inspired by Ms. George Sand's book "The Devil's
                                                            Pond". Anatomy of an animal.

				
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