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Justice                in California
To mark the Rosenberg
Foundation’s 75th anniversary,
leading social justice
advocates and thinkers
look to the future.

The Remaking of California
Manuel Pastor
Immigrant Rights: Bucking the National Trend
Mina Titi Liu & Thomas A. Saenz
Smart About Safety
Benjamin Todd Jealous & Lateefah Simon
Sowing Change in the San Joaquin Valley
Hugo Morales
Securing Justice for Farm Workers
Dolores Huerta
An Economy that Works for All of Us
Madeline Janis
Building a Real Progressive Movement for Change
Eva Paterson
Bridging Racial and Ethnic Divides
Maria Echaveste
One, Larger Vision for Justice
Kate Kendell & Stewart Kwoh
   Timothy P. Silard & Daniel Grossman

 Editors’ Note
    When we tell the story of the Rosenberg Foundation’s creation, we often
note that its founder, Max Rosenberg, left his wealth to the foundation be-
                                                                                     The leaders who are
cause he had no heirs. Clearly, that is not true. All of us who are dedicated        featured here are just a
to building a fair and equitable society are his heirs—just as we are the heirs
of Cesar Chavez, Ella Baker, and Fred Korematsu; of Harvey Milk, Thurgood            few of the remarkable
Marshall, and Luke Cole. We are their heirs, and we are the beneficiaries of a
great inheritance of passion. It is an inheritance we must steward, grow, and
                                                                                     and visionary
pass on stronger than we received it.                                                individuals throughout
  This is the inheritance of passion that drives the leading advocates and
thinkers who have lent their voices to Justice In California, a publication mark-    our state and country
ing the Foundation’s 75th anniversary. The leaders who are featured here are
just a few of the remarkable and visionary individuals throughout our state          who have committed
and country who have committed their lives to social and economic equity.
These are leaders who, as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., said, “refuse to believe
                                                                                     their lives to social and
that the bank of justice is bankrupt.”                                               economic equity. These
  We hope that this publication can help to inform our public conversation
on how best to realize our common dreams for justice and equality in Cal-            are leaders who, as Dr.
ifornia. Tom Saenz and Mina Titi Liu outline how California can pioneer
new ways to secure full civic and economic integration for immigrants. La-
                                                                                     Martin Luther King,
teefah Simon and Ben Jealous highlight the urgent need to reform the state           Jr., said, “refuse to
and country’s broken prison system, which is rife with racial disparity and is
collapsing under its own weight. Dolores Huerta and Hugo Morales discuss             believe that the bank of
the path to justice and opportunity for farm workers and other marginalized
communities in rural California. Madeline Janis makes the case for building
                                                                                     justice is bankrupt.”
an economy that works for all of us.
  It is clear that much remains to be done, and success on these critical issues
will demand that we turn the talk about intersection among multiple interests into new ways of working together, that
we move beyond a diverse set of progressive causes to build a cohesive progressive movement.
  As Manuel Pastor writes in the introduction to this publication, the communities we represent comprise a very solid
majority of the state—communities of color, LGBT, low-income families, labor, and progressives. What is not yet clear
is whether we will mobilize collectively and sufficiently to move a proactive and systematic progressive policy agenda. So,
we asked Eva Paterson, Maria Echaveste, Stewart Kwoh and Kate Kendell to share with us strategies for moving beyond
our respective issue silos and constituencies to build the coalitions that will help us achieve our common agenda.
  Real progress is within our reach if we commit to working together for equality and justice. The pieces in this pub-
lication offer real hope that in five years, when we celebrate Rosenberg’s 80th anniversary, we will have been able to
claim victory on some of the critical social and economic justice issues that confront us in the Golden State. At Rosen-
berg Foundation, we are resolved to back the dynamic leaders and coalitions across California fighting for justice, so
that, in five years we will have achieved all this:

•	 The DREAM Act will no longer be a dream.
•	 No child will be working in California’s fields.
•	 While our state constructs economic superhighways to quality job opportunities, we will have built commuter
   lanes for families who have been chronically marginalized.
•	 A second chance will mean just that, a fresh start for people coming out of prison.
•	 Our state will no longer be home to the world’s largest women’s prison.
•	 And we will have changed the odds for children exposed to violence.

 We have no doubt that, by working together as one community, we can begin to build a current in California that
will be felt across the country. In the words of Cesar Chavez, “We have seen the future, and the future is ours.”
Timothy P. Silard is president of the Rosenberg Foundation. Daniel Grossman is chair of the Foundation’s Board of Directors.


Robert E. Friedman & Lewis H. Butler
Reflections on the Past 75 Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Manuel Pastor
The Remaking of California . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

critical next frontiers

Mina Titi Liu & Thomas A. Saenz
Immigrant Rights: Bucking the National Trend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Benjamin Todd Jealous & Lateefah Simon
Smart About Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Hugo Morales
Sowing Change in the San Joaquin Valley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Dolores Huerta
Securing Justice for Farm Workers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Madeline Janis
An Economy that Works for All of Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Building new coalitions

Eva Paterson
Building a Real Progressive Movement for Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Maria Echaveste
Bridging Racial and Ethnic Divides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Kate Kendell & Stewart Kwoh
One, Larger Vision for Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

About Our Contributors.
aBout our contriButors    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

rosenBerg Foundation Timeline .
Rosenberg foundation timeline     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

                                                                 Justice in california   1

    Robert E. Friedman & Lewis H. Butler

    Reflections on the Past 75 Years
Can we learn anything about the future of jus-                                       Indeed, looking back at the full
                                                                                   span of seven and a half decades, the
tice in California and the role of the Founda-                                     Foundation has shown an endur-
tion in that quest by looking at the past?                                         ing focus on the protection and op-
                                                                                   portunities of California’s children,
                                                                                   immigrants, disadvantaged and mar-
   In this publication devoted to        remarkable Foundation.                    ginalized communities, and our un-
the future of justice in California        Despite (and perhaps because of)        derdeveloped agricultural areas,
and the role of the Rosenberg Foun-      the “broad charitable purposes and        notably the Central and San Joaquin
dation in that quest, we have been       wide latitude” Max Rosenberg gave         Valleys. This focus, the essays in this
asked to reflect on the past 75 years,   to the Foundation he endowed and          volume suggest, likely will continue
which raises the question: Can you       that bears his name, the same val-        in the decades ahead.
learn anything about the future by       ues and many of the same issues             Other themes of our history prob-
looking at the past?                     that characterized the grantmaking        ably will extend into the future as
  The two of us, together, have served   of this Foundation during its 75 year     well. We almost certainly will con-
for more than 34 years on the Rosen-     history likely will extend forward: as    tinue to focus on California, not
berg Foundation’s Board of Direc-        articulated in the first 10-year report   just because it is our home, but be-
tors—too long, no doubt, but less        of the Foundation, “an early interest     cause, as historian Chuck Wallen-
than half the Foundation’s history.      in agricultural areas of the state, the   berg noted, “California is like the
Nevertheless, we will pretend to have    character and diversity of the popu-      rest of the United States, only more
the understanding and breadth to en-     lation of California, [and] the impact    so.” We are broadly aware that Cali-
compass the continuing legacy of this    of national events within the state.”     fornia is among the first majority mi-

nority states, and that if we can make
California work for all people, it may      We almost certainly will
serve well not only for us, but as a na-
tional and international model.             continue to focus on California,
                                            not just because it is our home,
   Deep in the Foundation’s ethos is
the belief in the dignity and promise

                                            but because, as historian Chuck
of all people in all their diversity, and
the conviction that we will all do bet-
ter if everyone has full protections
and the full, unhindered opportuni-
ty to contribute. Indeed, the Founda-
                                            Wallenberg noted, “California
tion continues to bring together the
tremendous diversity of California’s
                                            is like the rest of the United
people, not only in our work, but
also on our Board and through our
                                            States, only more so.”
partnerships and convenings, be-
lieving that the business community         of the Central Valley), Ben Jealous         conditions and opportunities.
can understand, embrace, and bene-          (who brought his experience fighting          But if change is constant, the aims
fit from social and economic justice,       for criminal justice and civil rights to    of the Foundation, as articulated a
that police and correctional officers       Rosenberg before going to lead a re-        quarter of a century ago on the oc-
are as much a part of the solution          birth of the NAACP), and Tim Silard         casion of the Foundation’s 50th an-
to our criminal justice system as are       (who brings his leadership in civil         niversary, ring as true now as then:
the African American men who are            rights and social justice). It is distin-     “Despite vast differences and obstacles,
so disproportionately imprisoned            guished as well by its diverse Board of     we can create a working society togeth-
there and denied effective reentry to       Directors, which combines and bridg-        er. We can have both unity and diversi-
the economy after serving their time.       es activists and pillars of the business    ty, both excellence and opportunity. The
Throughout our history, we have             establishment as it always has. Ruth        American experiment is not over; it is
supported economic justice along            Chance was always clear that a foun-        just beginning. And, finally, this democ-
with social justice, understanding          dation is only as good as its grantees;     racy is more than just a catfight among
that to thrive, people must not only        indeed, the Rosenberg Foundation is         competing groups; it is an ideal nur-
gain the unfettered exercise of their       distinguished by the quality, diversi-      tured by unselfish people. For its part, the
rights but must also have equal ac-         ty, and dedication of its grantee part-     Rosenberg Foundation will go on sup-
cess to economic opportunity.               ners, and their willingness to work         porting those unselfish people.”
   If an institution like the Rosen-        across racial, ethnic, political, social,     As much as we are characterized
berg Foundation remains vital over          and economic lines to create a new          by optimism and commitment, one
the course of decades and even cen-         future for all Californians.                of the inescapable lessons of our 75-
turies, it must be because of the cal-        As the Foundation remains com-            year history is that, despite huge and
iber of its staff, the diversity of its     mitted to core values and callings,         significant victories, we have not yet
Board, and, above all, the quality of       so it likely will continue to evolve.       achieved our hopes for a state where
its grantee partners. Rosenberg, the        Even as we continue to work to open         everyone has a real chance to grow
first staffed foundation west of the        doors to historically marginalized          and contribute—nor is it likely we
Mississippi, has been distinguished         communities, we recognize other             will achieve our dreams in the next
and shaped by five remarkable lead-         marginalized groups—in more re-             75 years. Yet, we will continue to do
ers—Leslie Ganyard (who had to ex-          cent years, the LGBT community              all that we can, along with our allies,
plain to potential grantees what a          and also California’s prison popula-        to create a California like the Amer-
foundation grant was), Ruth Chance          tion, which is comprised so dispro-         ica Langston Hughes envisioned,
(who graduated first in her class at        portionately of people of color and         “that never was yet still must be.”
Boalt, but whom no law firm in San          the poor—as the proper focus of our
Francisco would hire because she            attention. Our willingness to exploit
                                                                                        Robert E. Friedman is a member of the
was a woman), Kirke Wilson (who             the freedoms of grantmaking will            Rosenberg Foundation’s Board of Directors.
brought his passion for farm work-          continue to demand thoughtful in-           Lewis H. Butler is one of the Foundation’s
er justice from organizing in the fields    novation and openness to changing           alumni trustees.

