Art # an Time
Producing Cult. Artist Notes
Louis XIV Baroque 1701 Hyacinthe Rigaud Oil on canvas. 9'2"x7'10" He created the heels to compensate
France for his short stature. Fleur di Leis pattern in fabrics matches the
Martyrdom of St Bartholomew Baroque 1634 Jusepe de Ribera 3 1/2x4' Oil on canvas People will go to hell if they don't follow
Spain the right religion. Counter reformation. Influence by Carravagio.
Chiro scuro here again. Bartholomew was skinned alive. Willing
to die for their faith. Persecution. He's looking towards heaven.
The man is sharpening the knife. His mouth is open. He looks
like he's praying. His hands look as though he's trying to make
people understand. His hands make him appear as though he's
a common man. It looks like the light on his face is the light of
God. The rest are shadowed.
Saint Serapion Baroque 1628 Francisco de Zurbaran 4x3 1/2' Oil on canvas Fills the canvas. Exhausted and quiet.
Spain He can no longer hold on. The white tag has his name on it.
Belonged to the Mercedarian's exchanged themselves for
Christian prisoners. He was myrtered because he preached to
the Muslim's he was exchanged to.
Las Meninas Baroque 1656 Diego Velazquez 10 1/2x9' Oil on canvas
(The Maids of Honor) Spain Influenced by Titian. Oil on canvas. Influenced by Rubens from
Belgium.Became the court painter for the King of Spain.
Means the maids or maids of honor. This isn't a wedding. It's a
princess. The Infanta means princess. Those are her attendants.
Velazquez is the painter in the picture. One woman is a dwarf.
Common to have dwarfs as advisors or in the court. Princess' pet
is the dog. No symbolic meaning. Caught in action. Not posed.
King Phillip commissioned. The room is the King's picture gallery.
WV It's Greek mythology in the paintings. The arts come from the
Gods. The King and Queen are in the mirror. The man on the
stairs is a court official. Important but unknown identity.
Velazquez is wearing a Order of Santiago shirt. It's almost like
being a knight. He wasn’t a member of this when it painted.
He appears to be an insider with the royal family. Glorification of
art and a member of the royal court is his agenda.Artist importan
WV Painting was a craft at this time. Art elevated…. Fine art.
Images. What's the difference beween image & reality.
Paint style is bumpy. Move in close & you lose the perspective.
He paints the way we see.
The Immaculate Conception Baroque 1645 Bartolome Esteban 7 1/2x6 1/2' Oil on canvas I couldn't find the exact picture online
Spain Murillo Oil on canvas. 7 1/2 ft tall. Difference between Protestants &
Catholics. Was Mary born without the stain of original sin?
If you didn't believe this you were punished…. There were
about 24 of them. Extremely idealized people in his paintings.
Based on Raphael.
The Raising of the Cross Baroque 1609 Peter Paul Rubens Center panel 15x11' Wings 15x5' Oil on canvas. At the Church
of Walpurga. Flanders/Belgium. Learned the court process.
Comfortable in Royal Courts. Multilingual. Court painter
He had a workshop. Sometimes students did his fill in and he did
the main parts. Turned away 120 students at one time. Moves
freely in space. Sensual but not sexual. Triptych. Counter ref
piece. Church militants fighting back. Drama, the facial express
of Christ. All the people have horrified expressions. See baby.
Mary is standing on the right part. Light is message itself.Rubens
twists everything. He liked to paint skin. Slightly off balance but
a sense of balance is there still. Triptych form is out of date &
that's why he chose it. Good on the right and bad on the left.
Good is on Christ's right like the middle ages. Don't over read
the dog. The eclipse is in the sky. When Christ dies there is
Henri IV Receiving the Baroque 1625 Peter Paul Rubens 13x10' Oil on canvas. Part of a series of 24 paintings
Portrait of Marie de MediciFlanders/Belgium Commissioned by Marie de Medici. 21 of the paintings depict
the trials and triumphs of Marie. Medici commissioned art.