                                                                                                   Justice in california          3
    Manuel Pastor

    The Remaking of California
                                                                                     bor force, creative and progressive
A look at the deeper transitions - from                                              entrepreneurs, and a strong univer-
                                                                                     sity system that can incubate new
demographic to economic - shaping the                                                ideas and talent. Californians are
future of the Golden State.                                                          also blessed with a firm commitment
                                                                                     to protecting the planet, something
                                                                                     that can drive innovation to a more
    Analysts of California politics of-   those foreign-born is actually on          sustainable green economy.
ten operate in sound bites: Who’s the     the decline. Rising instead is what           On the other hand, we also are
next governor? What’s the next prop-      Dowell Myers of USC calls a “home-         confronting an economy marked by
osition? Where’s the next spending        grown majority”—young people               sharp inequalities. Once considered
cut? Unfortunately, the insistence        born in California and committed to        a beacon of opportunity, attracting
on the short-term theatrics of cam-       staying in the state.                      migrants from other states and the
paigns and budget battles—impor-            The youth comprising this emerg-         world, California is now the sixth
tant as they may be—can sometimes         ing majority are often distinctly dif-     most unequal state in the country in
obscure the deeper transitions shap-      ferent than their elders. Roughly          terms of the ratio of incomes of the
ing the prospects for our state. If we    two-thirds of the population above         top fifth of families to the bottom
are to enter the future with any mea-     the age of 65—an age group with            fifth of families. Considering the ra-
sure of grace—or justice—we’ll have       a very high propensity to vote—is          tio of the top to the middle, we are
to look not just forward but outward      White. The share falls to 50 percent       the third most unequal. The state
to the long-term horizon.                 as we look at those between the ages       we most closely resemble in terms
                                          of 40 and 64, a cohort in their years      of both our income inequality and
changing Demography and the
“Generation Gap”
                                          of peak income and hence more like-        changes over time is Mississippi,
                                          ly to carry, or resist carrying, the tax   hardly a comparison to which most
  Foremost amongst these coming           burden of the state. Yet, the group        Californians aspire.
transitions is one of demography.         whose future they are deciding to             While part of this inequality re-
The Census Bureau predicts that           support or not—those under the age         flects the fact that the benefits of
the U.S. will become “majority mi-        of 18—are 70 percent kids of color.        economic growth have largely been
nority”—that is, a nation with no           This is California’s “generation         captured by the richest one percent
racial/ethnic majority group—some-        gap”—and it is one that Sacramento         of the state, California is also experi-
time between 2042 and 2050. Cali-         Bee columnist Peter Schrag argues          encing a striking degree of wage po-
fornia crossed that threshold a year      is an undercurrent in the state’s re-      larization by skill that affects those in
before the millennium; in fact, the       sistance to fiscal reform, particular-     the less lofty reaches of income dis-
demographic change we witnessed           ly reform of Proposition 13 and its        tribution. The premium for educa-
between 1980 and 2000 is roughly          protection of long-time homeown-           tion has risen: more than ever before,
what the U.S. is projected to experi-     ers. That this generation gap makes        more education means higher wages,
ence between 2000 and 2050.               a difference is evidenced by a study       especially as job growth continues to
  California naturally will continue      a colleague and I did for the Public       be polarized in very high- and very
to stay ahead of that curve, and will,    Policy Institute of California: those      low-wage sectors. Adding to the
in fact, be a majority Latino state       states with the greatest demograph-        mix is a continuing decline in union
by 2035. With the state “brown-           ic divergence between the young and        membership; one of the “bright
ing” rapidly, the popular image is        the old also have the lowest per cap-      spots” for the labor movement has
that the main driver is immigration.      ita state capital outlays —that is, in-    been consistently high public sec-
But this would be using yesterday’s       vestments in the future.                   tor unionization, but this simply pits
population dynamics to guess at to-                                                  state workers against the state’s tax-
                                          the state of inequality
morrow’s demography. While the                                                       payers, making public sector unions
share of immigrants did rise dramati-       Another deep transition we face          seem like a special interest.
cally in California in the past three     involves the California economy.              There is also a worrisome stratifica-
decades—and now over half of the          On one hand, the current econom-           tion by race: Black and Latino family
state’s children have at least one im-    ic recession can blind us to some          income is noticeably lower than that
migrant parent—the percentage of          long-term strengths: a younger la-         of Asians and Whites. Educational

levels are stratified as well, and if one   fit—are offering positive change to        •	 defining a strategy for sustainable
projects out the skill demands of new       California. Typically, these move-            economic growth (i.e., encourag-
employment against that trend, the          ments are associated with dramat-             ing investment with streamlined
recipe for a continuing division by         ic protests and marches—and those             public policy).
race and class is set. Meanwhile, the       activities are certainly part of their
foreclosure crisis has hit Black and        work. Still, the majority of social           Activists have excelled with the
Latino homeowners—or now, former            movement work is basically patient         first, and business has focused on the
homeowners—the hardest, partly be-                                                     last, while both need to think and talk
cause they were last to buy in the run-                                                more about mobility, especially about
up to the bubble bursting, leading to       Once considered                            how to actually fund the education
a destruction of wealth that rivals the                                                system the state so desperately needs.
effects of a natural disaster.              a beacon of                                   Aligning our efforts to foster eco-
  While these challenges can seem
overwhelming, this disaster isn’t natu-     opportunity,                               nomic growth with the fight to
                                                                                       achieve social equity is critical. Recent
ral, and our fate is in our hands. What
we need urgently is a new vision, new
                                            attracting migrants                        research on income gains in Ameri-
                                                                                       ca’s metropolitan regions—including
leadership, and a new civic—and civ-        both from other                            a study from the Federal Reserve—
il—dialogue about our future.                                                          has shown that when inequality and
a common Vision for california
                                            states and the world,                      racial segregation remain, entire re-
                                                                                       gional economies suffer.
  A new and healthier California            California is now the                         Inequality also has played a role
would be one in which older, White
Californians invest in the education        sixth most unequal                         in our national crisis. The current
                                                                                       Great Recession was driven in part
of younger Asians and Latinos. It
is one in which African Americans
                                            state in the country                       by a situation in which the wealthy
                                                                                       were so flooded with liquidity that
are advocating for immigrant inte-          in terms of the ratio                      they speculated on Wall Street, while
gration—and in which immigrants                                                        working people were so stressed by
and their allies commit to creating         of incomes of the top                      stagnant income that they borrowed
pathways out of poverty for African                                                    just to stay afloat. When this rising
Americans. It is one in which busi-         fifth of families to                       inequality was churned through a
nesses work together with commu-
nity advocates to build a stronger          the bottom fifth of                        deregulated system, replete with de-
                                                                                       rivatives and subprime mortgages,
pipeline for workforce development.
It is one in which there’s a common
                                            families.                                  the results were predictable—but
                                                                                       they were not inevitable.
vision for one California.                                                                With the old system broken,
  Getting there will require that we        and often unrecognized one-on-one          we have the opportunity and re-
reach across the racial, class, and         organizing, done face-to-face, race-       sponsibility to build anew. Fun-
generational divides that are split-        to-race, and place-to-place.               damental to the future will be not
ting apart the state and keeping us           These ongoing conversations are          just new policies, but also social
from communicating with each oth-           important because they allow us            movements and the alliances and
er. In order to change our situation        to work together to make the dif-          mutual understanding they can
and redefine our trajectory, we must        ficult choices that moving forward         and must build.
change both the public discourse            requires—and we are facing some               This special publication of the
and how we have that discourse.             difficult choices. Shaping up our          Rosenberg Foundation optimistically
  We see this principle already at          economy requires a mix of at least         projects that justice will be a firm part
work in the ongoing mobilization            three things:                              of California’s future. To turn that
quietly reshaping the state. Social         •	 setting some minimum standards          optimism into reality, we will need
movements—for immigrant rights,                for the labor market (i.e., man-        to realize that “justice” requires “just
for improved working conditions,               dating living wages and worker          us”: We are the ones who will help
for environmental justice, for re-             protection);                            the social movements celebrated here
form of the criminal justice system,        •	 creating a path for upward mobility     remake the state and our future.
and for the right of everyone to mar-          (i.e., providing education and train-      We are the ones who must work to-
ry and serve their country as they see         ing for tomorrow’s workforce); and      gether to refashion California’s story.