Banking family. Henry IV of France. Pure propoganda for her son
Son was first of the Bourbon Kings. It's obviously not real. She's
idealized. He's looking on adoringly. Awestruck. Rubens is
saying art can make you fall in love. They actually hated each
other in reality. Fleur di Lies=French lilies. Mar's is there. The
God of War. He's disarmed by love. Eagle and peacock. Zeus &
Harrah or Jupitor and Junah. The king and queen of the Gods.
They are he symbol of marital love. Henry didn't come to his
own wedding to Marie. Uncle stood in. Lots of skin, twisting &
movement. Looser style of painting.
Very subtle sense of space.
Charles I at the Hunt Baroque 1635 Anthony Van Dyck 9'x7' Oil on canvas. He collaborated w/Rubens. Came out of
Flanders/Belgium his workshop. Had his own at 16. Was court painter for Charles I
in England. Looking down his nose at people. He's far better &
bigger than the servant. He's at the hunt. Sportsman. Wealthy,
sophisticated and looking out over HIS land. Framed face.
Officers of the Haarlem Baroque 1627 Frans Hals 6x8 1/2' Oil on canvas. Leading painter in Haarlem. This was a
Militia Company of St AdrainDutch/Holland group portrait. He specialized in all portraits, but, group portraits
where popular. Almost like a group picture mentality. Often you
can tell who paid more by where they are positioned. He tried to
make it appear relaxed and social. Food in the center…. A feast.
Almost grid like.
Self Portrait Baroque 1635 Judith Leyster 2 1/2x2' Oil on canvas. It shows what is appropriate for women.
Holland It's the first painting where a woman is DOING something. She's
painting. She did idealize herself. Her clothes are much fancier
than what she would have worn. Not peasants. Elected to Artist
Guild. Her father was a brewer. They didn't drink water. It could
kill you. Married a painter and had 5 children. Sued Frans Hal
because he lured her apprentice from her shop. And WON! She
Captain Frans Banning Cocq Baroque 1642 Rembrandt van Rijn 12x14 1/2' Oil on canvas He isn't like Carravaggio type of
Mustering his Company contrast. Light is always changing. Light changes because of
(The Night Watch) movement. His work is moody and introspective. People
became disenchanted. Coming out of a Roman arch. Sense
of importance. Woman might be wife of the captain or other
main man. Each face is unique. Led into space with the captains
hand gesture. We're not seperated. Baroque mentality is that
we're part of this scene. Not a window into it. The person who
paid the most takes the most importance. Rembrandt is in the
center behind the flag.
Three Crosses (First State) Baroque 1653 Rembrandt van Rijn 15x17" Drypoint and etching on vellum part of a series of 4.
Holland His career started out well. Later on his work is rejected. He
died in poverty. Paintings become something that probes the
human soul. This was done only for the home. Etching achieves
the same thing as engraving but you use acid. Cover the plate
with a tar like substance and cut through the tar substance. Then
dip in acid and it goes into the cut and eats part of the plate
away. He also used dry point. You scrape it with a little metalic
needle. That gives shadows. Because of the techniques you get
states. This is Jesus immediate death. Into your hands I
commend my spirit. He's taken away the men crusified with
Jesus. To develop your prints you need to print and see them.
It wasn't meant to be seen seperately. You can have multiple
originals with prints.
Three Crosses (Fourth State) Baroque 1653 Rembrandt van Rijn 15x17" Drypoint and etching on vellum part of a series of 4.
Self Portrait Baroque 1658 Rembrandt van Rijn 4 1/2x3 1/2' Oil on canvas His style changed here and became
much bolder and brighter. People weren't buying self portraits.
Psychological studies in his self portraits. He was foppish as a
youth. Confident yet tired and sad. Crappy life. He doesn't
pretty himself up. He doesn't idealize himself. He's not Durer
as Christ idealizing himself. 1st wife died in 1642. 4 children.
Henriche, common law wife died in 1643. Titus, his only living
child died in 1668. He has a sense of his own mortality. This
didn't make people comfortable in their personal space.
View of Delft Baroque 1662 Jan Vermeer 3x4' Oil on canvas. Rembrandt contemporary. Died poor as well
Holland He made most of his $$ as an art dealer. He had a wife and 11
children. Only about 35 pieces verified to him. This is his one
landscape. Unique for Vermeer but not for the Dutch. There
aren't many people. Could be Sunday. No bustle. It's cloudy but
a ray of light on the church. Puritan's by the wharf. A sense of
moment. Rembrandt like. He was a slow worker. He wanted
everything perfect. Very flat land. They built the city out of the
sea. Flat lands give you lots of sky. He chooses the sacred
Economically Holland was in a good place when this was created.
This is when they were exporting bulbs and it was a huge trade
for them. Vermeer, personally liked to capture a spiritual
moment in time. He was Protestant and of course, didn't paint
religious art. With the lack of activity this was probably painted
on a Sunday.
Woman Holding a Balance Baroque 1664 Jan Vermeer 15x14" Oil on canvas. Represents the Last Judgment.
Also called woman laying pearls. His expertise was the detail
of light. Inside scenes often with natural light from a window.
Engaged in what she's doing, but, at a perfect moment of
stillness. It must have been a business. He makes the every day
sacred. Protestant that you don't need priests to make things
sacred. We all have our own sense of sacred. The Last
Judgment is in the painting behind her. The moral message is
that she's weighing. Every day should be Sunday mentality.
The Jewish Cemetery Baroque 1655 Jacob van Ruisdael 4 1/2x6' Oil on canvas. Specialized in landscape but liked the
Holland dramatic moment. Relatively liberal in Holland. The ruins above
it. The rainbow is a symbol of hope. God flooded the earth and
promised not to do it again. Moral element. Things decay and
fall apart from the ruins. The tree is broken but they grow again.
Landscapes popular in Holland because they showed Holland.
They wanted landscapes of their own home. They had pride in
Holland. Cultural identity.
Still Life with a Watch Baroque 1636 Pieter Claesz Oil on panel. The glass (Roemer) was an everyday item as are the
Holland pewter plates. The gilt cup (tazza) was a typical ornamental
piece. Basically, these are everyday items. The Dutch do a lot
with food in paintings. Balanced composition with open watch.
Claesz kept painting that glass. Lots of surface reflection. Might
be a Vanitas or might not be. He leaves you uncertain. Watch
and broken glass are traditional elements in his works.
Flower Still Life Baroque After 1700 Rachel Ruysch 2 1/2x2' Oil on canvas. She was one of the most famous female
1716 Holland painters in her day. Vanitias = vanity. Religious painting w/o
online having a religious painting. Tulips, cheese and beer come from
Holland. Extreme advances in botany in Holland. Bee, butterfly,
shell and ant on peony. Reflecting the economics as they're
exporting flowers. Cut flowers are a luxury.
Palais de Versailles Baroque 1675 Louis Le Vau France is unified. Absolute monarch. The king controls all. They
Versailles Jules Hardouin-Mansartcontrol the arts. 1593 Charles IV is accepted as king. Louis XIV
Gardens by accepts the throne at 5 and takes control at 23 and lives over 70
Andre Le Notre years/rules. Chief minister, Colbert. France is one of the
France dominant powers. Colbert is in charge of the arts. Establish
the French Academy. Regulates training, control of $$, and to
establish a national style. The focus is on classical and drawing.
Prix de Rome = Prize of Rome 3 yrs in Rome to make copies of
Classical and Renassiance work. Then create master piece picked
by Academy. Then you're eligible for private/govt commissions.
Only approved artists get to go into the salon. Focus is on the
King now. Govt control of art. 1667 Louis XIV moves his court
from Paris to Versailles. Needs to leave Paris because of the
aristocricy. He was making them come to him. Gave them little
competitions to become the people to help him. He's obtaining
control this way. He's destroying the aristocricy. In essence, they
17-57 now have become obsolete. Le Brun was the painter. Le Vau was
Central Block of the Garden the architect. Le Notre did the gardens. This was a swamp at 1st
Façade, Palais de Versailles France & Louis so powerful they control nature. Le Roy Solis =
The Sun King. Palace draws you in towards Louis' bedroom in the
center. Main palace has 100's of rooms. 4000 servants. 900
soldiers JUST for the palace. This inspires most other palaces.
Statue is behind the building in the gardens. Statue represents
the rivers. Louis is over all France.