                                                                                                 Justice in california        5
                                                                                             critical next frontiers
    Mina Titi Liu & Thomas A. Saenz

    Immigrant Rights: Bucking the
    National Trend
A little more than 16 years ago, California was                                        tion. Public servants in these areas,
                                                                                       as well as law enforcement officers,
a poster child for anti-immigrant sentiment.                                           would have been required to report
Now, the state is well-positioned to lead the                                          suspected undocumented immi-
                                                                                       grants to state and federal authori-
nation on immigrant rights and integration.                                            ties, and to send those suspected
                                                                                       notices to legalize or leave the state.
    In an era of term limits and rap-       voters, and a staggering three quarters    The initiative’s endemic violations
id turnarounds in electoral fortune,        of Latino voters, opposed the initia-      of privacy and invitations to discrim-
16 years may seem like an eternity          tive. As immigrants reacted to Propo-      inate contributed to the rejection of
in politics. In reality, it is less than    sition 187 in the 16 years that followed   the proposal by minority voters.
a generation. A little more than 16         by naturalizing, registering, and vot-       Yet, Proposition 187’s assault on
years ago, California claimed the du-       ing in record numbers—against              constitutional values catalyzed a
bious mantle of leadership in anti-         Wilson’s political party, which they       dramatic political shift in California,
immigrant public policy by enacting         viewed as responsible for the initia-      which, in 2011, has resulted in a state
Proposition 187. In November 1994,          tive—California shifted from a toss-       government that is different from
the initiative, misleadingly named          up state to the solidly Democratic         any other state government nation-
“Save our State,” received 58 percent       enclave that it is today.                  wide. While no political shift is per-
of the statewide vote, and Governor           In fact, now California has the          manent, and there still is much to do
Pete Wilson rode his staunch sup-           chance to become a national leader         to ensure that California enacts and
port of the proposal to a previously        in immigrant integration.                  follows progressive policies, the sig-
unlikely reelection.                          In some ways, Proposition 187 was        nificance of the shift in California
  In short, in 1994, California was         more severe than Arizona’s Senate          between 1994 and 2011 on immigra-
where Arizona is today.                     Bill 1070, whose passage in 2010 has       tion is undeniable. At a time when
  In the ensuing years, however, that       significantly emboldened today’s an-       the likelihood of national immigra-
dark moment in California history           ti-immigrant forces, as evidenced by       tion reform has dimmed, we can find
would change the course of Califor-         the stunning recent attempts to wipe       hope in the fact that California can
nia politics for the better. In Novem-      out the long-standing American Cit-        lead the way on this issue.
ber 2010, in significant part as a result   izenship clause of the 14th Amend-           Despite local and isolated attempts
of the fallout from Proposition 187,        ment. Proposition 187 followed the         to replicate Arizona, our state seems
the state bucked the national trend,        enactment of a number of restric-          to recognize the community disrup-
rejecting a conservative movement           tive immigration-related bills by the      tion and economic havoc that mass
injected with a large dose of anti-im-      California Legislature—including           removals of undocumented immi-
migrant hostility in favor of candi-        the requirement that drivers prove         grants would wreak. With the prom-
dates with more progressive views on        status before receiving a license—         inence of California students among
immigrant integration. Meg Whit-            and the serious consideration of an        those who recently led the national
man’s failed effort to win the office of    even greater number of such propos-        movement for the federal DREAM
Governor also signals that Wilson’s         als. The initiative itself began as the    Act and with the importance of agri-
backing remains a significant liabili-      most extreme of a number of poten-         culture to the state’s economy, Cali-
ty for any candidate seeking support        tial measures circulated to qualify        fornia also readily perceives the need
among California’s rapidly growing          for the ballot.                            for progressive reform of our federal
cadre of pro-immigrant Latino and             Were Proposition 187 not perma-          immigration laws.
Asian American voters.                      nently enjoined in almost its entire-        California can lead by translating
  Perhaps we could have foretold this       ty by federal courts, the initiative       these views into concrete state pub-
course of events based on the racially      would have required every Califor-         lic policy that demonstrates an inter-
divided vote on Proposition 187. Exit       nian to prove status before accessing      est and investment in the civic and
polls showed that the majority of Af-       public health care, social services,       economic integration of immigrants.
rican American and Asian American           K–12 education, and higher educa-          That begins with taking steps to pre-

vent local jurisdictions from seeking
to enact laws going beyond federal
law in restricting housing, speech,
employment, or schooling on the ba-
sis of immigration status. Such laws
have almost uniformly been chal-
lenged and struck down where they
have been enacted, and California
cannot afford to spend precious re-
sources defending such unconstitu-
tional measures.
  California also can work with the
federal government and enact pro-
tections to guard against the worst
excesses of the Secure Communi-
ties program and other efforts by the
Obama administration to increase
federal enforcement. Too often,
these programs do not target or ap-        with limited English skills are able
prehend serious criminals, but rath-       to access critical government servic-
                                                                                    In the 16 short years
er sweep in peaceful victims of racial     es. Unfortunately, a report issued by    since Proposition 187
profiling or other faulty police prac-     the California State Auditor in No-      was passed, California
tices. The state has a strong interest     vember 2010 concluded that, decades
in not contributing to such uncon-         later, many agencies either do not       not only has managed to
stitutional activity.                      know of their responsibilities or do     turn away from the ugly
  In addition, California can take         not fully meet the legal requirements
steps to better involve immigrants in      to aid the limited-English-speaking      anti-immigrant sentiment
our communities. For example, cur-         residents they serve. The failure to     that gave rise to the
rently, non-citizen parents cannot         address language barriers can endan-
vote in school board elections, de-        ger the health and safety of all Cali-
                                                                                    destructive measure,
spite the fact that immigrant students     fornians, cut immigrants off from        but also now is poised to
comprise a significant portion of the      the opportunity to receive vital gov-    become a national leader
state’s student population. Califor-       ernment services, and prevent them
nia can pioneer new efforts to address     from fully engaging with local and       on immigrant integration.
this mismatch. The state could imple-      state government. Ensuring account-
ment significant and well-monitored        ability by state and local agencies to     This is just a small sample of the
pilots in multiple districts under         Dymally-Alatorre must be a priority      wide-ranging and progressive poli-
which non-citizen parents could have       of the state’s leadership.               cies California can incubate and pio-
an appointed representative on the           While the state’s continuing reve-     neer to integrate immigrants. In the
school board, akin to the student rep-     nue and budget problems may pre-         16 short years since Proposition 187,
resentatives present on many boards.       clude significant investment in such     California not only has managed to
Another idea might be to create a          important integration measures as        turn away from the ugly anti-immi-
shared governance structure, much          English language and civics classes      grant sentiment that gave rise to the
like what is used in the federal Head      for immigrants, California could in-     destructive measure, but also now is
Start program, in which differences        corporate other approaches to pro-       poised to become a national leader on
on significant matters between the         moting knowledge. For example,           immigrant integration. California’s
board and a parents’ council are re-       the state might consider a policy of     immigrant communities have already
solved through a mediation process.        encouraging employer provision of        demonstrated how critically embed-
  Another key element of immigrant         such classes as an element of settle-    ded they are into the very fiber and
integration is language access. In 1973,   ment in any state-pursued enforce-       makeup of our state. By advocating
California’s state legislature passed      ment of employment law against           for public policies that reflect and fa-
the Dymally-Alatorre Bilingual Ser-        employers with significant numbers       cilitate this undeniable fact, imagine
vices Act to ensure that Californians      of non-English-speaking workers.         what we can do in the next 16 years.

                                                                                              Justice in california       7
                                                                                        critical next frontiers

                                                                                                   Image courtesy of NAACP
    Benjamin Todd Jealous & Lateefah Simon

    Smart About Safety
Building an effective and equitable criminal                                      state and breaking the spirit of com-
                                                                                  munities across the country. Today,
justice system is an urgent civil rights issue,                                   the U.S. accounts for five percent
                                                                                  of the world’s population but has 25
and the only way we can create safe and                                           percent of the world’s prisoners. We
healthy communities.                                                              imprison almost one million more
                                                                                  people than China, at a cost to tax-
                                                                                  payers of $68 billion in 2010.
    Reforming the nation’s criminal      on poverty.” “Doubling the convic-         Turning locally, California’s pris-
justice system is one of the most ur-    tion rate in this country would do       on population grew 500 percent
gent civil rights issues of our time.    more to cure crime in America than       from 1982 to 2000, and the state now
One shocking fact illustrates why:       quadrupling the funds for [Hubert]       attempts to manage nearly 170,000
More African American men are en-        Humphrey’s war on poverty,” Nixon        people in prisons designed to hold
tangled in the criminal justice system   told voters.                             83,000. In the last 20 years, the cost
today than were enslaved in 1850.          Since then, Republicans have           of operating California’s corrections
  How did we get here? The rise in       pushed—and Democrats have em-            system skyrocketed from $2.3 bil-
America’s penchant for punish-           braced—a so-called “tough on             lion in 1992–1993 to a projected $9.3
ment can be traced as far back as the    crime” approach to keeping us safe,      billion budget in the 2011–2012 fiscal
1964 presidential campaigns of Bar-      one that emphasizes harsh measures       year, with an additional $4 billion
ry Goldwater and George Wallace,         after crimes have already occurred,      budgeted for prison infrastructure
who each made law and order a de-        and that disproportionately pun-         expenses. Ten percent of the state’s
fining plank of his platform. Presi-     ishes poor and minority communi-         general fund revenue now goes to
dent Richard Nixon continued the         ties rather than addressing the root     the prison system.
trend, framing Democrats as “soft        causes of crime and preventing it in       Nowhere is the impact felt more
on crime” and pushing for tough law      the first place.                         deeply than in African American
enforcement policies in opposition         As a result, our wrong-headed ap-      communities, where America’s epi-
to President Lyndon Johnson’s cre-       proach to justice and safety is break-   demic of mass incarceration seemingly
do of tackling crime through a “war      ing the bank of pretty much every        has removed entire generations of Af-