Hall of Mirrors Begun Jules Hardouin-MansartMirrors & glass expensive. Shows wealth. They invented French
Palais de Versailles 1678 Charles Le Brun doors in this hall. Makes the room bigger and the sun comes in.
Enhances the theme of the Sun King. Everything had to be of
French manufacture. The problem was only the people of Venice
make mirrors. Bribes artists from Venice to come to France to
make mirrors. They put a hit out on the men doing the bribing.
Salon of Peace and Salon of War were here. Depending on
where he met with you told you on where you stood. If the
gardens look like carpet they're meant to look like carpet. They
actually were able to grow oranges…. Again, controlling nature.
Anyone can go to Versailles can tour the gardens for free. Not
the palace. Apollo Attended by the Nymphs is continuing the
theme of Louis as Apollo.
Landscape w/St John on Baroque 1640 Nicolas Poussin 3 1/2x4 1/2' Oil on canvas. They see themselves as defenders of
Patmos France the classical arts. Argued that the best painters were Titian &
Raphael. Thought they were the most linear and structured.
Final authority for the French Academy. Effects art for the next
150 years. Quotes: The subject and narrative must be grandiose
Inferior painters had 'feeble talent'. This was a small painting for
Poussin. Wrote Revelations. Tells about the end of the world.
This is where he has his visions. This is God's revelation to us,
thus, it's the BIG STORY part of his philosophy. There is a Greek
or Roman ruin in the painting tying to the Classical. Didn't show
a lot of brush strokes. He took the focus on lines from the
Classical. Debate between Rubens and Poussin. Poussin is using
shades of one color. Reubens is using many colors. Crisp lines
for Poussin. Precise. The debate is line vs color. Poussin's style
becomes the official style of the Academy and you can't show at
the Salon. Smooth like glass. No texture. The idea is to
eliminate the artist and focus on the subject.
St Paul's Cathedral Baroque 1675 Chrisopher Wren Mathemetician and scientist. Professor of Astronomy. Studied
London England French and English architecture. He's borrowed architecture
from all over. See Fontaine. Almost Catholic interior. Look at the
Louve in France.
Banqueting Hall Baroque Imogo Jones Prime minister's residence. Used for Masques= masked parties.
England 2 story but, not. Classical influence. Renaissance on outside.
Apotheosis of Jones I Baroque Ornate ceiling painted by Rubens. It was commissioned by the
England Kings son. Painting of James I being sucked up to heaven..
This is at White Hall in the Banqueting Hall. This is glorifying the
father, the King after his death. The message is that rulers are
great and if the father was great the son must be as well. The
King was James I.
Blenheim Palace Baroque 1710 John Vanbrugh This isn't the actual aerial view. But, the general idea is here.
Woodstock Oxfordshire, Eng Borrowing here became a mish mash. Soldier and play wright.
He couldn't deal with the engineering issues. Nickolas
Hawkmoor was the engineer. Commissioned by Queen Anne
for the Duke or Marlborough. National monument for history.
Landscape architect is Capability Brown. The kitchen is 1/4 of a
mile from dining area. Doesn't work. It pushes you back. It
doesn't draw you in like Versailles which it was modeled after.
Church of the Rococo 1745 Johann Balthasar Means 14 Saints. Built where sheperd had vision of 14 saints. In
Vierzehnheiligen Neumann Bavaria in Southern Germany. S. Germany is Catholic. Lots of
Germany ins and outs on this one. An active surface.
Interior of Vierzehnheilgen Rococo 1745 Johann Balthasar Shrine built in the 15th century over where a sheperd had visions
Neumann of the Christ child surrounded by saints. The saints came to be
known as the Holy Helpers because they assisted people in need.
Lighter colors. Marble naturally has yellow and pink with gold
touches. Reliquary related to 14 saints in the center is a carriage.
Rich but not heavy. Canvas that's attached and painted. Not a
fresco. An example of what the Protestants would have hated.
The art is almost distracting.
Pilgrimage to the Island of Rococo 1717 Jean-Antoine Watteau Oil on canvas. 4'3"x6'4" Designed for Paris art gallery called
Cythera France Edme-Francois Gersaint. Intro'd the concept of gallery art with
the idea of selling paintings by catalogue. Sold after 15 days.