rican American men from their com-         equality, women’s rights and fami-        in various California cities to draw
munities. Today, 500,000 Black fathers     lies. We also need to work together       attention to a disturbing trend.
are currently incarcerated in Ameri-       with people we’ve traditionally con-      Since 1988, state spending on pris-
ca’s prisons, and one out of every six     sidered to be unlikely allies in this     on has risen 25 times faster than on
African American men has spent time        fight, such as law enforcement and        higher education. Former Repub-
in prison. African American girls and      business. More and more, leaders in       lican Governor Arnold Schwar-
young women have become the fast-          law enforcement are calling for new       zenegger acknowledged this when
est growing population of incarcerat-      ways to keep our communities safe,        he aptly noted: “Spending 45 per-
ed young people in the country. More       and California’s new Attorney Gen-        cent more on prisons than on uni-
than two million African Americans         eral Kamala Harris is among those         versities is no way to proceed into
are currently either in prison, in jail,   leading the charge. We also need          the future.…What does it say about
on probation, or on parole.                more grantmakers to recognize the         any state that [it] focuses more on
  Our criminal justice system today        connection between criminal jus-          prison uniforms than on caps and
undoubtedly functions much like            tice and other social problems they       gowns?” As states across the coun-
a racial caste system, as Michelle         are aiming to alleviate, and invest re-   try continue to struggle with bud-
Alexander, author of The New Jim           sources for maximum impact.               get crises, we need to collectively
Crow, so aptly points out. Being la-                                                 call for shifting our funding pri-
                                           eliminate Barriers to employment
beled a felon effectively strips away                                                orities from incarceration toward
crucial rights from an individu-             There is perhaps no more effec-         programs and initiatives that will
al, locking him or her into second-        tive tool for successful reentry into     revitalize our communities.
class status indefinitely, unable to       society than employment. Former-            It is our belief that criminal justice
vote, secure a good job, or find safe      ly incarcerated people who are able       reform is one of the leading issues
and affordable housing. The cur-           to secure employment are one-third        in the fight to ensure equal oppor-
rent system provides for little or no      less likely than their counterparts to    tunity for communities in need. We
reintegration; it functions as a re-       end up back in prison or jail. That is    cannot afford to wait another gen-
volving door, where those who’ve           why both the NAACP and the Law-           eration to turn around decades of
served time in jail or prison all too      yers’ Committee have launched new         failed policies that have resulted
often quickly find themselves back         initiatives to meet this challenge. In    in our nation hemorrhaging mon-
in, unable to overcome the many            California, the NAACP worked to           ey and human potential. The exi-
obstacles they face when attempting        secure an administrative order from       gency for policies that are smart on
to reenter their communities.              the governor’s office that removes        crime—not just “tough on crime”—
  It is time to recognize that our         questions about criminal history          is now. It is the only way we can
scorched-earth approach to public          from employment applications for          achieve something we all want—
safety has sent us down the wrong          most state jobs. The Lawyers’ Com-        safe and healthy communities.
path. We need to be smart about our        mittee has launched a new clinic to
policies and resources while keeping       connect formerly incarcerated indi-
our communities safe. Here are three       viduals with pro bono attorneys from
steps we recommend to ensure that          top law firms to address legal barri-
public safety is a true civil and hu-      ers to reentry and employment. We
man right for all of us:                   all win when we ensure that those
                                           who have paid their debt to society
Build Broad-Based coalitions
                                           can have the tools they need to turn
  It is no longer enough for criminal      their lives around.
justice reform to be an issue of con-
                                           reallocate resources
cern only to criminal justice reform-
ists. We need to bring to the table          In 2010, the NAACP commis-
advocates for civil rights, education      sioned new rolling advertisements

It is time to recognize that our scorched-earth approach to
public safety has sent us down the wrong path. We need to
be smart about our policies and resources while keeping our
communities safe.

                                                                                               Justice in california       9
                                                                                        critical next frontiers

     Hugo Morales

 Sowing Change in the San Joaquin Valley
On a recent funders’ tour of the San Joaquin                                      by immigrants from my native Mixte-
                                                                                  ca in southern Mexico, this commu-
Valley, a region of California that faces                                         nity of our country’s poorest engages
daunting challenges, the author finds ample                                       their own local leadership to hold an
                                                                                  annual Guelaguetza celebration, hon-
cause for hope.                                                                   oring traditional Mixteco language,
                                                                                  music, dance, and food. The cultur-
    Recently, I participated in “Sow-    leader, usually younger than 35, work-   ally driven organizers that make this
ing Change,” a three-day tour for        ing to build a better San Joaquin Val-   possible are the new face of the farm
grantmakers organized by the Wom-        ley and a better California.             worker workforce, numbering some
en’s Foundation of California. Dur-        In Delano, California—home of          300,000 strong in the San Joaquin
ing the tour, I saw first hand some of   the United Farm Workers’ For-            Valley. Some 20 percent of this work-
the daunting challenges the San Joa-     ty Acres and center of the Chavis-       force is Mixteco; almost all are un-
quin Valley faces in the continuing      ta movement for social justice for       documented.
fight for social justice and equality.   farm workers—20 Mexican-Amer-              And in Kettleman City, a town
  It has some of the highest concen-     ican children and teenagers were         of 2,000 mostly Mexican-American
trations of poverty in the country,      performing traditional Mexican ma-       farm workers along a lonely stretch
and its air is among the most pollut-    riachi music. Their instructor, Juan     of Interstate 5, a new generation of
ed in the country—it is sometimes        Morales (no relation to me), trav-       local organizers raised in this com-
known as Appalachia West. And,           els some 30 miles from Porterville       munity are challenging the expan-
although educational achievement         to teach these children how to cele-     sion of one of the largest chemical
is critical for a healthy California,    brate their culture through music.       waste dumps in the country because
in this region, most Latino youths         Lamont, California, home of the la-    of the town’s high incidence of birth
don’t graduate from high school.         bor camp made famous by The Grapes       deformations in recent years.
  Traveling through the countryside      of Wrath, now houses a model mod-          We also visited Bakersfield, home
during this tour, however, I also wit-   ern labor camp administered by the       of the Dolores Huerta Foundation,
nessed a phenomenon that gave me         State of California. The same region     and Tulare, where California Rural
hope for the future of the San Joa-      also has several de facto labor camps    Legal Assistance is challenging ur-
quin Valley: Each stop of the funders’   that more closely resemble the origi-    ban planning that will negatively im-
tour revealed a Latino/a community       nal Depression-era ones. Populated       pact the quality of drinking water in

a cluster of homes inhabited by low-      that ends up in restaurants and on                   From philanthropy, to
income, Mexican-American fami-            plates throughout California. We
lies. Each stop was inspiring to me       must support the efforts of these                    nonprofits, to the public
for several reasons:                      young leaders working to bring
•	 I witnessed a high degree of col-      about change in our communities.                     and private sectors,
   laboration among nonprofits.           We must invest in our youth by re-
•	 The leaders are young and              sourcing educational opportuni-                      we all have a role to
   knowledgeable, and also                ties for all the children in the San
   excellent organizers.                  Joaquin Valley. We must foster de-                   play in ensuring that
•	 The organizers are effective despite
   their small operating budgets.
                                          mocracy by ensuring that we have
                                          well-educated, informed voters.
                                                                                               the seeds of change can
  Seeing these new leaders in ac-           This is the new California. The op-                grow and flourish in
tion has shown me that San Joaquin        portunity is there. It is up to us to
Valley is ripe in opportunity. There      take advantage of it.                                San Joaquin Valley.
is opportunity to address access to
preschool through higher educa-
tion, to support local citizens who
are demanding local government
institutions be responsive to their
community needs, and to stand be-
hind young leaders of color who are
already doing the work.
  There is the opportunity afforded
to us by the dramatic shift in popula-
tion growth from the coastal region
to the San Joaquin Valley. Accord-
ing to 2009 data from the U.S. Cen-
sus Bureau, from 2000 to 2009 San
Francisco’s population grew by five
percent and Alameda County by
three percent. In contrast, the San
Joaquin Valley grew by 21 percent.
  There is also an opportunity to
organize the region’s largest eth-
nic group, Latinos, who are the new
majority. It is a young population,
mostly under the age of 23. More
people listen to Latino public radio
in Spanish or bilingual program-
ming than the English-only NPR ra-
dio programming.
  From philanthropy, to nonprof-
its, to the public and private sec-
tors, we all have a role to play in
ensuring that the seeds of change
can grow and flourish in San Joa-
quin Valley. We must not forget
the interconnection between this
region and the rest of the state,
from air quality to the water that
empties into the San Francisco Bay
to the food produced in the valley        Images courtesy of the Women’s Foundation of California

                                                                                                     Justice in california   11
                                                                                         critical next frontiers
     Dolores Huerta

 Securing Justice for Farm Workers
The famed labor activist chronicles                                               potable drinking water, rest periods,
                                                                                  safety protections, pesticide regula-
the historical struggles —as well as the                                          tions, contracts, and credit unions.
significant present-day challenges—in                                             We passed legislation to remove cit-
                                                                                  izenship requirements for public as-
the fight to secure justice for California’s                                      sistance, such as aid to the disabled
                                                                                  and to needy children, and old age
most marginalized workers.                                                        assistance. In l975, after UFW se-
                                                                                  cured unemployment insurance for
    The San Joaquin Valley is the        ro program, which brought millions       farm workers, families were able to
breadbasket of the United States         of Mexican nationals north to work       settle in communities, keep their
and the world. A prosperous area,        in the fields in the U.S.—initially as   children in school, and vote.
the wealthy agriculture industry         a way to solve labor shortages during      Many other support systems for
that calls this area home is impor-      World War II, and subsequently as a      farm workers were established with
tant to California’s economy and         cheap labor supply.                      foundation and government fund-
provides the food that nourishes so         Brutal opposition from the indus-     ing: training programs for farm work-
much of the country. Yet, the farm       try stamped out all attempts of these    ers to upgrade their skills for better
workers who labor to create this         immigrant workers to unionize. In or-    farm jobs, farm worker clinics, bilin-
wealth and abundance have long           der to improve conditions for farm       gual education programs, targeted
lived in abject poverty.                 workers and their families, Cesar        programs for farm worker women,
  John Steinbeck chronicled the im-      Chavez and I founded the National        housing, child care programs, and
migrant story of California and our      Farm Workers Association, later the      more. The UFW movement influ-
government’s mass recruitment of         United Farm Workers Union, in 1962.      enced the organizing strategies of
immigrants needed to develop the         The organization would become the        other labor unions and gave birth to
land. Immigrants were continuous-        first successful union to win collec-    the Chicano movement, leaving an
ly recruited from Mexico, Japan,         tive bargaining agreements for farm      indelible mark on this country’s so-
China, and the Philippines. And,         workers. In my early lobbying days,      cial justice and labor movements.
although the immigrant population        the grower representatives would say       In February of this year, the office of
was and remains critical to agricul-     before legislative committees, “We       the United Farm Workers in Delano,
ture, agribusiness continues to fight    do the public a service by employing     California, was declared a national
the unionization of farm workers.        these winos and degenerates that no-     landmark. This is the site where Ce-
  In the past, many of California’s      body else will hire.” We do not hear     sar Chavez fasted for 25 days in 1968
policies discriminated against farm      those references any more, at least      for nonviolence, and for 36 days in
workers. The Oriental Exclusion Act      not in California.                       1988 to bring attention to the dangers
deprived Asians from owning land            Over time, United Farm Workers        of pesticides to farm workers and con-
and made it illegal to marry Whites.     was able to help win many legislative    sumers. In 1970, after a five-year strike
Large numbers of Filipinos were un-      victories. The Bracero program end-      and an international grape boycott
able to afford the long voyage to the    ed in 1964. The Agricultural Labor       supported by millions of consumers,
Philippines to secure wives. The le-     Relations Act allowing farm work-        the grape industry came to the bar-
gal immigration quota was one wom-       ers to unionize and have protections     gaining table and signed the historic
an to 50 Filipino men, leaving most      from unfair labor practices passed in    grape contracts with the UFW at the
men without families. The Chinese        l975. The Migrant and Seasonal Farm      Delano headquarters.
drained many of the islands around       Worker Protection Act passed in 1983.      The UFW union contracts provide
Stockton, California, yet that same      The Immigration Reform Act of 1986       a health plan, pension plan, griev-
Act prevented them from owning           legalized 1.4 million farm workers.      ance and arbitration procedure, and
the land they made usable. The Japa-        By organizing farm workers, we        seniority. These union contracts
nese lost their agricultural land dur-   were able to bring a measure of social   were won with great sacrifices. Many
ing World War II, when they were         and economic justice to them. Many       farm workers were beaten, hundreds
placed into internment camps. 1941       of these victories won were basic hu-    jailed, and four farm workers—Ru-
saw the start of the infamous Brace-     man and labor rights—clean toilets,      fino Contreras, Nagi Daifallah, Juan

De La Cruz, and Rene Lopez—and
one supporter, 18-year-old Nan
Friedman, were killed. It was, and
still is, an uphill battle.
  While the conditions for farm
workers in California have improved
since then, the harsh reality remains
that farm workers who do not have
union protections are still among the
poorest workers in the country, and
working conditions remain extreme-
ly hazardous. A recent study the Do-
lores Huerta Foundation did with
California State University, Bakers-
field, indicated that the average wage
of farm workers was $15,000 a year in
Southern Kern County.
  This rampant poverty is exacerbat-
ed by the fact that undocumented
farm workers are denied any unem-
ployment insurance and public as-
sistance. Many farm workers work
at “piece” rates that have stagnated,
leaving workers dependent on the
minimum wage for protection. At
the same time, the laws that cover im-
migrants and undocumented work-            In my early lobbying days, the grower representatives would
ers, such as federal minimum wage,         say before legislative committees, “We do the public a service
health, and safety laws, are not en-
                                           by employing these winos and degenerates that nobody else
forced. Employers prefer hiring un-
documented workers over residents          will hire.” We do not hear those references any more, at least
or citizens, using labor contractors       not in California.
to avoid paying unemployment in-
surance and social security, thereby       funders are focusing on rural areas     workers. Others, such as Paramount
avoiding the laws that can benefit         of California to create healthy com-    farms, are helping their workers im-
farm workers. Meanwhile, the cam-          munities where farm workers live.       prove their communities.
paign against the undocumented             Religious organizations are sup-          However, we must not forget that
has resulted in working people end-        portive of farm workers, and many       having their own democratic organi-
ing up in jails for immigration vio-       give direct services. My own organi-    zation—a union—is still the best way
lations. Hard-working farm workers         zation, the Dolores Huerta Founda-      that farm workers can have a voice in
have been deported in anti-immi-           tion, is doing grass roots organizing   the workplace, allowing them to ne-
grant crackdowns, dividing families        and leadership development so farm      gotiate their wages and working con-
and resulting in children being sep-       workers can have representation in      ditions and to develop relationships
arated from their families and de-         their communities and learn how         with their employers. Only when
prived of their rights as U.S. citizens.   to solve the issues through direct      farm workers are working under
  Amidst these setbacks, there are         non-violent action. Growers in Cal-     union contracts can health, safety,
rays of hope, such as the recent ap-       ifornia no longer denigrate their       and labor laws be enforced by union
pointment of Hilda Solis as U.S.           workers. Many have Farm Worker          stewards at the work site. With pub-
Secretary of Labor and the election        Day celebrations, and raise scholar-    lic support, farm workers can contin-
of Governor Jerry Brown in Cali-           ships for the children of their work-   ue to organize, learn advocacy, and,
fornia. Support for this region and        ers. Some agricultural employers,       eventually, secure full justice and
its farm workers has increased, and        such as Swanson Berry Farms, are        equality for themselves, their fami-
many nonprofit organizations and           supporting the unionization of their    lies, and their communities.

                                                                                           Justice in california      13
                                                                                           critical next frontiers
     Madeline Janis

 An Economy that Works for All of Us
How can we build a state in which                                                   that we have the power and enthu-
                                                                                    siasm necessary to dig ourselves out
economic injustice and poverty are                                                  and move into a brighter future. We
replaced by shared prosperity?                                                      must harness that energy and com-
                                                                                    bine it with practical, proven strat-
                                                                                    egies if we are to achieve our vision.
    In March 2011, right before the       and assert that we are ready.             Even in this economy, it is possible
state’s Republican party rammed             There is no doubt that, today, our      to implement real and practical solu-
through a law intended to break           economy is not working for many           tions that can benefit all of us.
the backs of labor unions, I spent 24     of us. It certainly is not working for      One of the most powerful ways we
hours in Madison, Wisconsin. I went       Los Angeles County’s 3.7 million          can do that is by insisting on creat-
with a contingent of 160 leaders from     low-income taxpayers and residents.       ing and sustaining good jobs, jobs
Los Angeles—nurses, teachers, jani-       In South L.A. and East L.A., unem-        that pay enough to meet families’ real
tors, and hotel workers, people from      ployment rates are above 30 percent.      needs and lift them out of poverty.
every walk of life—and we came to         A third of the people who work in         Without a focus on job quality, we
Madison to connect with regular, ev-      L.A. don’t earn enough to meet their      can look forward to annual increas-
eryday people who were in the middle      families’ basic needs. L.A. County        es in poverty well into the future. In
of an epic fight for economic equality.   is emblematic of a statewide and na-      Los Angeles, for example, we pushed
  All around Madison, we saw clear        tional problem. Today, in addition to     for a living wage policy that covers
signs of the progressive fervor that      a severe budget crisis, California fac-   hotels near the Los Angeles Interna-
has swept through this town to            es an extreme human crisis marked         tional Airport. The ordinance has
reach the entire country. Almost ev-      by high unemployment, an epidem-          improved pay in existing jobs and
ery business—restaurants, dry clean-      ic of foreclosures, and some of the       helped more than 5,000 workers and
ers—carried similar messages: “I’m        highest rates of poverty in decades.      family members earn their way out
pro-union,” “I support teachers,”         Census data released in 2010 show         of poverty. Studies have put the net
“I believe in public sector workers.”     that families in America are facing       benefit to the community from in-
We visited the pizza place where          the highest rates of economic hard-       creased wages and spending at more
hundreds of thousands of dollars has      ship in a generation.                     than $23 million in the first four years.
poured in from around the world to          There are many factors that got us      This “trickle up” approach is in direct
help feed the protestors. During the      into this crisis, but one clear stand-    contrast to the right wing’s narrow fo-
day, we marched across the city and       out is reckless Wall Street schemes       cus on profit at the top, which contin-
into the capitol building, where a        impacting a middle class already be-      ues to concentrate wealth and take us
thousand people were rallying inside      ing tightly squeezed by 30 years of       in the wrong direction.
the rotunda, singing and chanting.        failed right-wing economic policy.          We also must enact policies that
They had been doing this for days.        Since the 1980s, the dominant eco-        require businesses who seek govern-
  In Madison, it was clear that people    nomic policy has been a combina-          ment funds and permit approvals
felt like they had been pushed over       tion of tax cuts aimed at the rich        to balance private profit and pub-
the edge by the reality of econom-        and deregulation designed to maxi-        lic good. The two principles are not
ic inequality—pushed into being           mize profits for the top one percent.     incompatible, as we’ve demonstrat-
strong, brave and forceful enough         Coupled with an any-job-is-good-          ed many times in Los Angeles and
to occupy the statehouse. Visiting        enough approach to employment             elsewhere. Too often, public offi-
Madison was a powerful lesson in the      and a labor policy that has stripped      cials subsidize developments with no
kind of energy that California and        away the foundation supporting            real benefits to local communities. In
this country desperately needs to         middle class jobs, the result is an ex-   fact, with billions of dollars in feder-
embody if we are ever to realize our      plosion of the working poor. As a re-     al stimulus money being distributed
vision of a healthy economy—one           sult, the poverty rate for working age    through local and state governments,
that works for all of us. Good jobs,      people between 18 and 64 rose to 12.9     there is increasing pressure on local
thriving communities, and a healthy       percent last year, its highest in more    officials—elected and appointed—to
environment can all be achieved in        than four decades.                        move quickly to approve job-creat-
this country if we raise our hands          Despite these grim obstacles, I know    ing projects without any clear stan-