Cut in half and a bit lost, but, reunited in 20th century. The big
first artist. Uses Rubens style, but, takes the action out of it.
Uses friends as models as well as poetry. Cytera was the Island
of Love. No drama. Lots of soft, muted pastels. Curvy forms.
Lots of silks. It's all couples. Looks like they're aristocrats headed
to a dance. Not meant to take seriously. Emotions were
encouraged. Very fake sensibilities.
Triumph of Venus Rococo 1740 Francois Boucher Oil on canvas. 4'3"x5'3" It appears he's done several based on
France the same theme. He became the painter for Madame de
Pompadour. She was Louis the XIV's mistress. Lots of control.
Paints for Madame and the King. Body styles more Poussin.
But, voyeristic and not enough of the BIG STORY there. Love
concquers all to him. His art does have the pastels too.
Painted for the Madame's bathroom at a palace the King built
The Meeting Rococo 1771 Jean-Honore FragonardOil on canvas. 10'5"x7' From Loves of the Shepard. Studied
France with Boucher. Also the Academy. Not as fuzzy as a Watteau,
Done for Madame de Barrie. She was the kings last mistress.
Part of the Progress of Love series. This is the scene they
finally meet him. She's inaccessible and never looks at him.
Loose brush work and pastels here. Silly story would offend
Poussin. Love is a game mentality.
Chiswick House Neoclassicism 1725 Richard Boyle Gardens done in 1730 by William Kent. Near London. He was
W. London, England Age of Enlightenment England the Earl of Burlington. Interested in the Villa Rotunda.
It was a library for parties. Classical - columns, statues, looks
like a Greek temple. Little pediments. It isn't very ornamental.
Rejection of the aristocracy in a sense. Much more simplistic
style. Built by an aristocrat that embraced the enlightenment.
Strawberry Hill Romanticism 1750 Horace Walpole Very political. See inside scene. Probably a library. Feeling
Twickenham, England rather than thinking is important. Humans should be able to
control nature. Romanticists view is nature wins. Neoclassical
is about the intellect. Gothic revival is here. Pointy archs.
Walpole owned Strawberry Hill. Took about 25 years to build.
Walpole wrote Gothic horror tales. (Finishes 1776) Stoker who
wrote Dracula was writing then. Looks like a castle when they
weren't building castles. Looks like the Magic Kingdom. Pulling
the middle ages forward.
The Marriage Contract Neoclassicism 1745 William Hogarth Oil on canvas. 2'x3' From Marriage ala Mode Uses Rococo
Rococo England style to reflect Enlightenment values. Satire here. Questioning
the status quo. Marriage ala Mode was a set of art. Marriage
Turned into a set of prints. Critiquing the aristrocrats for
arranging marriages. Lord Squanderfield had gout and was the
aristocrat who squandered his $$ and is arranging the marriage
of his son to the daughter of a rich merchant. He gets $$ the
merchants family gets status. This is the first of six paintings.
She's being wooed by a lawyer. The black thing on the grooms
neck is symbol of syphylis. The dogs are an irony being the
symbol of fidelity. He's criticizing the rich middle class and the
Corneilia Pointing to Her Neoclassicism 1785 Angelica Kauffmann Oil on canvas. 3.5'x4.5' Takes place in 2nd century BCE. Cornelia
Children as her TreasuresAge of Enlightenment England displays her children as her 'jewels' to a visitor diplaying gems.
Professional by age of 15. Admitted to Saint Luke Academy.
Couldn't paint nudes there because a woman. She founded
the British Academy. It has to be the BIG story again.
Values motherhood. Good mother. Family values are here.
It's not what you have materialistically that's important. Her
sons become reformers and world leaders. Blank walls again
in Neoclassicism. Poussin style. Everything is more a pure color
Poussin style becomes official for the British Academy too.
Called history paintings with moral lessons.
Very simple geometric shapes. They appear frozen in time.
Emphasis on line.
The Death of General Wolfe Neoclassicism 1770 Benjamin West Oil on canvas. 4'11"x7' Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
Age of Enlightenment America Patriatism here. Doing what is best for the citizen is their
definition of patritism. They go past their defects of the present.