Visiting Madison was a
powerful lesson in the kind
of energy that California
and this country desperately
need to embody if we are
ever to realize our vision of
a healthy economy—one
that works for all of us.                                                                            Images courtesy of LAANE

dards, such as decent pay.                with a dramatic rise in inequality.       impoverished communities, and for
   Instead of rushing to rubber-stamp       Union jobs almost always offer bet-     the general public.
these projects, local public officials,   ter pay, better benefits, and better        Of course, these strategies are only
community, union, immigrant, and          conditions than non-union jobs, and       possible if our elected officials are
environmental leaders must insist         unions are good for the overall econ-     behind them. From local officials to
that businesses receiving taxpayer        omy. For example, a recent study by       state legislators, congressmen, and
money create good jobs, affordable        the Los Angeles Economic Round-           the President of the United States, it
housing, and a healthy environment.       table found that union workers in         is time for public officials around the
And we must do so while withstand-        L.A. County earn 27 percent more          country to stand up for the rest of
ing any criticism that holding busi-      than non-union workers in the same        us. Instead of just giving tax breaks
nesses accountable in this way is         jobs. The increased wages for the ap-     and subsidies to big business, dereg-
“killing jobs” or hurting the local       proximately 800,000 union workers         ulating industry, lifting “barriers” or
business climate.                         adds $7.2 billion a year in pay. These    “strings,” or advocating for tax cuts
   Critics of such policies sometimes     workers spend their wages on food,        for the “haves,” we need our leaders
say that these community-bene-            clothing, child care, car and home re-    to generate and implement strategic
fit standards are nothing more than       pairs, and other items. As a result,      ideas that can help the middle class
thinly veiled attempts to strengthen      their buying power created 307,200        and the “have-nots.”
local unions. The answer is, so what?     jobs—64,800 more jobs than would            A healthy economy is possible if
We can ensure good jobs by rally-         have been created if these workers        we raise our voices and fight for the
ing behind and supporting unions,         did not earn union wages.                 working poor, the unemployed, and
which is crucial at a time when oth-        So if we really believe in econom-      the middle class, if we are willing to
ers are increasingly agitating to         ic opportunity, creating more union       make the hard choices to hold busi-
weaken them. It is no coincidence         jobs is a no-brainer. I’m not alone in    nesses and our leaders accountable.
that the U.S. enjoyed its greatest lev-   this belief. There is a growing federa-   It will take our collective energy, pas-
el of economic equality during the        tion of groups in 18 cities around the    sion, and wholehearted commitment,
1950s, when union membership was          country—the Partnership for Work-         but we can achieve our vision of build-
at its highest, and that the sharp de-    ing Families—that works closely           ing a great state and country in which
cline in union membership over the        with public officials in major metro-     economic injustice and poverty are re-
past several decades has coincided        politan regions to advocate both for      placed by shared prosperity.

                                                                                             Justice in california        15
                                                                                         Building new coalitions
     Eva Paterson

 Building a Real Progressive
 Movement for Change
A how-to guide to developing the                                                    not give our LGBT brothers and sis-
                                                                                    ters the same rights and freedoms
coalitions that are essential in the fight                                          to marry afforded to the rest of us.
for justice in California.                                                          We cannot secure full civic and eco-
                                                                                    nomic integration for immigrants.
                                                                                      At Equal Justice Society, the prac-
    A progressive movement in Cal-         birthright citizenship clause of the     tice of coalition building was embed-
ifornia and across this country is         14th Amendment, and are conduct-         ded into our organizational DNA
more aspiration than reality when          ing shameful hearings intended to        from day one, and remains one of our
its members work towards many of           demonize American Muslims under          core principles. We learned this cru-
the same goals, but apart from one         the guise of homeland security.          cial lesson from Dr. Martin Luther
another. If we are not arm-in-arm            We have the numbers, capacity,         King, Jr., who, through the urgings
while marching towards our dreams,         and passion throughout the state         of his aide, Bayard Rustin, sought to
we may be moving, but we are not           to build the coalitions that will sus-   create the “Grand Coalition,” an al-
a movement. We all suffer when we          tain us as we continue the fight for     liance of groups and individuals who
turn our backs and say, “that’s not        justice in California for the next 25    hungered for justice and equality.
my issue.”                                 years. Yet, without joining hands        This meant bringing together wom-
  Today, too many progressive              with each other, we cannot achieve       en, people of color, union members,
groups still remain disconnected           ambitious goals such as reclaim-         peace activists, and environmental-
from one another. We need more             ing the full protections of the 14th     ists—all those who saw the possibility
LGBT organizations to support              Amendment against institutional          of a better world with equal opportu-
equal opportunity for people of col-       discrimination. We cannot ensure         nity for all people. Here are five im-
or. More groups working with peo-          that there will be more Black males      portant lessons we have learned in
ple of color need to realize that net      in colleges than in prisons. We can-     our efforts to develop coalitions:
neutrality—the movement asserting
that all internet traffic must be treat-
ed equally—is a civil rights issue,
granting equal opportunity to all of
our voices, and allowing communi-
ties of color to enjoy the equal rep-
resentation they lack in other media
platforms. Support from proponents
of campaign finance reform can help
achieve marriage equality through
the ballot and in the courts.
  In my view, coalitions are not op-
tional—they are essential. Despite
the gains in California and across
the country for the communities and
families we represent, we still have a
lot of work left to do. People of col-
or still are disproportionately repre-
sented in the criminal justice system
and on death row. Many victims of
discrimination and injustice still
cannot find redress in our courts. As
I write this, some misguided legisla-
tors are waging a war to roll back the

find intersections and                    we not only embrace the values of         when Japanese Americans “looked
common Goals in seemingly                 our immigrants’ rights allies, we also    like the enemy” and could count
Disparate issues
                                          push back on the efforts of those         on few supporters, Rustin came to
  When Proposition 8 in California        who seek to use language to frame         their aid—setting a powerful ex-
threatened to erode the rights of the     values in a degrading manner.             ample for us to follow, especially in
LGBT community, many of us rec-                                                     today’s increasingly virtual world.
                                          set aside Differences in strategy
ognized that we could not allow oth-      to achieve common Goals
                                                                                    Today, it is easier for us to avoid
ers to pigeonhole Proposition 8 as a                                                physically showing up. We sign on-
“gay” issue. By rolling back the fun-       In 2003, California’s Proposition 54    line petitions, have Twitter protests
damental rights of one group, Prop-       threatened to amend the state Con-        and email our elected officials—all
osition 8 cast a threat that loomed       stitution in a manner that would          of which are helpful strategies. We
over the civil rights of all Califor-     have prohibited state and local gov-      must not forget, however, that we
nians. Cross-coalition opposition to      ernments from using race, ethnicity,      can best forge our alliances by being
Proposition 8 took the form of pub-       color, or national origin to classi-      there for others in person—by prac-
lic appearances with LGBT com-            fy students, contractors, or employ-      ticing “physical solidarity.” In victo-
munity leaders, media interviews,         ees in public education, contracting,     ry and in the toughest of times, we
forums and outreach to communi-           or employment practices. A state-         should be there when our allies call
ties of color—all of which contribut-     wide coalition organized to defeat        for our presence.
ed to illuminating the racial diversity   the measure. Pollsters advised us
                                                                                    Do unto others
of the LGBT movement and show-            that success would require employ-
ing the impact of the proposition         ing messages that focused on Propo-          Our last suggestion is the sim-
outside of the LGBT community.            sition 54’s negative impact on health     plest in concept and, yet, often the
Immigration reform, marriage equal-       care, rather than framing it as an as-    most difficult to practice: “Play nice.”
ity, and the advancement of equal         sault against people of color. While      The stakes are so high and the pres-
opportunity may appear to many as         voters of color immediately under-        sure so fierce on many of our issues
issues that have minimal overlap. In      stood the negative impact Propo-          that the worst of our natures can get
reality, success in each of these areas   sition 54 would have on efforts to        the best of us. We become bitter at
advances fairness, access, and equal-     remedy racial discrimination, poll-       an ally over a tactical disagreement;
ity for all of us.                        ing indicated that White voters were      we keep our objections to ourselves
                                          by and large not moved by an ap-          and seethe; we cry foul when we
learn and embrace the cultures
and terminologies of Your allies
                                          peal to racial justice. Although we       think another organization is step-
                                          initially pushed back against the         ping on our institutional toes. At the
  When we find ourselves at a table       race-neutral focus, the coalition ul-     end of the day, movement building is
with diverse groups, it is important      timately accepted the polling data        all about personal connections. We
to understand and embrace the cul-        and its health-oriented approach.         must learn to be generous, give cred-
tures and languages of our allies. It     The tactic proved successful. Prop-       it to others even when it doesn’t ben-
demonstrates respect for others and       osition 54 ultimately was defeated.       efit our own organization, and find
their ideas, and contributes to our       If we, as racial justice advocates, had   ways to have open discussions about
collective solidarity. In terms of lan-   not agreed to rely on research-driv-      differences and grievances.
guage, one of the toughest battles to-    en messaging, Proposition 54 might           Coalition-building is more art
day is over the widespread use of the     have passed.                              than science. It requires flexibility,
term “illegal immigrant,” made pop-                                                 patience, and perseverance. This
                                          Practice “Physical solidarity”
ular by conservatives in an attempt                                                 way of doing business won’t come
to dehumanize undocumented im-              In the 1940s, Bayard Rustin trav-       easily. It will require some or more
migrants. Despite the fact that a per-    eled to California to help protect        of us taking a step back so that oth-
son cannot be “illegal,” the term has     the property of Japanese Americans        ers may step forward. It will also re-
been widely adopted in news cov-          who were interned in concentration        quire a collective commitment to
erage by the mainstream media and         camps. At that time, the U.S. had         staying in the fight over the long
in the lexicon of our courts. By con-     forced Japanese American citizens to      haul. Yet, we cannot afford to be
tinuing to protest the incorrect use      leave their property unattended or        poor students at it. Our communi-
of “illegal” to describe immigrants,      under the watch of others. In a time      ties are counting on us.

                                                                                             Justice in california        17
                                                                                          Building new coalitions

     Maria Echaveste

 Bridging Racial and Ethnic Divides
Building coalitions across racial and ethnic                                         politics to narrow issue-focused ef-
dividing lines will help us create the American                                      forts, into a cohesive, interconnect-
                                                                                     ed community with a shared agenda?
community in the 21st Century.                                                         First, we need to acknowledge the
                                                                                     current reality and stop clinging to
    Safe streets, good jobs, good         changes have not caused the decline.       the identity politics that were so nec-
schools, good health care, good           Rather, the decline reflects how hard      essary in the 1960s and ’70s: Black
homes, and a dignified retirement—        it is for human beings of different        power, the Chicano movement,
whatever our background, commu-           backgrounds to see their common            women’s movement, gay movement,
nity, or racial and ethnic origins, we    humanity. To quote my husband, “it         et cetera. Then, these movements
all have similar aspirations for our-     is not rocket science; it is harder than   were a way of affirming racial, gender,
selves, our families, and our commu-      rocket science.”                           ethnic, and sexual orientation dif-
nities. The question is: If we all want     Looking toward the future of the         ferences that for so long had drawn
the same things, how can it be that       movement for social and economic           disparaging and negative views from
fewer and fewer of us can actually        justice, to be successful we will need     those in the majority. Now, too often,
achieve them? Perhaps it is because       to honestly and frankly confront the       they serve as barriers to finding com-
we are fruitlessly trying to get there    issue of race, and the myriad of ways      mon cause on broader and intersect-
alone, instead of building commu-         that racial and ethnic differences are     ing agendas. The leadership of many
nity across racial and ethnic divides.    used to prevent us from seeing our         organizations focused on social and
  Here in California, where no one        common goals and shared values.            economic justice often is from that
racial or ethnic group is in the ma-      This is not just about opening the         older generation that finds comfort
jority, the state has been in steady      eyes of the European-American ma-          in strong identity politics, but the
decline across all indicia of a healthy   jority in our country. We all have to      time has come to leave that comfort
society while undergoing significant      narrow the racial and ethnic divides       zone. Increasingly, the younger, un-
demographic change. While some            that stand in the way of our suc-          der-30 generation is less caught up
extreme and conservative voices           cess—but how? How can we reshape           in the racial and ethnic categories of
have argued that the decline is di-       the movement from a loose and ill-         the past. We need to learn how to be
rectly related to those demograph-        defined collection of interests, which     proud of our heritage while also un-
ic changes, I would argue that the        run the gamut from identity group          derstanding that we are part of this

mosaic, melting pot, salad—whatev-         vide us. In those moments, we need       in meaningful ways. For example,
er metaphor we choose to use—and           to pause and ask who is benefitting      if a foundation wants to take on
that means we have a responsibility to     from the tension and fear. We have       the farm bill, it should ensure that
each other regardless of our origins.      to experience that moment of rev-        communities of color are engaged
  Second, we need to understand            elation that all of us have a story of   meaningfully in that strategy.
that the issue-focused politics that       pain, of struggle, and that all of our   Also, funders can prioritize strate-
began to emerge in the 1980s and           stories are valid. Then, we have to go   gy work that is both ambitious and
thereafter (right to life, guns, envi-     beyond being victims, to that place      pragmatic, paying more attention
ronment, and school prayer, among          of action and of taking responsibility   to the results we want and less on
others), have become so infused with       for going forward.                       the latest theory of change.
passion and emotion that they have           Finally, we need to build coali-         The road forward won’t be with-
morphed into some version of iden-         tions with goals that are both ambi-     out its challenges, especially now,
tity, too. Is it not surprising that, in   tious and pragmatic. The search for      when one in eight people living
the wake of the identity movements         perfect or pure solutions has led us     in the U.S. was born in a different
of the ’60s and ’70s, the environmen-      too often to inaction or defeat. Com-    country, and many of them do not
tal movement became a haven for            promise should not be a dirty word.      know our American history in all
White males who felt—rightly or            If we are truly inclusive and respect-   of its complexities and pain. Add to
wrongly—that they did not belong           ful of all voices, then a compromise     the mix the fact that, for too long,
in other movements? The time has           will reflect a shared understanding      our textbooks ignored the contribu-
come for all of us to understand that,     of what is possible, and where the       tions of so many to this history, and
for example, Latinos need to be envi-      next struggle must occur. In that re-    that even now some are trying to re-
ronmentalists, too, just as men need       gard, we have to set priorities. Too     write this history. We have to insist
to be concerned about the exploi-          often, by being about everything, the    on educating both ourselves and
tation of women, regardless of race        “movement” ends up accomplishing         our newcomers that America is an
or ethnicity. Perhaps the Tea Party        little or nothing. When we recog-        unfinished story that has not always
movement is reflective of a search for     nize our shared values, we can find      lived up to its ideals, but is commit-
identity among certain groups who          the common ground that seems to          ted to that road. No matter the ob-
feel threatened by the demograph-          have evaporated in Sacramento and        stacles, building coalitions across
ic change. All people want a sense         in Washington, D.C. We will under-       racial and ethnic dividing lines will
of pride in who they are and what          stand that inequality hurts us all.      help us rebuild the American com-
they do; the challenge lies in achiev-       Philanthropy can help by funding       munity for the 21st century, where
ing that goal without giving in to the     coalition work that honestly tries       we can finally find the common
temptation to see ourselves as supe-       to grapple with the racial divides       ground that long has eluded us.
rior to others.
  Third, we must ignore the urge to
skip over hard conversations of ra-
cial and ethnic differences. Like per-
                                           Looking toward the future of the
sonal demons that ultimately fester
and cause self-destruction if not          movement for social and economic
confronted, our long history of ex-
clusion, of slavery, of discrimination,    justice, to be successful, we will need
of treating those who are different as
“the other” must be acknowledged
and worked through. We have to
                                           to honestly and frankly confront the
understand that our capitalist and
economic system has often used the
                                           issue of race, and the myriad of ways
differences among us to promote
wealth for a few at the expense of         that racial and ethnic differences are
the many. I am not advocating a dif-
ferent economic system; I am argu-
ing that we have to take blinders off
                                           used to prevent us from seeing our
and recognize when and where race
and ethnicity is being used to di-
                                           common goals and shared values.

                                                                                            Justice in california       19
                                                                                           Building new coalitions
     Kate Kendell & Stewart Kwoh

 One, Larger Vision for Justice
Proposition 8 highlighted the urgent                                                  that EJS and Eva were very visible
                                                                                      in the effort to defeat Proposition 8.
need to find common ground and build                                                  Eva and EJS understood that Propo-
                                                                                      sition 8 would set a dangerous prec-
lasting alliances.                                                                    edent by allowing a simple majority
                                                                                      vote to strip away the fundamental
    We live in a California that is more    communities, either through high-         rights of a protected minority.
diverse than at any time in history.        lighting parallels or showing broad-        Second, rather than simply pre-
Due to California’s size, history of        er impact, about how our different        suming broad support for whatever
immigration, and reputation for tol-        struggles for equality fall under one,    cause we are championing, we must
erance, innovation, and opportunity,        larger vision for justice.                connect seemingly disparate strug-
our state is diverse by every measure.        It can no longer be sufficient for      gles of different communities to
  For many of us, this diversity is pre-    political or thought leaders to fight     build lasting alliances.
cisely why we love living here, and a       only for whatever slice of the pop-         For example, while some progres-
key reason for the dynamic nature           ulation or whatever constituencies        sives see marriage equality as an
of the social and political landscape.      they call their own. Rather, what         extension of the civil rights move-
Yet, such richness also creates huge        California requires now is a commit-      ment, it became clear after the pas-
challenges, as various groups jockey        ment to long-term cultural change         sage of Proposition 8 that we cannot
for policy changes, legislative or po-      and pragmatic solutions champi-           assume communities of color will
litical gains, and visibility or traction   oned by “border bridgers.”                support marriage equality simply
in the struggle for public attention.         Who, exactly, are “border bridg-        based on civil rights solidarity. The
Particularly when faced with scant          ers”? The book Uncommon Common            work to bring together complex in-
resources, such as in times of bud-         Ground: Race and America’s Future         tersections, such as the intersection
get crisis, fighting to assure that one     refers to Craig McGarvey, a former        of LGBT justice and racial justice,
or another group’s interests are pro-       program officer at the James Irvine       is essential, and public education
tected can overshadow or diminish           Foundation, who identified “border        in communities of color is critical.
interest in finding common ground.          bridgers” as those who must speak         Many believed that the lack of sup-
  Perhaps no other recent event il-         to and for their constituents while       port for the defeat of Proposition 8
lustrates the danger in failing to find     earning the respect of the constitu-      in African American communities
that common ground than the one             ents of others. “Border bridgers are      reflected a failure to include commu-
that took place on November 4, 2008.        leaders who move with integrity out-      nities of color in the “No on Proposi-
This historic date, while ushering in       side their own circles, always seek-      tion 8” campaign, especially African
the election of the nation’s first Af-      ing a circle that is broader. They find   American gays and lesbians.
rican American president, also saw          common ground by setting differ-            In contrast, the work conducted by
the narrow passage of Proposition           ence aside and focusing on interests      Asian and Pacific Islander (API) ac-
8, the amendment to the Califor-            that can be shared.”                      tivists to organize communities in
nia constitution that eliminated the          Long-time civil rights advocate Eva     support of LGBT rights can serve
right of same-sex couples to marry.         Paterson, executive director of the       as an example. After thousands of
  The passage of Proposition 8 high-        Equal Justice Society (EJS), exempli-     Chinese immigrants protested gay
lights the need to build a united,          fies this new type of leadership. She     marriage in 2004, API community ac-
broad-based movement for equali-            describes her work as “silo-busting,”     tivists founded API Equality-LA, a
ty. To do so, two things are required:      a variation on the theme of border        coalition to promote marriage equal-
one, the emergence of “border               bridgers. Although EJS is primarily       ity in the API community. Unique to
bridgers,” leaders who can look be-         focused on racial justice and disman-     API Equality-LA’s strategy was the
yond the immediate needs of their           tling legal doctrines that perpetuate     inclusion of not just LGBT activists
own constituents to find common             racial bias, the approach EJS takes is    and leaders, but many straight allies.
ground with others; and two, the            to find and create alliances among all      API Equality-LA built a strong net-
intentional investment of time and          sorts of groups who are marginalized      work of community groups and in-
resources to educate our diverse            under the law. It is no surprise, then,   dividuals in support of marriage