They chose to go back to Greece and Rome to find their ideals.
Their source is moral authority. Majority of one…. When you're
right you're the majority of one. Sacrificing for society.
Pennsylvania Quaker family. Began painting at 6. He's a Tory
who goes to England and becomes president of the Academy.
Wolfe British General that fought in Quebec. French/Indian War.
Geometric and linear. Patriotic adds the sense of virtue.
Narrow foreground. Almost staged like Cornelia. It's viewed as
to busy. Contemporay for them. Not historical enough for the
Elohim Creating Adam Romanticism 1795 William Blake Color print finished with Pen and Watercolor. 1.5'x2'. Made via a
England monotype process. Combines printing w/painting and drawing.
Eloheim is Hebrew for God. Book of Genesis. Adam is being
formed from the earth. God's left hand is holding the ground.
Romanticism loves nature vs Neoclassical. Asserts the value of
feeling. Reality is rooted in the self. English visionary style.
Not important in his lifetime. Believed in Revolutionary ideals
Thomas Payne, wrote Common Sense. Mary Wollstoncraft was
an author he admired. Her daughter wrote Frankenstein. His
wife hand colored his prints. He worked outside the box… no
rules to art. His own version of Christianity. Muscles of God &
Adam came from Michelangelo. Spiritual threatened by physical.
Red Dragon & Woman Enclosed in the Sun. Done by Blake as
Portrait of Marie Antoinette Neoclassicism 1787 Marie Louise ElizabethOil on canvas. 9'x7' Favorite painter of the Queen. She and her
with her Children Age of Enlightenment Vigee-Lebrun daughter escaped Paris on the eve of the Revolution in 1789 and
and France fled to Rome. She returned in 1805. Painted over 800 portraits.
Rococo It appears to be almost Rococo but the message is Neoclassical.
She was in the French Academy in 1783. MA wife to Louis XIV.
Wife of an art dealer. By 15 a major portrait artist. One of the
1st celebrity artists. Loving mother with child gazing up. Stable
person/work in the triangle shape. Empty crib draped in black
because she lost a child. Her job was to produce an heir. They
called her Madame Deposit. She appeared to just be spending $
when the country was struggling. Never said 'let them eat cake'.
Possibly a wacky aunt did. They didn't put up the portrait of the
queen. She wasn't needed…fear of putting her picture up.
Within a year or two she's been beheaded. The heir to the
Throne died in prison. End of an Era. Rococo died here. The
message makes it Neoclassical
Oath of Horatii Neoclassicism 1785 Jacques-Louis David Oil on canvas. 10'8"x14' The Horatii were male Roman triplets
Age of Enlightenment France that were destined to wage war against the triplets from Curataii.
This was his 'masterpiece' to get into the Academy. The triplets
are being sworn in. The women aren't happy. Almost as if they
can't take it. One is clutching her children. It's about the men.
Shallow like on a stage. Don't miss the message. Linear. Blank
walls. Pure colors here too. Many triangles here. Gridlike design
Back to the Classical About the war between Rome & Alba in
669 BC. Instead of sending troops they send the champions.
These are the Horatii. One of the wives is a sister to a Curataii.
The Curataii were the Horatii cousins. The one surviving man
is tried for murder for doing what he's asked. Their patriatism is
to their fellow Frenchmen.
Death of Marat Neoclassicism 1793 Jacques-Louis David Oil on canvas. 5'5"x4'2" Marat was murdered on 7/13/1793 by
Age of Enlightenment France Charlotte Corday. She was part of the counter rev movement.
Marat was part of the National Assembly and a jounalist. He was
buried in the Pantheon. David study at Academy. Won the prize
to study there. Post revolution the Jacobin were in power & led
by Robes Pierre. The Reign of Terror takes over. Over 300 arrest
warrants were arrested and many killed. Not one artist. Marat
was a maryter. Same year king & queen were executed then too.
Marat was a phenominal leader. He had exzema & spent a lot of
time in the tub. Widow sends a letter for aid. The woman, was a
Royalist. The bath is almost like a tomb and he's using the
comparison of a Christlike figure. He has a patch on his clothes.
The plain box is his desk. He's frugal. The box is his tombstone.
Even in his pain he continued to work 'for the people'. In reality
he was evil. Very prettied up. Not a lot of blood. Nudity links
to the antique.
Monticello Neoclassisim 1775 Thomas Jefferson Home of Thomas Jefferson. In Virginia. See the Chiswick House!
Age of Enlightenment Starts the house in 1796. Roman and Greek pattern. Called
Greek Revival or Federal style. They went back to Greek because
they founded the Republic. First Democracy was in Greece.
Republic is one person that represents the people. We're saying
our roots go way back with copying their style. Wrote
Declaration of Independence. President. Embassador to France.
Cook, gentleman farmer. Brought spagetti to America. Columns
are Neoclassical. Plain walls. Monticello means little mountain.
Napolean Crossing the Neoclassisim 1800 Jacque Louis David Oil on canvas. 8'11"x7'7" David etched the names of Bonaparte
Saint-Bernard Age of Enlightenment France and 2 others that had accomplished this on the rocks. Claims
there would be representation of the people. Crowns himself
King in 1804. Wages war all over. He did eliminate aristrocratic
privledge. Encourages neoclassical for propaganda. The Saint-
Bernard is a path into Switzerland. Charles the Great, Hannibal,
Bonaparte were famous generals in history. Hannibal almost
conquered Rome. Charles the Great conquered the Holy Roman
Empire. Putting himself up there with great generals. He's
leading. Driving power. He's on a rearing horse. Larger
shoulders. Cloth gives the illusion of larger shoulders. He's
creating a path of destruction. Looks as if the horse could be
ready to fall. Brave. Looking out at us and not fearful of getting
thrown. In reality, he rode a donkey.
Large Odalisque Neoclassicism Oil
1814 Jean Auguste Dominique on canvas. 3'x6' They had discovered the Near East in Africa.
Age of Enlightenment Ingres European men facinated by harems. This was a reaction to the
egalitarian views of women following the French Revolution.
Romanticism too He was a student of David. Neoclassic: Pure colors. Plain back-
ground, deep space, linear. Romanticism: Silks strewn about,
her gaze. Not clearly a message piece. Erotic & bold in the way
she faces us. Her fan is elegant. Odalisque is a member of the
harem. She's not a prostitute, but she's not a wife. The pipe she
was probably smoking opium or marijuana.
Raft of the Medusa Romanticism 1819 Theodore Gericault Oil on canvas. 16'x23.5' Waving figures are rising hope. Lower
France left they're facing a wave. Symbolizes the rescue of men is not
yet assured. Black man is Jean Charles. May have political
meaning. Metaphorical suggestion that freedom for all humanity
will only occur when the most oppressed are emancipated.
He also turned his studio into a virtual morgue to create art.
Believed in a revolt against establishment. Medusa (ship) bashes
into a rock. This was a raft. The officers were in the life boats
where women & children should have been. This was a scandal.
Politics were like it is today here & in Iraq. Shown at the Salon.
There is no hero. Captain Sully road away on a boat. Structured
painting. Death at the bottom and there was a triangle.
Pity the Sorrows of the Poor Romanticism 1821 Theodore Gericault Lithograph 12.5"x15" Title is from a popular English nursery
Old Man France rhyme. One of the first to use lithographs. From the book:
Various Subjects Drawn From Life and on Stone, London 1821.
New print process. They use a wax crayon and press this. The
old man is ignored. Society is brutal. Gericault gives the problem
and not the solution to people being homeless and on the street.
Liberty Leading the People: Romanticism 1830 Eugine Delacroix Oil on canvas. 8'6"x10'8" This was Les Miserables. This was the
July 28, 1830 France July Revolution, not the French Revolution. Curtailed freedom of
the press. The middle class and peasants rose up and fought.
Charles the X was on the throne. Replaced by Louis XIV. The
woman is Lady Liberty modeled similar to Statue of Liberty. They
had narrow streets. Similar to Greek Godess. Yet, she's also a
common women. Exposed breasts and bare feet. Done in red
white & blue. Pyramid of action. Looser application of paint. A
Rubens style work.