                                                                                            Photo courtesy of API Equality-LA

equality in Los Angeles, using one-
on-one conversations, outreach at        Two things are required: one, the
community festivals and through
ethnic media, coalition-building,
                                         emergence of “border bridgers,” leaders
and even filing an API-specific am-
icus brief before the state Supreme
                                         who can look beyond the needs of their
Court. API Equality-LA also success-
fully drew parallels between the past
                                         own constituents to find common ground
struggles of Asian immigrants against    with others; and two, the intentional
anti-miscegenation laws with the cur-
rent movement for marriage equality.     investment of time and resources to
A November 2008 exit poll found
that API voters in Southern Califor-     educate our diverse communities, either
nia favored the defeat of Proposition
8 by 54 percent to 46 percent, a dra-
                                         through highlighting parallels or showing
matic shift from the 68 percent to 32
percent split among APIs in 2000 on
                                         broader impact, about how our different
Proposition 22, an earlier ballot mea-
sure against gay marriage.
                                         struggles for equality fall under one, larger
  While the battle is not won in         vision for justice.
the API community—recent exit
polls still show significant pock-
ets of opposition to gay marriage        der one umbrella. The fight against     challenging inequality itself, it will
amongst some APIs—the changes            Proposition 8 squarely brought into     no longer be sufficient for us to con-
in Los Angeles’ API community            the limelight the fact that, in order   duct business as usual. We need to
inspire hope for our future. It also     to end the structural inequality        work together, not only to achieve
illustrates the type of change that      that exists in California, which has    victories and advances in equality,
is possible when we work to unite        those with the least fighting with      but also to prevent further attempts
different struggles for equality un-     each other over scraps instead of       to diminish our freedoms.

                                                                                         Justice in california            21
 About our Contributors
          A Senior Fellow at American Progress, Maria Echaveste (page 18) is also co-founder of the
       Nueva Vista Group, a policy and legislative strategy and advocacy group working with non-profit
       and corporate clients. She previously served as assistant to the president and deputy chief of staff
       for President Bill Clinton from May 1998 through January 2001.

          Renowned community organizer and activist Dolores Huerta (page 12) is president of the Do-
       lores Huerta Foundation and co-founder and first vice president emeritus of the United Farm
       Workers of America. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Eleanor Roosevelt
       Human Rights Award from President Clinton in 1998.

         The co-founder and executive director of LAANE, Madeline Janis (page 14) led the historic
       campaign to pass L.A.’s living wage ordinance, which has since become a national model. In 2002,
       Ms. Janis was appointed by the mayor as a volunteer commissioner to the Board of the city’s Com-
       munity Redevelopment Agency, the country’s largest such agency, and then reappointed to that
       position in 2006.

          Benjamin Todd Jealous (page 8) is the 17th president and chief executive officer of the NAACP,
       the youngest person to hold the position in the organization’s nearly 100-year history. He also has
       served as president of the Rosenberg Foundation, director of the U.S. Human Rights Program at
       Amnesty International, and executive director of the National Newspaper Publishers Associa-
       tion (NNPA), a federation of more than 200 Black community newspapers.

          Kate Kendell (page 20) leads the National Center for Lesbian Rights, which works to change
       discriminatory laws and to create new laws and policies benefiting the LGBT community. Ms.
       Kendell received her J.D. from the University of Utah College of Law. She later became the first
       staff attorney for the American Civil Liberties Union of Utah. In 1994 she joined NCLR as legal
       director, and was named executive director two years later.

          The first Asian American attorney and human rights activist to be named a MacArthur Foun-
       dation Fellow, Stewart Kwoh (page 20) is the president and executive director of the Asian Pacific
       American Legal Center of Southern California (APALC). He has been hailed as one of the nation’s
       premier advocates for Asian Americans and as a bridge builder bringing people together from di-
       verse racial backgrounds.

    Mina Titi Liu (page 6) is the executive director of the Asian Law Caucus in San Francisco, the
nation’s oldest organization advocating for the civil and legal rights of Asians and Pacific Islanders.
Ms. Liu has had a long career advancing social justice issues both domestically and internation-
ally. She has served as the Law and Rights program officer for the Ford Foundation, and as a con-
sultant to the U.S. State Department and USAID. Prior to joining the Caucus, she was the Garvey
Schubert Barer Visiting Professor in Asian Law at University of Washington School of Law.

   A Mixtec Indian from Oaxaca, in southern Mexico, Hugo Morales (page 10) is the executive di-
rector of Radio Bilingüe, Inc., which he helped found in 1976. In 1994, he became the first resident
of the San Joaquin Valley to be a recipient of a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship. He is the im-
mediate past chair of the Rosenberg Foundation’s Board of Directors.

   Dr. Manuel Pastor (page 4) is professor of Geography and American Studies & Ethnicity at
the University of Southern California. He currently directs the Program for Environmental
and Regional Equity at USC and is co-director, with Dowell Myers, of USC’s Center for the
Study of Immigrant Integration. He has authored and co-authored various books, including
Searching for the Uncommon Common Ground: New Dimensions on Race in America.

    The president of Equal Justice Society, Eva Jefferson Paterson (page 16) has campaigned for
civil rights and racial justice for more than three decades. She served as the executive director
of the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area before founding EJS.
Ms. Paterson also co-founded and chaired the California Coalition for Civil Rights for 18 years.

    Thomas A. Saenz (page 6) is the president and general counsel of MALDEF, where he leads
the civil rights organization’s five offices in pursuing litigation, policy advocacy, and community
education to promote the civil rights of Latinos living in the United States. Mr. Saenz re-joined
MALDEF in August 2009, after spending four years on Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigo-
sa’s executive team as counsel to the mayor. He previously spent 12 years at MALDEF practicing
civil rights law as a staff attorney, regional counsel, and vice president of litigation.

   MacArthur Foundation Fellow Lateefah Simon (page 8) is part of a new wave of African Amer-
ican civil rights and community leaders. Currently executive director of the Lawyers’ Committee
for Civil Rights of the San Francisco Bay Area, Ms. Simon has advocated tirelessly on behalf of
communities of color, youth and women since her teenage years. At age 19, she became executive
director of the Center for Young Women’s Development, a role she held for 11 years.

                                                                        Justice in california       23
                                                                                 rosenBerg foundation timeline

The Rosenberg Foundation is an independent grantmaking foundation
committed to ensuring that every person in California has fair and equi-
table opportunities to participate fully in the state’s economic, social, and
political life. Since its founding in 1935, the Foundation has provided close
to 2,800 grants totaling nearly $80 million to regional, statewide, and na-
tional organizations advocating for social and economic justice throughout
California. Some of the Foundation’s key accomplishments follow:

1948      In a grant partnership with    1975     Joined three other founda-       2001      Provided its first grant in
the Columbia Foundation, estab-          tions in providing start-up support       support of Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes,
lished the San Francisco Founda-         to Legal Services for Children, the       the largest civil rights class action
tion. The San Francisco Foundation       first nonprofit law firm for youth in     lawsuit in U.S. history, pending
has since become one of the nation’s     the country.                              before the Supreme Court. The case
largest community foundations.                                                     charges Wal-Mart with discriminat-
                                         1986      Assisted undocumented           ing against women in promotions,
1953   Launched one of the first         immigrants eligible to achieve legal      pay, and job assignments.
funding programs supporting farm         status under new legislation by
workers by providing a grant to the      providing grants to community-            2003     Received the prestigious
Fresno County Superintendent             based organizations for planning          Paul Ylvisaker Award for Public
of Schools to research the tools         and direct assistance to immigrants       Policy Engagement by the Council
needed to educate the children of        as well as for training, consulta-        on Foundations for work on im-
farm workers.                            tion, policy monitoring, litigation,      migration policy and the rights of
                                         and advocacy.                             immigrants and other minorities.
1964     Supplied a grant to the
Migrant Ministry, which helped           1993      Targeted the struggling         2007       Launched a multi-year,
farm labor families form the Farm        child-support system in California,       multi-million-dollar initiative to
Workers Organization of Tulare           kicking off a nine-year, $6 million       reform California’s criminal justice
County. The group became part of         initiative that resulted in the com-      system, making a first round of
the National Farm Workers Associa-       plete overhaul of the system.             grants to facilitate successful com-
tion and helped organize the famous                                                munity reentry from prison and to
grape pickers strike.                    1995     Foundation grantee Asian         combat employment discrimination
                                         Pacific American Legal Center             against formerly incarcerated people.
1965      Ruth Chance, who was           joined the ACLU and the Asian
then president of the Rosenberg          Law Caucus in representing im-            2008      A coalition of San
Foundation, and several others be-       migrant workers from Thailand             Francisco advocates secured agree-
gan meeting to exchange ideas and        who had been held as virtual slaves       ment for more than $30 million in
improve cooperation among founda-        in an El Monte sweatshop, result-         employment, affordable housing,
tions, leading to the formation of the   ing in an award of more than $4           and other community benefits from
Northern California Grantmakers.         million in damages.                       Bayview-Hunters Point developer,
                                                                                   Lennar, Inc.
1973     Gave a grant to establish the   1999     Supported public interest
San Francisco Child Abuse Coun-          law organizations and immigrant           2010      Made an inaugural grant
cil, which now provides training to      advocates in successfully challeng-       for “Fairness in the Fields,” a new
more than 5,000 children and 5,000       ing the constitutionality of Califor-     initiative by a coalition including
professionals each year.                 nia’s Proposition 187, an initiative      Oxfam America that aims to estab-
                                         that prohibited undocumented              lish, enforce, publicize, and monitor
                                         immigrants and their children from        a comprehensive set of labor stan-
                                         receiving public education and            dards for farm work in the U.S.
                                         other services.

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