The Sleep of Reason Romantacism 1796 Francisco Goya Etching and aquatint. 8"x6" Published 1799. Printed about 300.
Produces Monsters Spain Offered for sale, but pulled 2 days later. Possible threat of the
Inquisition for unflattering portrayal of the Church. 1803 he
donated to the Royal Printing Office. #43 from Los Caprichos.
Censorship going on here. Midevil conservatism. Father was a
gold smith and common man. His mother a lower level aristocrat
Supported the enlightenment. The group of prints was called
Los Capricos (The Caprices) Something you do but don't think
about with the rational mind. The censorship from the govt
would pull these within 6 hours of them being put out. Aquatint
is crystals that the acid eats into. When govt decide things & the
people sleeps, bad things happen. Aquatint gives the fuzzy effect
Third of May, 1808 Romanticism 1814 Francisco Goya Oil on canvas. 8'9"x13'4" Napolean's brother Joseph is put on
Spain the throne. Execution of the 3rd of May, 1808 is the full name.
About screen size. Victim Christ like with light on him/arms out.
Church is in background. Church/priest is useless. Executioners
are like robots with no faces. Political machine. Loose brush
stroke. Current event is far from Neoclassical.
The Burning of the House of Romanticsim 1835 Joseph Mallard Oil on canvas. 3'x4' Awesome nature that you can't control.
Lords and Commons, 16th William Turner Parliament was the House of Lords and Commons. Real fire in
October 1834 England 1834. Shows the London Bridge. Nature conquers all. Like
Byron & Shelley literature. Free brush work.
The White Horse Romanticism 1819 John Constable Oil on canvas. 4'3"x6'2" Painting is true to nature but striving for
England feeling there. Blessings of the English countryside. White horse
in the boat. Lots of flecks of paint almost like pointalism before it
existed. Paints different textures. Mimics our optical vision like
Valesquez. Nature is a metaphor. Ignores that this is an England
that's disappearing due to the Industrial Revolution.
Lost in time.
The Oxbow Romanticsim 1836 Thomas Cole Oil on canvas. 4.5'x7' Poe or Hawthorne writers. Hudson Valley
US Painters School. It was in the Catskills. A bend in the Connetciut
River. Progress & the future was a theme of Cole. He's wild
and farms. Comparison / Contrast. Indian spear with a hidden
The Stone Breakers Realism 1849 Gustave Courbet Oil on canvas. 5'3"x8'6" Destroyed in WWII. One to young for
France had labor and the other to old. Shows disgust for the upper class
and respect for the workers. Academy disappearing. All men are
created equal. Dicken's comments on English class system.
Oliver Twist born into orphanage. Zola defends political & social
justice. Her traitor was a Jew. Madame Bovary has an affair. All
shocking. Photography ignites and destroys Realism. Show me
an angel and I'll paint one. Socialist. Claimed his paintings to
large but they didn't like the political nature. He had a one man
public showing in a tent outside the Salon. Linked him to the
working class. Working class is dangerous if they 'unionize'. Carl
Marx was from this period. Class and economics come from him.
Communist Manifesto. Poor men. Patches. Anonymous. Can't
see the faces of the poor. It makes people uncomfortable. The
First Socialist painting.
A Burial at Ornans Realism 1849 Gustave Courbet Oil on canvas 10'x30' Inspired by burial of grandfather Jean-
France Antoine Oudot, a veteran of the Revolution of 1793. Oudot is at
the far left in the painting. This is meant to link the revolutions
of 1793 and 1848 in France to advance the cause of democracy.
There are no heros here. It's simply a funeral. A real scene. This
is what life is. No pyramids or triangles.
The Gleaners Realism 1857 Jean-Francois Millet Oil on canvas 2 1/2'x4' Millet called a anarchist. Gleaning is
France picking the leftovers from the field. The women are brown from
the sun. Peasants. Hard existance.
Plowing in the Nivernais: Realism 1849 Rosa Bonheur Oil on canvas. 5'9"x8'8" Her father was a painter and socialist.
The Dressing of the Vines France Came from a family of painters. Famed for her animal art. This
may have been inspired by Ms. George Sand's book "The Devil's
Pond". Anatomy of an animal.